Veronicastrum virginicum - (L.) Farw.
Culver's-root
Other Common Names: Culver's root
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Veronicastrum virginicum (L.) Farw. (TSN 34073)
French Common Names: véronique de Virginie
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.138942
Element Code: PDSCR21010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Figwort Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Scrophulariales Scrophulariaceae Veronicastrum
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Veronicastrum virginicum
Taxonomic Comments: Widespread, generally accepted species; recognized by Kartesz (1994 checklist and 1999 floristic synthesis).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 16Aug2016
Global Status Last Changed: 07Feb2000
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Species is common, abundant, and widespread in parts of its range in the U.S. In other parts of its range, however, populations are very low. Activities such as habitat conversion to agricultural use, clearing of wooded areas, and drainage/alteration of wet or moist prairies threaten its long term survival, and thus may result in the extirpation of native plants of this species in these areas. In addition, the species is reported to be declining even in states in its core range.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4?
Nation: Canada
National Status: N2 (05Sep2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S1), Arkansas (SNR), Connecticut (SU), Delaware (S1), District of Columbia (S1?), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S3?), Illinois (SNR), Indiana (SNR), Iowa (S4), Kansas (SNR), Kentucky (S4?), Louisiana (SH), Maine (SNA), Maryland (SNR), Massachusetts (S2), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (S3S4), Missouri (SNR), Nebraska (S1), New Jersey (S3S4), New York (S2), North Carolina (S2?), North Dakota (SH), Ohio (SNR), Oklahoma (S1), Pennsylvania (SNR), South Carolina (S1), South Dakota (S1), Tennessee (SNR), Texas (SNR), Vermont (S1), Virginia (S4), West Virginia (S4), Wisconsin (SNR)
Canada Manitoba (S1S2), Nova Scotia (SNA), Ontario (S2)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: South-eastern Manitoba and south-western Ontario to Maine, south to Florida and Texas (Scoggan 1978-9, Kartesz 1999). Species is recorded in the following provinces and states: Manitoba, Ontario, Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin.

More detailed range information was available for the following provinces and states.

Manitoba: occurs in the South-Eastern Lake Terrace region (Glacial lake Agassiz Beaches, between the Red River Valley and the Precambrian Shield) from the Manitoba-Minnesota border north to the Kleefeld area (<1% of the area of the province) (E. Punter pers. comm.).

Ontario: native only in southwestern Ontario (Essex, Kent, and Lambton counties) (M. Oldham pers. comm.).

Delaware: occurs in the piedmont and coastal plain (B. McAvoy pers. comm.).

Florida: occurs in the most north-western county in the state (Wunderlin et al. 1995).

Georgia: reported in 2 counties in northern part of the state (USDA, NRCS 1999).

Iowa: infrequent in north-west of state, common elsewhere (J. Peason pers. comm.).

Kansas: largely restricted to the eastern 1/5 of Kansas (eastern 3 tiers of counties) (C. Freeman pers. comm.).

Kentucky: reported in 33 counties scattered throughout the state (USDA, NRCS 1999).

Indiana: occurs in remnants mostly in the northern half of the state but also occurs in the far southern part of the state (Indiana Natural Heritage Data Center).

Massachusetts: occurs in 4 counties in western half of the state (USDA, NRCS 1999).

Maine: apparently introduced to Maine (Haines and Vining 1998), known to occur only in York county (Maine Natural Areas Program).

Michigan: common in southern Lower Michigan (Voss 1985, Voss 1996, Michigan Natural Features Inventory).

Minnesota: occurs in half the state (Minnesota Natural Heritage Program).

Missouri: occurs statewide (Steyermark 1963, M. McHale pers. comm., T. Smith pers. comm.).

North Carolina: recorded in 10 counties in the mountains and piedmont (Radford et al. 1968, J. Amoroso, pers. comm)

Ohio: occurs throughout Ohio, more frequent in the eastern half of the state (A. Cusick pers. comm.).

South Carolina: reported in two counties in the north-west corner and north-central portions of the state (Boyle et al. n.d.).

South Dakota: restricted to southeastern part of state, documented in three counties: Lincoln, Minnehaha, and Moody. Historically it probably occurred in eight counties (D. Ode pers. comm.).

Tennessee: known to occur in 22 counties in Tennessee (APSU Center for Field Biology and University of Tennessee Herbarium 1999).

Virginia: reported in 28 counties mostly in western 2/3 of the state (USDA, NRCS 1999).

Vermont: one current site in the town of Essex, Cittenden County. One historical record last observed in a vacant lot in the City of Rutland. These records may both be garden escapes (R. Popp pers. comm.).

West Virginia: occurs in 18 counties throughout the state (USDA, NRCS 1999).

Wisconsin: occurs in all but the northern-most tier of counties in Wisconsin (K. Westad pers. comm.).

Confirmation was received that the species does not occur in Alberta (Alberta Natural Heritage Information Centre), British Columbia (British Columbia Conservation Data Centre), Quebec (Quebec Service de la Conservation des Especes Menacees), Saskatchewan (Saskatchewan Conservation Data Centre), Alaska (Alaska Natural Heritage Program), Arizona (Arizona Natural Heritage Program), California (California Natural Diversity Database), Montana (Montana Natural Heritage Program), Nevada (Nevada Natural Heritage Program), New Mexico (New Mexico Natural Heritage Program), Utah (Welsh et al. 1993, Utah Natural Heritage Program), Washington (Washington Natural Heritage Program), and Wyoming (Wyoming Natural Diversity Database).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: 1000's. Manitoba: 12 (E. Punter pers. comm.); Ontario: ~ 15 (M. Oldham pers. comm.); Delaware: 2 (B. McAvoy pers. comm.); Florida: at least 1* (Wunderlin et al. 1995); Georgia: at least 2* (USDA, NRCS 1999); Kansas: 100's (C. Freeman pers. comm.); Kentucky: at least 33* (USDA, NRCS 1999); Missouri: 1000's (T. Smith pers. comm.); Ohio: probably 1000's (A. Cusick pers. comm.); South Dakota: 3+ (D. Ode pers. comm.); Tennessee: at least 22* (APSU Center for Field Biology and University of Tennessee Herbarium 1999); Virginia: at least 28* (USDA, NRCS 1999); Vermont: 1? (R. Popp pers. comm.); Washington: at least 18* (USDA, NRCS 1999); Wisconsin: 1000's? (K. Westad pers. comm.). * signifies a minimum number of populations based on the number of counties for which the species is recorded according to state distribution maps.

It is difficult to distinguish between native and introduced occurrences (W. Moorhead pers. comm.).

Occurences in or near native prairie habitat and away from houses, within its known geographic range, can likely be considered native (B. Ford pers. comm.).

Delaware: there are few populations due to loss of habitat (B. McAvoy pers. comm.).

Louisiana: there are two historic records of this species. It is not known whether these populations have become extirpated (D. Brunet pers. comm.).

North Carolina: this species is on the Natural Heritage Program Watch list because it is rare and poorly known (J. Amoroso pers. comm.).

South Dakota: Ninety percent of its habitat has been destroyed. There may be a few more populations, but there has not been any systematic survey for this species. The number of sites would certainly not total more than 20 (D. Ode pers. comm.).

Vermont: The only extant population was first observed in 1962. In 1982 there were about 20 individuals. In 1991 there were 7 clumps consisting of about 20 stems. In 1999 no plants were observed.

Species is ranked S1 in Manitoba because there are few occurrences known in a small area of the province. Species is being considered for the Endangered Species List in Manitoba (J. Greenall pers. comm.).

Population Size Comments: In a 1997 survey in Manitoba, the number of stems in a population ranged from 2 to 1234, and averaged 130 (E. Punter pers. comm.). Other estimates-a few to several hundred (M. Oldham pers. comm.), 50 to 200 (C. Freeman pers. comm.), up to hundreds (T. Smith pers. comm.), a hundred plus (A. Cusick pers. comm.), and 1 to approximately 300, 1 to 10 most common (M. McHale pers. comm.)-agree with these data.

Unit of counting is the number of flowering and non-flowering stems in a population, and number of clonal patches. It is often difficult to separate one clone and its neighbor (E. Punter pers. comm.).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: There is both direct and indirect evidence of wild-collection of this species for the plant trade, from Manitoba, Missouri, and Wisconsin.

Manitoba: direct evidence of collecting from the wild observed. Seed or plants must have been taken from the Manitoba Tall Grass Prairie Preserve, since that was the only known population at the time. Two native plant nurseries in Manitoba sell V. virginicum plants which were derived from seed. Probably no rhizomes are collected, since they appear to have dubious medicinal qualities. There is no evidence that this plant is collected from the wild for medicinal purposes. There is no regulation or licensing for wild plant collecting in Manitoba, so no statistics are available (E. Punter pers. comm.)

Missouri: indirect evidence of collecting from the wild. There is a market for the roots but whether it is collected from the wild is unknown. If it is being collected it is not affecting wild populations to any great degree (T. Smith pers. comm.).

Wisconsin: indirect evidence of collecting from the wild (K. Westad pers. comm.).

The plant receives minor but continual usage for medicinal purposes, and it is estimated that 1000-2000 lb/yr were in U.S. trade in the early 1990s (M. McGuffin pers. comm.). The root is used, so harvest is deadly to the plant.

Seed and potted plants of the native form of this species (supposedly) is sold for prairie restoration or native prairie gardening. Plant material is known to have been collected from the wild for this purpose in Manitoba, but the origin of this material in other areas is unknown.

Across its range, Veronicastrum virginicum is reported to be threatened by the following activities:

Conversion of prairie habitat to agricultural use and urban development (A. Cusick pers. comm., B. McAvoy pers. comm., M. Oldham pers. comm.).

Agricultural activities, i.e., pesticide application (E. Punter pers. comm.).

Alteration of hydrology in wet or moist prairie (M. McHale pers. comm.).

Clearing of woodlots (E. Punter pers. comm.).

Road maintenance activities including grading, herbiciding (E. Punter pers. comm.).

Grazing by cattle and white-tail deer (E. Punter pers. comm.).

Removal of shrubs along fence lines and shelterbelts (E. Punter pers. comm.).

Impact of cultivars on native genetic integrity (E. Punter pers. comm.).

Effect of herbicides/insecticides on pollinators (E. Punter pers. comm.).

Low seed production (Lakela 1960, E. Punter pers. comm.).

Loss of open habitat to invasive weeds and pasture grasses (D. Ode, pers.com.), intensive management, and/or reforestation (W. Moorhead pers. comm.).

Encroachment of woody vegetation due to suppression of fires (C. Freeman pers. comm., M. McHale pers. comm.).

Conversion of bogs to wet meadows (J. Amoroso pers. comm.)

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: The number of populations of this species have decreased since settlement as a result of the conversion of much of the tallgrass prairie habitat to agricultural use, the clearing of woodlands, urban development, and the drainage/alteration of wet or moist prairie in agricultural areas. These activities continue to threaten the long term viability of populations in parts of its range where it is considered rare.

The current trend is unknown in Ontario but undoubtedly declining since presettlement times due to extensive loss of prairie habitat (M. Oldham pers. comm.).

The species is reported to be declining in Manitoba (E. Punter pers. comm.), Connecticut (W. Moorhead pers. comm.), Delaware (B. McAvoy pers. comm.), Kansas (C. Freeman pers. comm.), New Jersey (New Jersey Natural Heritage Program), Ohio (A. Cusick pers. comm.), Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory), Vermont (R. Popp pers. comm.), and Wisconsin (K. Westad pers. comm.).

In Manitoba, populations have decreased since presettlement time due to habitat destruction as a result of agricultural practices. In 1998, the number of stems observed were less than in 1997, possibly due to dry conditions. Populations documented by early herbarium records are possibly extirpated. Two significant populations (west of Tolstoi) were eliminated in 1998 when their habitat (an abandoned rail bed) was leveled and incorporated into the adjoining fields (E. Punter pers. comm.).

In Kansas, populations are probably declining due to continued destruction of habitat. Unfortunately, we cannot be certain since we don't have good baseline census data and we don't know anything about establishment of new populations (C. Freeman pers. comm.).

In Vermont, the only known population may now be gone (R. Popp pers. comm.).

In South Dakota, 90 percent of its habitat has been destroyed. There may be a few more populations, but there has not been any systematic survey for this species. The number of sites would certainly not total more than 20 (D. Ode pers. comm.).

In Delaware, there are few populations due to loss of habitat (B. McAvoy pers. comm.).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: South-eastern Manitoba and south-western Ontario to Maine, south to Florida and Texas (Scoggan 1978-9, Kartesz 1999). Species is recorded in the following provinces and states: Manitoba, Ontario, Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin.

More detailed range information was available for the following provinces and states.

Manitoba: occurs in the South-Eastern Lake Terrace region (Glacial lake Agassiz Beaches, between the Red River Valley and the Precambrian Shield) from the Manitoba-Minnesota border north to the Kleefeld area (<1% of the area of the province) (E. Punter pers. comm.).

Ontario: native only in southwestern Ontario (Essex, Kent, and Lambton counties) (M. Oldham pers. comm.).

Delaware: occurs in the piedmont and coastal plain (B. McAvoy pers. comm.).

Florida: occurs in the most north-western county in the state (Wunderlin et al. 1995).

Georgia: reported in 2 counties in northern part of the state (USDA, NRCS 1999).

Iowa: infrequent in north-west of state, common elsewhere (J. Peason pers. comm.).

Kansas: largely restricted to the eastern 1/5 of Kansas (eastern 3 tiers of counties) (C. Freeman pers. comm.).

Kentucky: reported in 33 counties scattered throughout the state (USDA, NRCS 1999).

Indiana: occurs in remnants mostly in the northern half of the state but also occurs in the far southern part of the state (Indiana Natural Heritage Data Center).

Massachusetts: occurs in 4 counties in western half of the state (USDA, NRCS 1999).

Maine: apparently introduced to Maine (Haines and Vining 1998), known to occur only in York county (Maine Natural Areas Program).

Michigan: common in southern Lower Michigan (Voss 1985, Voss 1996, Michigan Natural Features Inventory).

Minnesota: occurs in half the state (Minnesota Natural Heritage Program).

Missouri: occurs statewide (Steyermark 1963, M. McHale pers. comm., T. Smith pers. comm.).

North Carolina: recorded in 10 counties in the mountains and piedmont (Radford et al. 1968, J. Amoroso, pers. comm)

Ohio: occurs throughout Ohio, more frequent in the eastern half of the state (A. Cusick pers. comm.).

South Carolina: reported in two counties in the north-west corner and north-central portions of the state (Boyle et al. n.d.).

South Dakota: restricted to southeastern part of state, documented in three counties: Lincoln, Minnehaha, and Moody. Historically it probably occurred in eight counties (D. Ode pers. comm.).

Tennessee: known to occur in 22 counties in Tennessee (APSU Center for Field Biology and University of Tennessee Herbarium 1999).

Virginia: reported in 28 counties mostly in western 2/3 of the state (USDA, NRCS 1999).

Vermont: one current site in the town of Essex, Cittenden County. One historical record last observed in a vacant lot in the City of Rutland. These records may both be garden escapes (R. Popp pers. comm.).

West Virginia: occurs in 18 counties throughout the state (USDA, NRCS 1999).

Wisconsin: occurs in all but the northern-most tier of counties in Wisconsin (K. Westad pers. comm.).

Confirmation was received that the species does not occur in Alberta (Alberta Natural Heritage Information Centre), British Columbia (British Columbia Conservation Data Centre), Quebec (Quebec Service de la Conservation des Especes Menacees), Saskatchewan (Saskatchewan Conservation Data Centre), Alaska (Alaska Natural Heritage Program), Arizona (Arizona Natural Heritage Program), California (California Natural Diversity Database), Montana (Montana Natural Heritage Program), Nevada (Nevada Natural Heritage Program), New Mexico (New Mexico Natural Heritage Program), Utah (Welsh et al. 1993, Utah Natural Heritage Program), Washington (Washington Natural Heritage Program), and Wyoming (Wyoming Natural Diversity Database).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MEexotic, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Canada MB, NSexotic, ON

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Coosa (01037), Dallas (01047)
DE New Castle (10003)
MA Berkshire (25003), Hampden (25013), Hampshire (25015), Worcester (25027)
MD Montgomery (24031)
MS Calhoun (28013), Carroll (28015)*, Clarke (28023), Grenada (28043), Kemper (28069)*, Leake (28079)*, Marshall (28093)*, Noxubee (28103)*, Pontotoc (28115), Prentiss (28117)*, Tate (28137)*, Tishomingo (28141)*, Winston (28159)
ND Pembina (38067)*
NE Cass (31025)*, Dodge (31053)*, Johnson (31097), Nemaha (31127), Otoe (31131), Richardson (31147), Saline (31151), Saunders (31155)*
NY Cattaraugus (36009)*, Schenectady (36093), Steuben (36101)
OK Choctaw (40023)*, McCurtain (40089), Ottawa (40115)*
SC York (45091)
SD Lincoln (46083)*, Minnehaha (46099)*, Moody (46101)
VT Caledonia (50005), Chittenden (50007), Windsor (50027)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Merrimack (01070002)+, Passumpsic (01080102)+, Black-Ottauquechee (01080106)+, Middle Connecticut (01080201)+, Lower Connecticut (01080205)+, Westfield (01080206)+, Housatonic (01100005)+
02 Mohawk (02020004)+, Brandywine-Christina (02040205)+, Tioga (02050104)+, Middle Potomac-Catoctin (02070008)+
03 Lower Catawba (03050103)+, Lower Coosa (03150107)+, Middle Alabama (03150203)+, Upper Tombigbee (03160101)+*, Town (03160102)+, Noxubee (03160108)+*, Sucarnoochee (03160202)+*, Upper Chickasawhay (03170002)+, Upper Pearl (03180001)+
04 Lamoille River (04150405)+
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001)+*
06 Pickwick Lake (06030005)+*, Bear (06030006)+*
08 Little Tallahatchie (08030201)+*, Coldwater (08030204)+*, Yalobusha (08030205)+, Upper Yazoo (08030206)+*
09 Park (09020310)+*, Lower Red (09020311)+*, Lower Pembina River (09020316)+*
10 Lower Big Sioux (10170203)+, Lower Platte (10200202)+*, Salt (10200203)+*, Lower Elkhorn (10220003)+*, Keg-Weeping Water (10240001)+*, Nishnabotna (10240004)+*, Tarkio-Wolf (10240005)+*, Little Nemaha (10240006)+, Big Nemaha (10240008)+, Middle Big Blue (10270202)+
11 Spring (11070207)+*, Kiamichi (11140105)+*, Pecan-Waterhole (11140106)+*, Upper Little (11140107)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A coarse, erect perennial up to 2m in height, with opposite or whorled leaves, usually with a few erect branches. Leaves oblong to lanceolate, finely and sharply toothed, varying from 2 to 7 at a node. Plant smooth or minutely pubescent. Flowers white or pinkish, with prominent protruding stamens, crowed on long, narrow, candelabra-like spikes up to about 15 cm in length (Fernald 1950, Gleason 1952, Looman and Best 1979, USDA Soil Conservation Service 1997).
Ecology Comments: Appears to be pollinated by several bee species (E. Punter pers. comm.).
Habitat Comments: Veronicastrum virginicum occurs in a variety of habitats throughout its range. It is found in moist tallgrass prairie and prairie remnants, moist woods, woodland borders, thickets, fields and meadows, stream banks and terraces (Radford et al. 1968, J. Amoroso pers. comm., Maine Natural Areas Program, C. Freeman pers. comm., Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory, B. McAvoy pers. comm., Iowa Department of Natural Resources). It also occurs in secondary habitat on roadsides, road allowances, and railway right-of-ways (A. Cusick pers. comm., Michigan Natural Features Inventory, E. Punter pers. comm., M. Oldham pers. comm., T. Smith pers. comm., K. Westad pers. comm.).

In the north-westernmost part of its range, it occurs in the ecotone between tall grass plant communities and adjoining open to closed deciduous forest, on strongly calcareous, well to imperfectly drained, Dark Grey Chernozemic sandy loam soils (E. Punter pers. comm.). It is found in open oak woodlands in North Dakota (D. Ode pers. comm.), in savanna in Missouri and Wisconsin (M. McHale pers. comm., T. Smith pers. comm., K. Westad pers. comm.), and occasionally in bottomland forest in Missouri (M. McHale, pers.comm.). In North Carolina it is known to occur in bogs, but is primarily found in the mountains (Radford et al. 1968, J. Amoroso pers. comm.). In Wisconsin, it is additionally reported to be found in sand dunes and sedge meadow (K. Westad pers. comm.).

Economic Attributes
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Economically Important Genus: Y
Commercial Importance: Indigenous crop, Minor cash crop
Economic Uses: MEDICINE/DRUG, LANDSCAPING
Production Method: Cultivated, Wild-harvested
Economic Comments: Roots are apparently short-lived (3 years), and are harvested in the second year (Kindscher 1992). The roots and rhizomes of V. virginicum are purported to have mild cathartic cholagogue diaphortic and spasmolytic therapeutic properties which may be used to treat chronic constipation associated with hepatic dysfunction, cholecystitis, and icterus (Healthlink Online Resources). Traditionally, the rhizomes and roots were prepared and used: by the Cherokee as an analgesic, purgative, diaphoretic, and to treat colic and "inactive liver"; by the Chippewa as cathartic to "cleanse the blood"; by the Iroquois for chills, fever, diarrhea, rheumatism, as cough medicine, as physic or for a bad heart, and as a general panacea for all ailments and fevers; by the Menominee as a ceremonial medicine, cathartic and emetic, physic and mild laxative; by the Meskwaki to treat convulsions and constipation, dissolve kidney stones, and for women in labor (Moerman).

This species is sold commercially in Iowa for use in prairie restoration (Iowa Department of Natural Resources).

Veronicastrum virginicum is widely grown as an ornamental, particularly in the U.S. Seed and potted plants of cultivars of unknown stock are available in nurseries. Plant material for the cultivated varieties was likely taken to Europe where cultivars were developed (C. Davidson pers. comm.).

Prices for this species were found as follows:

Winnipeg, Manitoba: $4-10 Canadian / pot

Missouri: $8 /lb. dry root

Wisconsin: $50-100 /oz. seed

Wisconsin: $4 / 3" pot

Missouri: $40 / oz. seed

Maryland: $2-10 / pot

Texas: $3.50 / package seed (20+ seeds)

Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 07Jan2000
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Barbara S. Dyck

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • APSU Center for Field Biology and University of Tennessee Herbarium. 1999. October 6-last update. Atlas of Tennessee Vascular Plants. Online. Available: http://www.bio.utk.edu/botany/herbarium/vascular/atlas.html. Accessed 2000-Jan.

  • Argus, G.W. and K.M. Pryer. 1990. Rare vascular plants in Canada: our national heritage. Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa.

  • Argus, G.W., K.M. Pryer, D.J. White and C.J. Keddy (eds.). 1982-1987. Atlas of the Rare Vascular Plants of Ontario.. Botany Division, National Museum of National Sciences, Ottawa.

  • Beckstrom-Sternberg, S.M., D.E. Moerman, and J.A. Duke. 1995. Medicinal plants of native America database. Online. Available: http://ars-genome.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/WebAce/webace?db=mpnad b. Accessed 2000, January 7.

  • Boyle, K., C. Eastman, and T. Mousseau. South Carolina plant atlas. Online. Available: http://cricket.biol.sc.edu/herb. Accessed 2000, January 7.

  • Cooperrider, T.S. 1995. The Dicotyledoneae of Ohio. Ohio State University Press, Columbus.

  • Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Division of Forestry, Dept. of Conservation, Indianapolis, Indiana. 1236 pp.

  • Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. Corrected printing (1970). D. Van Nostrand Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 3 volumes. Hafner Press, New York. 1732 pp.

  • Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Haines, A. and T.F. Vining. 1998. Flora of Maine, A Manual for Identification of Native and Naturalized Vascular Plants of Maine. V.F.Thomas Co., Bar Harbor, Maine.

  • Herbarium, Department of Botany, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

  • Herbarium, Museum of Man and Nature, 190 Rupert Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba.

  • Holmgren, Noel. 1998. The Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual. Illustrations of the Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1996. Species distribution data at state and province level for vascular plant taxa of the United States, Canada, and Greenland (accepted records), from unpublished data files at the North Carolina Botanical Garden, December, 1996.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Kindscher, K. 1992. Medicinal wild plants of the prairie: An ethnobotanical guide. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.

  • Lakela, O. 1965. A Flora of Northeastern Minnesota. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 541 pp.

  • Looman, J. and K. Best. 1979. Budd's flora of the Canadian Praire Provinces. Agriculture Canada, Research Branch Publication 1662.

  • Looman, J. and K.F. Best. 1979. Budd's flora of the Canadian prairie provinces. Minister of Supply and Services Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.

  • Mitchell, Richard S. and Gordon C. Tucker. 1997. Revised Checklist of New York State Plants. Contributions to a Flora of New York State. Checklist IV. Bulletin No. 490. New York State Museum. Albany, NY. 400 pp.

  • Moerman, D.E. Native American ethnobotany database. Online. Available: http://www.umd.umich.edu/cgi-bin/herb. Accessed 2000, January 7.

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