Valvata tricarinata - (Say, 1817)
Threeridge Valvata
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Valvata tricarinata (Say, 1817) (TSN 70354)
French Common Names: valvée à trois carènes
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.118146
Element Code: IMGASE5080
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Mollusks - Freshwater Snails
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mollusca Gastropoda Heterostropha Valvatidae Valvata
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J.D. Williams. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 2nd Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland: 526 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B98TUR01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Valvata tricarinata
Taxonomic Comments: Multiple forms, or morphs, exist for this species (Burch 1989). Although none of them have been elevated to specific or subspecific level, more work is necessary to determine speciation has occurred, especially in the western populations (Frest and Johannes 1995).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 06Mar2015
Global Status Last Changed: 14Sep1999
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: This species has a wide, but disjunct range, presumed large population, and is unlikely to be unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened rank.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (14Sep1999)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (14Sep1999)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Arkansas (SNR), Connecticut (S1), Idaho (SNR), Indiana (SNR), Iowa (SNR), Kentucky (SNR), Maryland (SNR), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), Montana (S2S3), Nebraska (SNR), New York (S5), North Dakota (S3), Ohio (SNR), Pennsylvania (SNR), Rhode Island (SNR), South Dakota (SNR), Vermont (SNR), Virginia (SU), Washington (S1?), Wisconsin (S5), Wyoming (SNR)
Canada Alberta (S3), British Columbia (SH), Manitoba (SNR), New Brunswick (SNR), Northwest Territories (SNR), Nova Scotia (SNR), Nunavut (SU), Ontario (S5), Quebec (SNR), Saskatchewan (SNR)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: DD - Data deficient

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: This is primarily a Mississippi drainage and Atlantic species. It is widespread in the northern United States and Canada, but becomes much more uncommon further south (Dillon et al. 2006). This species was originally listed as occurring in Quebec and New Brunswick west to Alberta and south to Wyoming, Arkansas, and Virginia (Burch, 1989). It is quite rare in the western United States and is known from several lakes in the Clark Fork and Flathead drainages, Lake Roosevelt, Washington, 3 Ferry County Washington sites, and the Flathead Indian Reservation, Montana (Taylor and Bright 1987; Frest and Johannes 1995). Searches in Idaho turned up no sites (Frest and Johannes 1995). Western occurrences are also strongly disjunct, as this species does not now occur in the Missouri headwaters (Taylor and Bright 1987; Frest and Johannes 1995). According to Burke (2010, pers. comm.), it is unclear why, or how, the species has shown up in the Columbia; it may be a native to the river, or a chance occurrence that has become temporarily established (Foltz 2010).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Numerous occurrences (subpopulations) likely exist. Western occurrences are disjunct and rare. A survey of aquatic snails in the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway (Minnesota) in 2004 found this species at 1 out of 66 sampled locations. The sampled locations included a wide variety of habitats and a diversity of substrates (Malizio et al. 2004).

Population Size: Unknown
Population Size Comments: Unknown pending studies; could be quite abundant if all known populations do represent the same species. Krieger (1985) reports densities of up to 216/sq meter in Lake Erie and Stephens (2015) notes that it can be abundant where found in Nebraska.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Given the large geographic distribution of this species, it is unlikely that any major threat is impacting its global population. However, some sub-populations may be experiencing localized declines due to modification, poisoning, and eutropification of kettle lakes. In particular, nutrient enhancement due to farm animal wastes, sewage, or to irrigation runoff may so eutropify lakes as to exclude this species. Most kettle lakes in its western U.S. range have been so affected, or have been made part of irrigation systems (Frest and Johannes 1995).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Probably declining due to range loss (Frest and Johannes 1995).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Fairly resistant to non-destructive intrusion.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: More extensive surveys needed of known and potential habitat and to determine status of populations in Washington, Idaho and Montana.

Protection Needs: Until more is known about this species and its current distribution, existing sites should be protected.

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) This is primarily a Mississippi drainage and Atlantic species. It is widespread in the northern United States and Canada, but becomes much more uncommon further south (Dillon et al. 2006). This species was originally listed as occurring in Quebec and New Brunswick west to Alberta and south to Wyoming, Arkansas, and Virginia (Burch, 1989). It is quite rare in the western United States and is known from several lakes in the Clark Fork and Flathead drainages, Lake Roosevelt, Washington, 3 Ferry County Washington sites, and the Flathead Indian Reservation, Montana (Taylor and Bright 1987; Frest and Johannes 1995). Searches in Idaho turned up no sites (Frest and Johannes 1995). Western occurrences are also strongly disjunct, as this species does not now occur in the Missouri headwaters (Taylor and Bright 1987; Frest and Johannes 1995). According to Burke (2010, pers. comm.), it is unclear why, or how, the species has shown up in the Columbia; it may be a native to the river, or a chance occurrence that has become temporarily established (Foltz 2010).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AR, CT, IA, ID, IN, KY, MA, MD, MI, MN, MT, ND, NE, NY, OH, PA, RI, SD, VA, VT, WA, WI, WY
Canada AB, BC, MB, NB, NS, NT, NU, ON, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CT Fairfield (09001)*, Litchfield (09005), New Haven (09009)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Quinnipiac (01100004)+*, Housatonic (01100005)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A small freshwater snail.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, Low gradient, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Habitat Comments: This species is found in cool or cold, clear, permanent lacustrine and perennial lake-like habitats, including portions of larger rivers on soft substrate in areas with macrophytes (Frest and Johannes 1995, O?Neal and Soulliere 2006).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: As speciation has occurred in several other genera with disjunct species swarms with both eastern and western representation, specimens from Washingtoon and Montana populations need to be compared in detail with more easterly occurrences (Frest and Johannes 1995).
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Freshwater Snails

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical or current presence of single or multiple specimens, including live specimens or recently dead shells (i.e., soft tissue still attached without signs of external weathering or staining), at a given location with potentially recurring existence. Weathered shells constitute a historic occurrence. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information.
Mapping Guidance: Unlike most freshwater mussels [possibly excepting Uniomerus tetralasmus (Say, 1831) (see Isley, 1914)], some freshwater pulmonates are able to survive in intermittent streams and ponds by settling into sediment on the bottom and aestivating in otherwise dry or frozen conditions. Some species (e.g. Stagnicola spp.) may form a sheet of mucus just within the aperture called an epiphragm that effectively seals the snail from harsh external conditions (Jokinen, 1978; Brown, 1991). For ephemeral or intermittent water species, it may be particularly difficult to define the limits of an occurrence. Movement out of the water for the purposes of aestivation is on the order of cm (Jokinen, 1978), not m or km, so this behavior should not affect separation distance between occurrences. Species that may be found in intermittent waters include: Aplexa elongata, Fossaria bulimoides, F. dalli, F. modicella, F. obrussa, F. parva, Gyraulus circumstriatus, G. crista, G. parvus, Laevapex fuscus, Physa vernalis, Physella gyrina, Planorbella campestris, Planorbula armigera, Stagnicola caperata, S. elodes, S. exilis.
Separation Barriers: Separation barriers are largely based on permanent hydrological discontinuity between water bodies, with distances of 30 meters or greater between maximum high water marks constituting a separation barrier. Additional barriers are chemical and/or physical and include any connecting water body (regardless of size) with one or more of the following on a permanent basis: no dissolved calcium content, acidity greater than pH 5, lack of dissolved oxygen, extremely high salinity such as that found in saline lakes and brine waters, or temperature greater than 45

An additional physical barrier, particularly for flowing water, is presence of upland habitat between water connections. High waterfalls and anthropogenic barriers to water flow such as dams are barriers as they limit movement in an upstream direction.

Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 2 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: Freshwater cave species (mostly prosobranchs) may occur near entrances to very deep in cave systems with specimens occurring on the undersides of small stones in riffle areas (Hershler et al., 1990). For cave species, separation distance cannot often be determined accurately due to varying degrees of accessibility to occupied cave habitat. In these instances, each cave where an observation or collection was recorded (see Minimum EO Criteria, above) constitutes an element occurrence regardless of separation distance. Multiple caves within a single hydrological cave system are each considered separately. Caves with multiple entrances and passages known to be connected, but with connecting passages too small or unsafe for human entry shall be treated as a single element occurrence when the non-negotiable portion of the cave is thought to be less than approximately 300 m linear length. Species known to occur in caves include: Amnicola cora, Antrobia spp., Antrobis spp., Antroselates spp., Dasyscias spp., Fontigens aldrichi, F. antroecetes, F. bottimeri, F. morrisoni, F. nickliniana, F. orolibas, F. prosperpina, F. tartarea, F. turritella, Holsingeria spp., Phreatodrobia spp., Stygopyrgus spp.
Separation Justification: Freshwater snails have adapted to most North American habitats including permanent standing, intermittent, and flowing waters. As a whole, pulmonates (previously Subclass Pulmonata) are better dispersers than prosobranchs (previously Subclass Prosobranchia). Pulmonates adapt better to changing temperature and oxygen concentration, resist desiccation better (use pulmonary respiration, store excreted nitrogen as urea, aestivate), and have faster crawling rates (including righting response and actual movement rate) than prosobranchs (Brown et al., 1998). Some species are more tolerant to adverse habitat conditions such as high pollution levels (e.g. Physella spp.), high altitude [e.g. Acroloxus coloradensis (Henderson, 1930)], underground cave pools and springs (e.g. Fontigens spp., Phreatodrobia spp.) and hot springs (e.g. Pyrgulopsis spp.).

Precise geographic distribution of many American freshwater snails is not known but presumably reflects past geological, geographic, and climatic change (Smith, 1989). Movements between isolated or inaccessible portions of water bodies is possible but dependent on outside, passive processes (e.g. rafting, periodic flooding, transport by vertebrates, introduction by humans). Long-distance dispersal is generally not considered when assigning separation distances as otherwise impracticably large separation distances would result.

Several factors contribute to limiting freshwater snail distribution but none apply across diverse habitats or taxa. Approximately 95% of all freshwater gastropods are restricted to waters with calcium concentrations greater than 3 mg/liter (Brown, 1991; for exceptions see Jokinen, 1983). Calcium uptake for shell construction requires energy expenditure (active transport) when calcium concentration is low, but is passive at higher concentrations (Greenaway, 1971). Typically, no known biotic or abiotic factors consistently limit the abundance or distribution of freshwater gastropods among sites (DeVries et al., 2003). At specific localities, limiting factors may include hardness, acidity, dissolved oxygen, salinity, high temperature, and food availability as associated with depth (Smith, 1989). Most species and the largest populations occur in hard, alkaline waters with normal range 20-180 ppm (Shoup, 1943; Harman, 1974). Snails are uncommon in habitats with surface acidity greater than pH 5 (see also Jokinen, 1983). Dissolved oxygen limits diversity so severely polluted waters (oxygen consumed by algae blooms) are often devoid of freshwater snails excepting pollution tolerant species. Because pulmonates can utilize atmospheric oxygen, they can exist under anaerobic conditions for longer time periods (Harman and Berg, 1971; Harman, 1974; McMahon, 1983). High salinity is limiting to freshwater gastropods and inland saline lakes generally lack an associated snail fauna. Most species (excepting hot springs species) are intolerant of temperatures greater than 45ºC (McDonald, 1969; van der Schalie and Berry, 1973), a condition rarely occurring naturally. Lower temperatures are less limiting as snails have been found foraging in ice-covered waters (Harman and Berg, 1971; Harman, 1974). Most species live in the shallows, (depths less than 3 m) where food abundance is greatest. As a result, drastic water fluctuations (draw-downs) may cause declines in snail populations (Hunt and Jones, 1972).

Any contiguous, occupied stretch of suitable flowing water habitat 2 km long or greater is considered an element occurrence. Two km was chosen based upon the limited active movement capabilities of most benthic invertebrates and observed home range of freshwater snails (J. Cordeiro, personal observation) as well as the relatively short life span of most species (five years for most stream species and two years for most pond species).

Date: 18Oct2004
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Notes: Prosobranchs: Neritidae: Neritina; Viviparidae: Campeloma, Cipangopaludina, Lioplax, Tulotoma, Viviparus; Ampullariidae: Marisa, Pomacea; Pleuroceridae: Elimia, Goniobasis, Gyrotoma, Io, Juga, Leptoxis, Lithasia, Pleurocera; Thiaridae: Melanoides, Tarebia; Bithyniidae: Bithynia; Hydrobiidae: Amnicola, Antrobia, Antrorbis, Antroselates, Aphaostracon, Balconorbis, Birgella, Cincinnatia, Clappia, Cochliopa, Cochliopina, Colligyrus, Dasyscias, Eremopyrgus, Floridiscrobs, Fluminicola, Fontelicella, Fontigens, Gillia, Heleobops, Holsingeria, Hoyia, Hydrobia, Lepyrium, Littoridina, Littoridinops, Lyogyrus, Notogillia, Onobops, Paludina, Phreatoceras, Phreatodrobia, Potamopyrgus, Pristinicola, Probythinella, Pyrgophorus, Pyrgulopsis, Rhapinema, Somatogyrus, Spilochlamys, Spurwinkia, Stiobia, Stygopyrgus, Taylorconcha, Texadina, Texapyrgu, Tryonia; Assimineidae: Assiminea; Pomatiopsidae: Pomatiopsis, Heterostropha; Valvatidae: Valvata
MORE IN BCD EO SPECS NOTES TAB

Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 09Oct2008
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Sears, N. (2015), Cordeiro, J. (2008); K. Jurist (1996)

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Burch, J.B. 1989. North American Freshwater Snails. Malacological Publications: Hamburg, Michigan. 365 pp.

  • Conway, A. 2013. Benthic macroinvertebrate communities of Lake Simcoe (Ontario, Canada): Investigating an 85 year time-scale. A thesis presented to the University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. 91 pp.

  • Dillon, R. T., Jr., B. T. Watson, T. W. Stewart, and W. K. Reeves. 2006c. The freshwater gastropods of North America. Online. Available: http://www.fwgna.org

  • Foltz, S. 2010. Species fact sheet: Valvata tricarinata. The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation. Online. Available:  http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/sfpnw/issssp/documents/planning-docs/sfs-ig-valvata-tricarinata-2011-06.docx

  • Freeman, P.W. and K. Perkins. 1997. Survey of mollusks of the Niobrara River. Final Report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Grand Island, Nebraska, September 1997. 22 pp.

  • Frest, T.J. and E.J. Johannes. 1995c. Interior Columbia Basin mollusk species of special concern. Final Report (contract #43-0E00-4-9112) prepared for Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. Deixis Consultants, Seattle, Washington. 274 pp. + tabs., figs.

  • Jokinen, E.H. 2005. Pond molluscs of Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore: then and now. American Malacological Bulletin 20: 1-9.

  • Krieger, K.A. 1985. Snail distributions in Lake Erie: the influence of anoxia in the southern Central Basin nearshore zone. The Ohio Journal of Science 85(5):230-244.

  • Lepitzki, D.A.W. 2001. Gastropods: 2000 preliminary status ranks for Alberta. Unpublished report prepared for Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Fish and Wildlife Division, Edmonton, Alberta. 126 pp.

  • Malizio, G.M., Karns, B.N., Hove, M., Slaght, J., and Strong, E. 2004. A survey of aquatic snails in the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway: are they native, exotic, invasive or just great bio-indicators? University of Minnesota and U.S. National Park Service. Poster Presentation

  • O'Neal, R.P. and Soulliere, G.J. 2006. Conservation guidelines for Michigan lakes and associated natural resources. Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Fisheries Special Report, 38.

  • Pip, E. 2000. The decline of freshwater molluscs in southern Manitoba. Canadian Field Naturalist 114(4):555-560.

  • Pyron, M., J. Beaugly, E. Martin, and M. Spielman. 2008. Conservation of the freshwater gastropods of Indiana: Historic and current distributions. American Malacological Bulletin, 26: 137-151.

  • Smith, D.C., M.A. Gates, R.A. Krebs, and M.J.S. Tevesz. 2002. A survey of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) and other molluscs in the Cuyahoga Valley National Park. Ohio Biological Survey Miscellaneous Contribution, 8: 1-31.

  • Stephen, B.J. 2015. Species composition of Nebraska's freshwater gastropodam fauna: a review of historical records. American Malacological Bulletin 33(1):1-11.

  • Stephen, B.J. and V.B. Winkler. 2007. A survey of the freshwater snails of the major ecoregions of South Dakota. Ellipsaria, 9(1): 14-15.

  • Stewart, T.W. 2006. The freshwater gastropods of Iowa (1821-1998): species composition, geographic distributions, and conservation concerns. American Malacological Bulletin, 21(1/2): 59-75.

  • Taylor, D. W., and R. C. Bright. 1987. Drainage history of the Bonneville Basin. Pages 239-256 in: Kopp, R. S. and R. E. Cohenour, editors. Cenozoic geology of western Utah sites for precious metals and hydrocarbon accumulations. Utah Geological Association Publication 16. Salt Lake City.

  • Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J.D. Williams. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 2nd Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland: 526 pp.

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