Udosarx lyrata - Webb, 1959
Lyre Mantleslug
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Udosarx lyrata Webb, 1959 (TSN 77708)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.115708
Element Code: IMGASB7010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Mollusks - Terrestrial Snails
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mollusca Gastropoda Stylommatophora Arionidae Udosarx
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J.D. Williams. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 2nd Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland: 526 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B98TUR01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Udosarx lyrata
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 19Dec2017
Global Status Last Changed: 19Dec2017
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Species has relatively few documented occurrences within its small range in central Montana and parts of northern Idaho. May be sensitive to forest management practices.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2 (08Oct2002)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Idaho (S3), Montana (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 20,000-200,000 square km (about 8000-80,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Based on 12000 sq km in Montana, 14000 sq km in Idaho; choice may be too restricted for range extent overall, but liberal for what is actually occupied within range, especially in Montana and central Idaho.

Area of Occupancy: 26-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Based on 10-15 occurrences (21 records) in Montana and 42 occupied 5 X 5 km grid cells in northern Idaho during 2010-2014; a few other ID occurrences reported south of the northern ID surveys.

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: Based on 42 occurrences in northern Idaho, 10-15 occurrences (from 21 records) in Montana.

Population Size: Unknown

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Many (41-125)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Most occurrences probably with good viability. All occurrences based on live individuals.

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threatened by canopy loss from fire and logging in old-growth and mature forests, and annual variation and trends in weather, altering occupied habitat.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over last 10 -20 years probably declining somewhat as a result of canopy loss from fire and logging of mature and old-growth forest.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Long-term Trend Comments: Trend over last century probably declining substantially as a result of canopy loss throughout region from fire and logging in mature and old growth forest.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Lots more survey work

Distribution
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Global Range: (20,000-200,000 square km (about 8000-80,000 square miles)) Based on 12000 sq km in Montana, 14000 sq km in Idaho; choice may be too restricted for range extent overall, but liberal for what is actually occupied within range, especially in Montana and central Idaho.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States ID, MT

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Clearwater (16035), Idaho (16049)
MT Mineral (30061), Missoula (30063), Ravalli (30081)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 Blackfoot (17010203)+*, Middle Clark Fork (17010204)+, Bitterroot (17010205)+, Lochsa (17060303)+, Upper North Fork Clearwater (17060307)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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General Description: A small slug, animals may reach 30 mm or more, but are often smaller. Body and mantle base-color is cream, head and lateral grooves (7-8) on the body are dark to black, the latter highlighting a mid-dorsal tawny strip on the tail. The posterior margin of the mantle is deeply notched, similar to Zacoleus, and the pneumostome is present above or anterior to the mantle cleft. The mantle covers less than half the body, and has blackish lateral lines on the posterior half that converge towards the posterior margin, with small black spots on the anterior half of the mantle vaguely delineating a grid pattern. The right mantle line is sometimes more sinuous than the left, and the two converging lines form a lyreshaped symbol?hence the species name, lyrata. The back has a prominent keel especially noticeable in contracted individuals. The sole is tripartite (having two longitudinal furrows); the mucous is clear.
Diagnostic Characteristics: A combination of size, coloration, mantle markings, and overall morphology readily distinguish this species from other slugs. The sole of the foot is tripartite (having two longitudinal furrows best seen when the animal crawls on a clear surface), a strongly keeled back (most prominent when the animal is more or less contracted), a small notch on the right posterior mantle margin, a pneumostome (breething pore) above or anterior to the mantle cleft. The similar sheathed slug (Zacoleus idahoensis) shares these traits, but Udosarx has a bluish-gray to cream base color with a contrasting blackish head and dark grooves on the upper surface of the tail demarcating rows of tubercles, and a pair of dark lateral lines on the mantle that converge posteriorly.
Habitat Type: Terrestrial
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Bare rock/talus/scree, Forest - Conifer, Forest - Mixed, Woodland - Conifer
Special Habitat Factors: Fallen log/debris
Habitat Comments: Mostly mesic mixed conifer forest and riparian woodlands, sometimes with talus, also at higher elevation in drier habitat where snow banks and seeps keep soil moister. Canopy species include Engelmann spruce, subalpine fir, whitebark pine, Douglas-fir, ponderosa pine, lodgepole pine, western larch, western hemlock, western redcedar, black cottonwood and paper birch, secondary canopy includes alder, willow, mountain maple, and dogwood. Usually found under rocks and woody debris, sometimes within rotten logs (Hendricks 2012).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Continue to monitor known populations for status of threats, site condition, and assess indices of abundance. Survey potential habitat for new populations. Seek long term protection for exceptional sites, particularly those without federal wilderness designation. Review forest management practices and other actions that may threaten populations by soil moisture levels, as well as temperature and humidity regimes of occupied areas. Consider the feasibility of removal or mitigation of threats and how their this will impact the quality of habitat for the species, as well as other taxa of interest.
Biological Research Needs: Life history and habitat requirements not known.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Terrestrial Snails

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical or current presence of single or multiple specimens, including live specimens or recently dead shells (i.e., soft tissue still attached without signs of external weathering or staining), at a given location with potentially recurring existence. Weathered shells constitute a historic occurrence. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information.
Separation Barriers: Barriers include barriers to dispersal such as the presence of permanent water bodies greater than 30 m in width, permanently frozen areas (e.g. mountaintop glaciers) which generally lack land snails (Frest and Johannes, 1995), or dry, xeric areas with less than six inches precipitation annually, as moisture is required for respiration and often hatching of eggs. For the various slugs and slug-like species (families Arionidae, Philomycidae, Limacidae, Milacidae, Testacellidae, Veronicellidae), absence of suitable moisture, except for the most ubiquitous of species such as Deroceras reticulatum (Müller, 1774), can serve as a barrier to movement (Frest and Johannes, 1995). Members of these groups tend to have greater difficulty crossing areas of little moisture than other pulmonates. For tree snails (family Bulimulidae [= Orthalicidae]), lack of appropriate arboreal habitat (e.g. distance of greater than 500 m) also serves as a separation barrier.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 1 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: None
Separation Justification: Burch and Pearce (1990) suggest refuges may be the most important factor limiting terrestrial snail abundance, although the greatest richness of species among carbonate cliff habitats (one of the most diverse in North America) is associated with calcareous, as opposed to acidic, substrates (Nekola, 1999; Nekola and Smith, 1999). The panmictic unit (a local population in which matings are random) is small relative to those of other animal groups because terrestrial snails tend to be more sedentary. Baker (1958) claimed, "long-distance dispersal of terrestrial gastropods is undoubtedly passive" although short distance dispersal is active involving slow, short distance migration under favorable conditions. Long-distance passive migration is not considered when assigning separation distances, as otherwise separation distances for many animals and plants would be made impracticably large. Passive migration of snails on terrestrial mammals, birds, or insects may occur over longer distances may occur across barriers. Passive migration also may occur by wind or by rafting on floating objects (Vagvolgyi, 1975). A third form of passive migration may occur through human activity such as transport as food, with consumed goods, or for biological control of other organisms.

Terrestrial gastropods do not move much usually only to find food or reproduce. Olfaction is the primary sensory behavior utilized to find and move toward a food item (on the scale of cm to m) although Atkinson (2003) found that Anguispira alternata was capable of switching foraging behavior when snails encountered a physical barrier to movement. Fisher et al (1980) reported maximum movement rate of Rumina decollata (Linnaeus, 1758), an introduced pest species in California spreading relatively rapidly (for a snail), to be 20 m in three months (= 6.67 m/month) in an irrigated orchard. Tupen and Roth (2001) reported the movement rate for the same species in an un-irrigated native scrub on San Nicolas Island to be 0.4 km in 12 years (= 33.33 m/month). South (1965) found in dispersal studies of the slug, Deroceras reticulatum, that slugs traveled a mean distance of 1.13 m in seven days indicating this species disperses little throughout its life. Giokas and Mylonas (2004) found mean dispersal and minimal movement distances were very small (16.2 and 5.4 m, respectively) for Albinaria coerulea, with few individuals dispersing longer distances. Even the most extreme dispersal distances, such as 500 m for the giant African land snail Achatina fulica (Tomiyama and Nakane, 1993), do not approach the scale of km. Viable land snail populations generally occupy small areas. Frest and Johannes (1995) report the largest Oreohelix colony they observed was one mile (1.67 km) long and 0.25 miles (0.41 km) wide while the smallest was six feet (183 cm) long and two feet (61 cm) wide.

As a whole, pulmonates (previously Subclass Pulmonata) are better dispersers than prosobranchs (previously Subclass Prosobranchia) possibly due to their hermaphroditic reproduction increasing the chance of new colonization (Pilsbry, 1948). When compared with prosobranch families, pulmonates generally reproduce at smaller sizes and sooner, produce greater numbers of eggs/young, have larger clutch sizes, greater growth rates, and shorter life cycles (Brown, 1991). Further, prosobranchs' requirement of constant moisture for oxygen exchange limits their ability to colonize drier habitats. Suitable habitat for pulmonate groups tends to be more varied and less restrictive than for prosobranch groups. All of these factors contribute to pulmonates greater dispersal capability over prosobranchs, as evidenced by the wider and more varied distribution of pulmonates over prosobranchs. Despite this, separation distance for both groups is set at the minimum one km as most movements are well within this suggested minimum separation distance.

Date: 26May2004
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 18Dec2017
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Cordeiro, J., rev. P. Hendricks (2017)
Management Information Edition Date: 12Jan2018
Management Information Edition Author: Bachen, D.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Bosworth, W. 2012. Terrestrial gastropods of USFS Northern Region: materials developed for Idaho field guide. Idaho Fish and Game, Boise, Idaho. 110 pages (unnumbered)

  • Burke, T.E. 2013. Land snails and slugs of the Pacific Northwest. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis. 352 pp

  • Hendricks, P. 2003. Rediscovery of Discus brunsoni Berry, 1955 and Oreohelix aplina (Elrod, 1901) in the Mission Mountains, Montana, with comments on Oreohelix elrodi (Pilsbry, 1900). Unpublished report to the Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 14 pp.

  • Hendricks, P. 2012. A guide to the land snails and slugs of Montana. A report to the U.S. Forest Service ? Region 1. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 187 pages + appendices.

  • Hendricks, P. and B.A. Maxell. 2005. USFS Northern Region 2005 land mollusk inventory: a progress report. Report submitted to the U.S. Forest Service Region 1. Montana Natural Heritage Program,(Agreement #05-CS-11015600-033, Helena, Montana. 52 pp.

  • Lucid, M.K., L. Robinson, and S.E. Ehlers. 2016. Chapter 2. Gastropods. Pages 8-103 in Multi-species Baseline Initiative project report. 2010-2014. Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, USA.

  • Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J.D. Williams. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 2nd Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland: 526 pp.

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