Urocyon cinereoargenteus - (Schreber, 1775)
Gray Fox
Other English Common Names: Grey Fox
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Urocyon cinereoargenteus (Schreber, 1775) (TSN 180609)
French Common Names: renard gris
Spanish Common Names: Zorro Gris, Tigrillo
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.104188
Element Code: AMAJA04010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Carnivores
Image 7598

© Larry Master

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Carnivora Canidae Urocyon
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.
Concept Reference Code: B93WIL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Urocyon cinereoargenteus
Taxonomic Comments: Has been placed in the genus Canis or in the genus Vulpes by some authors (as recently as the 1970s). Urocyon cinereoargenteus and U. littoralis have been regarded as possibly conspecific by some authors; treated as distinct species by Jones et al. (1992) and Wozencraft (in Wilson and Reeder 2005).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 05Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 15Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Sep1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N1 (20May2015)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (S5), Arizona (S5), Arkansas (S5), California (SNR), Colorado (S4), Connecticut (S5), Delaware (S5), District of Columbia (S3), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S5), Illinois (S5), Indiana (S4), Iowa (S3), Kansas (S3), Kentucky (S4), Louisiana (S4S5), Maine (S5), Maryland (S5), Massachusetts (S5), Michigan (S4), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (S4), Navajo Nation (S5), Nebraska (S4), Nevada (S5), New Hampshire (S4S5), New Jersey (S5), New Mexico (S5), New York (S5), North Carolina (S5), North Dakota (SU), Ohio (SNR), Oklahoma (S4), Oregon (S4), Pennsylvania (S5), Rhode Island (S5), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (S5), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S5), Utah (S3S4), Vermont (S5), Virginia (S5), West Virginia (S5), Wisconsin (S4S5), Wyoming (S2)
Canada Ontario (S1)

Other Statuses

Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA) Schedule 1/Annexe 1 Status: T (12Jan2005)
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Threatened (26Nov2015)
Comments on COSEWIC: Designated Special Concern in April 1979. Status re-examined and designated Threatened in May 2002 and November 2015.
IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Oregon, Nevada, Utah, and Colorado in the west and the U.S.-Canadian border in the east, south through Mexico and Central America to northern Colombia and Venezuela (Wozencraft, in Wilson and Reeder 1993). See Steers (1979 COSEWIC report) for information on distribution in Canada.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Oregon, Nevada, Utah, and Colorado in the west and the U.S.-Canadian border in the east, south through Mexico and Central America to northern Colombia and Venezuela (Wozencraft, in Wilson and Reeder 1993). See Steers (1979 COSEWIC report) for information on distribution in Canada.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NN, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WI, WV, WY
Canada ON

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002; NatureServe, 2005; Sechrest, 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IA Chickasaw (19037), Sac (19161)
ND Grand Forks (38035)*
WY Carbon (56007), Converse (56009), Crook (56011), Fremont (56013), Natrona (56025), Niobrara (56027), Platte (56031), Weston (56045)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
07 Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102)+, North Raccoon (07100006)+
09 Turtle (09020307)+*
10 Upper Wind (10080001)+, South Fork Powder (10090203)+, Salt (10090204)+, Antelope (10120101)+, Dry Fork Cheyenne (10120102)+, Upper Cheyenne (10120103)+, Lance (10120104)+, Beaver (10120107)+, Upper Belle Fourche (10120201)+, Redwater (10120203)+, Niobrara Headwaters (10150002)+, Pathfinder-Seminoe Reservoirs (10180003)+, Little Medicine Bow (10180005)+, Sweetwater (10180006)+, Middle North Platte-Casper (10180007)+, Glendo Reservoir (10180008)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Breeds mainly in winter. Gestation lasts 51-63 days (average 53). Parturition occurs in April or May in the south-central U.S. Litter size averages 3-5. Parturition occurs March-April. Weaned in 8-10 weeks. Sexually mature within 1 year.
Ecology Comments: Home range up to a few square miles in winter, less in summer (Richards and Hine 1953). Home ranges may or may not overlap. Probably reaches peak densities every 10 years. Probably averages around one family for every 4 square miles.
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Cropland/hedgerow, Desert, Forest - Conifer, Forest - Hardwood, Forest - Mixed, Grassland/herbaceous, Shrubland/chaparral, Suburban/orchard, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Special Habitat Factors: Burrowing in or using soil, Fallen log/debris, Standing snag/hollow tree
Habitat Comments: Often in woodland and shrubland in rough, broken country. Usually avoids open areas. May climb tree to avoid danger. Dens in cleft, small cave, hollow in tree or log, or debris pile; less frequently in burrow abandoned by other mammal.
Adult Food Habits: Carnivore, Frugivore, Herbivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Carnivore, Frugivore, Herbivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Opportunistic omnivore. Often chiefly depends on rabbits and other small mammals in winter, insects and fruit in summer. Overall diet may be dominated by plant material in some areas.
Adult Phenology: Crepuscular, Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Crepuscular, Nocturnal
Phenology Comments: Primarily crepuscular and nocturnal, but often active in daytime.
Length: 113 centimeters
Weight: 5900 grams
Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: Trapped for pelt.
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Use Class: Not applicable
Subtype(s): Breeding Den Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals in appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Major water bodies (arbitrarily set at 300 meters wide at low water) that do not freeze.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 15 km
Separation Justification: Dispersal is apparently highly variable among locations and between sexes; juveniles have been found as far as 84 km from their natal area (Sheldon 1953); males may disperse farther than do females, or dispersal may by minimal in both sexes (reviewed by Fritzell and Haroldson 1982). Home range highly variable: Wisconsin, 13 to 310 hectares; Florida, mean of 770 hectares; Utah, mean of 100 hectares (reviewed by Trapp and Hallberg 1975); annual home range up to 2,755 ha in Alabama (Fritzell, in Wilson and Ruff 1999).

Separation distance is arbitrary but attempts to balance significant dispersal capability against the need for occurrences that are not unreasonably large for conservation purposes. Occurrence delineation requires attention to seasonal changes in location and habitat use (if any); different parts of the annual home range are of course included in the same occurrence regardless of how far apart they are.

Habitat use is very broad, although usually avoids wide open areas, which can be regarded as unsuitable habitat.

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 1.1 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Based on a small 'average' home range size of 100 hectares (see Separation Justification).
Date: 22Sep2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 20Apr1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Alberico, M., A. Cadena, J. Hernández-Camacho, and Y. Muñoz-Saba. 2000. Mamíferos (Synapsida: Theria) de Colombia. Biota Colombiana. 1(1):43-75.

  • Armstrong, D. M. 1975. Rocky Mountain mammals. Rocky Mountain Nature Asscoc., Inc. 174 pp.

  • Baker, R. H. 1983. Michigan mammals. Michigan State University Press. 642 pp.

  • Baker, R. J., L. C. Bradley, R. D. Bradley, J. W. Dragoo, M. D. Engstrom, R. S. Hoffman, C. A. Jones, F. Reid, D. W. Rice, and C. Jones. 2003a. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 2003. Museum of Texas Tech University Occasional Papers 229:1-23.

  • Banfield, A. W. F. 1974. The mammals of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada. 438 pp.

  • Bradley, R.D., L.K. Ammerman, R.J. Baker, L.C. Bradley, J.A. Cook. R.C. Dowler, C. Jones, D.J. Schmidly, F.B. Stangl Jr., R.A. Van den Bussche and B. Würsig. 2014. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 2014. Museum of Texas Tech University Occasional Papers 327:1-28. Available at: <http://www.nsrl.ttu.edu/publications/opapers/ops/OP327.pdf> (Accessed April 1, 2015)

  • Caire, W., J. D. Tyler, B. P. Glass, and M. A. Mares. 1989. Mammals of Oklahoma. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. Oklahoma. 567 pp.

  • Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). 1999. Canadian Species at Risk: April 1999. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 17 pp.

  • Dobbyn, J.S. 1994. Atlas of the mammals in Ontario. Federation of Ontario Naturalists, 355 Leslie Road, Don Mills, Ontario, M3B 2W8. 120 pp.

  • Eisenberg, J. F. and K. H. Redford. 1989. Mammals of the Neotropics, The Northern Neotropics, Volume 1, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana. Chicago, The University of Chicago Press.

  • Fritzell, E.K. and K.J. Haroldson. 1982. Urocyon cineroargenteus. Am. Soc. Mamm., Mammalian Species No. 189. 8 pp.

  • Gier, H. T. 1975. Ecology and behavior of the coyote (Canis latrans). Pages 247-262 in M. W. Fox, ed. The Wild Canids; their systematics, behavioral ecology and evolution. Van Nostrand and Reinhold Co., New York. xvi + 508 pp.

  • Godin, A. J. 1977. Wild mammals of New England. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 304 pp.

  • Hall, E. R. 1981a. The Mammals of North America, second edition. Vols. I & II. John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York. 1181 pp.

  • Hamilton, W. J., Jr., and J. O. Whitaker, Jr. 1979. Mammals of the eastern United States. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, New York. 346 pp.

  • Jones, J. K., Jr., R. S. Hoffman, D. W. Rice, C. Jones, R. J. Baker, and M. D. Engstrom. 1992a. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 1991. Occasional Papers, The Museum, Texas Tech University, 146:1-23.

  • Jones, R.E. and R.J. Aulerich. 1981. Bibliography of foxes. Michigan State Univ., Agric. Exp. Sta. Jour. Art. No. 9871, 141 pp.

  • Novak, M., J.A. Baker, M.E. Obbard and B. Malloch. 1987. Wild furbearer management and conservation in North America. Ontario Trappers Association under the authority of the Licensing Agreement with the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario, Canada. 1150 pp.

  • Parks Canada. 2000. Vertebrate Species Database. Ecosystems Branch, 25 Eddy St., Hull, PQ, K1A 0M5.

  • Reid, F. A. 1997. A field guide to the mammals of Central America and southeast Mexico. Oxford University Press, Incorporated New York, New York. 334 pp.

  • Richards, S. W. and R. L. Hine. 1953. Wisconsin fox populations. Wisconsin Dept. Conserv. Tech. Bull. 6. 78 pp.

  • Schwartz, C. W., and E. R. Schwartz. 1981. The wild mammals of Missouri. University of Missouri Press, Columbia. 356 pp.

  • Sealander, J.A. and G.A. Heidt. 1990. Arkansas Mammals: Their Natural History, Classification and Distribution. University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville. 308 pp.

  • See SERO listing

  • Sheldon, J. W. 1991. Wild dogs: the natural history of the nondomestic Canidae. Academic Press. 248 pp.

  • Steers, S. 1979. Status report on the Grey Fox UROCYON CINEREOARGENTEUS in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC).

  • Trapp, G. R., and D. L. Hallberg. 1975. Ecology of the gray fox (UROCYON CINEREOARGENTEUS): a review. Pages 164-178 in M. W. Fox (editor). The wild canids. Van Nostrand, Reinhold Co., New York. 508pp.

  • Weston, J. L., and I. L. Brisbin, Jr. 2003. Demographics of a protected population of gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) in South Carolina. Journal of Mammalogy 84:996-1005.

  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 2005. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Third edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland. Two volumes. 2,142 pp. [Available online at: http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3/ ]

  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.

  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 2005. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Third edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. Two volumes. 2,142 pp. Available online at: http://vertebrates.si.edu/msw/mswcfapp/msw/index.cfm

  • Wilson, D. E., and S. Ruff. 1999. The Smithsonian book of North American mammals. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 750 pp.

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