Viburnum bracteatum - Rehd.
Limerock Arrow-wood
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Viburnum bracteatum Rehd. (TSN 35259)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.144580
Element Code: PDCPR07030
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Honeysuckle Family
Image 10394

© Alabama Natural Heritage Program

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Dipsacales Caprifoliaceae Viburnum
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Viburnum bracteatum
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 20Mar2006
Global Status Last Changed: 19Mar2006
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Based upon current data, the few populations in Georgia do not have many plants. However, as recently as 2003, new occurrences have been located in Tennessee and thus it is possible that more will be found. Based upon the few occurrences now known, relatively small numbers of individuals, and threats, Viburnum bracteatum is an imperiled species. If threats such as limestone quarries persists or worsen, a G1 rank would be justified.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S1), Georgia (S1), Tennessee (S2)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Few (4-12)
Viability/Integrity Comments: 11 occurrences with Good or better viability as of 2013.

Overall Threat Impact: High
Overall Threat Impact Comments: A Georgia population is upslope from an active quarry (Patrick et al. 1995) (the type locality in Georgia was partially distroyed by quarrying in the past). In addition, as of 2006, there are plans for reactivating a limestone mine in one of the Tennessee counties were V. bracteatum occurs (Withers, pers. comm.).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Limestone quarrying was reported by Kral (1983) to be the major threat. Quarrying has destroyed an Alabama population and most of the type locality in Georgia.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, GA, TN

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Calhoun (01015)*, Etowah (01055)*, Jackson (01071), Madison (01089)
GA Floyd (13115), Walker (13295)
TN Franklin (47051), Lincoln (47103)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Upper Coosa (03150105)+, Middle Coosa (03150106)+*
06 Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001)+, Guntersville Lake (06030001)+, Wheeler Lake (06030002)+, Upper Elk (06030003)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A shrub, up to 3 m tall, with spreading-arching branches and deciduous, sharply-toothed leaves. Produces showy white clusters of flowers in late April and May, followed by blue-black fruits.
General Description: Deciduous shrub to 3 m tall, with smooth gray bark; leaves opposite, ovate to round, 5 - 12 cm long, dentate, but with only ca. 1 tooth/cm, with a cordate or rounded base, lower surfaces smooth and nearly glabrous except along the veins, tips acute to acuminate; petioles short, 1.5 - 2 cm long, slightly hirsute with glandular hairs and persistent stipules; inflorescence 4 - 6 cm wide and showy, of erect, terminal cymes, subtended by conspicuous bracts; from glandular peduncles 5 - 6 cm long; flowers appearing from mid-April to mid-May, regular, perfect, with five white petals; stamens five, attached to the petals, with pale yellow anthers; fruit from July to October, consisting of blue black oval drupes 1.0 - 1.2 cm long, with a single flattened, and sparsely grooved stone ~8 mm long (Kral 1983, Patrick et al. 1995).

Technical Description: Tightish-barked shrub to 3 m, the branches spreading-arching, the branchlets tan, terete, slender, smooth, aging to gray-brown. Leaves deciduous, opposite, the petioles short, usually less than 2 cm, spreading-ascending, greenish-brown or reddish-brown, sparingly hirsute with glandular hairs, the stipules persistent, pale red-brown, linear, ciliate, 3-10 mm long, the blades elliptic to broadly ovate or suborbicular, (4-) 6-12 cm long, acute to short-acuminate, rather remotely sinuate-dentate (ca. 1 tooth/cm), the base rounded or cordate, the upper surface a rich, dark green, smooth, the lower surface paler, pilose-hirsute along the pinnate veins, otherwise smooth or glabrescent. Inflorescence cymes erect, terminal on glandular peduncles 5-6 cm long, the primary cymal branches several, glandular, at junction with branchlets producing conspicuous greenish bracts, these narrowly oblong to linear, 6-12 mm long, glandular, ciliate, the whole inflorescence 4-6 cm broad, showy, white. Flowers regular, bisexual, bracteolate, the bracteoles scarious, triangular, pale, ca. 1.0-1.5 mm long, the calyx limb cupuliform, ca. 1 mm deep, irregularly shallowly rounded-lobed, scarious, sparingly ciliate; corolla rotate, ca. 8 mm wide across the limb, 5-lobed, the lobes broadly obovate or nearly round, ciliate, externally sparsely puberulent; stamens 5, epipetalous, the rounded, pale yellow anthers long-exserted; ovary inferior, the body with its covering perianth at anthesis ellipsoidal, greenish, granular. Fruit a drupe, blue-black with ripe, oval or ovoid, ca. 1 cm long, the sparingly grooved, somewhat flattened stone ca. 8 mm long (Kral, 1983).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Within the southeastern United States, Viburnum bracteatum is similar to other viburnums in the "dentatum" group, but each of the following differ from V. bracteatum:
- V. dentatum does not have petiole and leaf blade pubescence which is red-glandular, its fruit is rounded (as opposed to elliptical) and the base of the style is pubescent
- V. molle has leaves which are toothed throughout (as opposed to the upper ), a longer petiole (>1.5 cm), and the bark of V. molle exfoliates while V. bracteatum has tighter bark
- V. rafinesquianum has petioles < 1 cm
(Kral 1983, Patrick et al. 1995, Wofford and Chester 2002).

Duration: PERENNIAL, DECIDUOUS
Reproduction Comments: The flowers are typically bisexual but the marginal blossoms in hobblebush and cranberry bush are sterile. The fruit are eaten by deer, rabbits, chipmunks, squirrels, mice, skunks, grouse, pheasants, turkeys and many species of songbirds.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Cliff, Forest/Woodland, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: The extant occurrences Viburnum bracteatum are limited to (rich) limestone woods usually along steep slopes or stream banks. The overstory component includes a variety of species such as Carya ovata var. australis, Quercus muehlenbergii, Q. shumardii, Q. rubra, Ulmus spp., etc. Some element occurrences list up to fourteen overstory species present. The herbaceous layer usually contains a diverse display of spring wildflowers.

Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: "Avoid disturbance. At most this species [Viburnum bracteatum] will tolerate only hand thinning of shading trees in its vicinity, and only if done carefully" (Patrick et al. 1995).


Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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Excellent Viability: An A-ranked occurrence of Viburnum bracteatum should have at least 80 healthy shrubs growing in an area with minimal disturbance and few exotic plants.

Good Viability: A B-ranked occurrence of Viburnum bracteatum should have 31 - 79 healthy shrubs growing in an area with minimal disturbance and few exotic plants, or 80+ shrubs in areas which are disturbed or contain exotics, but which can be restored.

Fair Viability: A C-ranked occurrence of Viburnum bracteatum should have 10 - 30 healthy shrubs growing in an area with minimal disturbance and few exotic plants, or 31 - 79 shrubs in areas which are disturbed or contain exotics, but which can be restored.

Poor Viability: A D-ranked occurrence of Viburnum bracteatum is one with less than 10 shrubs, or larger populations with more shrubs, but with a significant level of disturbance, threats, or invasive exotics which would prohibit restoration.

Justification: Element occurrence rank specification for Viburnum bracteatum are based upon expert opinion (Schotz, pers. comm.) providing numbers of individuals on the best known occurrences. Populations ranked as viable (A - C) should have a number of shrubs to ensure reproduction and occur in areas which are relatively pristine.

Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
Date: 10Feb2006
Author: R. McCoy
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 10Feb2006
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: R. McCoy
Management Information Edition Date: 10Feb2006
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 20Feb1992
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Revised R. McCoy (2006)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Jones, S.B., Jr., and N.C. Coile. 1988. The distribution of the vascular flora of Georgia. Dept. Botany, Univ. Georgia, Athens. 230 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kral, R. 1983c. A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the South. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service Technical Publication R8-TP2, Athens, GA. 1305 pp.

  • McCollum, J.L., and D.R. Ettman. 1987. Georgia's protected plants. Georgia Dept. of Natural Resources, and the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, Social Circle, GA. 64 pp.

  • Patrick, T.S., J.R. Allison, and G.A. Krakow. 1995. Protected plants of Georgia: an information manual on plants designated by the State of Georgia as endangered, threatened, rare, or unusual. Georgia Dept. Natural Resources, Wildlife Resources Division, Georgia Natural Heritage Program, Social Circle, Georgia. 218 pp + appendices.

  • Weakley, Alan S. 2015. Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States. Unpublished mss. available as .pdf from the Herbarium, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. 1320 pp.

  • Wofford, B.E. and E.W. Chester. 2002. Guide to the trees, shrubs, and woody vines of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 286 pp.

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