Tsuga canadensis - (L.) Carr.
Eastern Hemlock
Other Common Names: eastern hemlock
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. (TSN 183397)
French Common Names: pruche du Canada
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.131718
Element Code: PGPIN06010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Conifers and relatives
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Coniferophyta Pinopsida Pinales Pinaceae Tsuga
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Tsuga canadensis
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 04Feb2016
Global Status Last Changed: 01Nov2011
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Hemlock is widespread and still abundant in the northern portion of its range, but being killed by the hemlock woolly adelgid, an exotic insect pest, especially in the southeastern portion of its range. It is still unclear whether the adelgid will spread throughout the entire range of eastern hemlock, but in 2002 the insect had established in about one-half of its range and as far north as New Hampshire (USFS 2002). Isolated infestations have been discovered and treated in Maine and Michigan (Onken 2001). Eastern Hemlock is widespread and abundant in Canada.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4N5
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (04Feb2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S4), Connecticut (SNR), Delaware (S1), District of Columbia (SU), Georgia (SNR), Indiana (S3), Kentucky (S5), Maine (S5), Maryland (SNR), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (S1), New Hampshire (SNR), New Jersey (S4), New York (S5), North Carolina (S4S5), Ohio (SNR), Pennsylvania (S5), Rhode Island (SNR), South Carolina (SNR), Tennessee (SNR), Vermont (SNR), Virginia (S4S5), West Virginia (S5), Wisconsin (SNR)
Canada New Brunswick (S5), Nova Scotia (S4S5), Ontario (S5), Prince Edward Island (S3), Quebec (S4S5)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Ontario to Nova Scotia south to Maryland and eastern Minnesota, and along the Appalachian mountains to Georgia and Alabama (Fernald 1950, Kartesz 1999).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Overall Threat Impact Comments: A serious threat appears to be the hemlock woolly adelgid, an insect that is believed to have originated in Asia. "During the last decade, it has become a major killer of Canadian and Carolina hemlocks in forests from Maine to Virginia" (Cohn, 1993). Once established the adelgid is a chronic problem and trees that are attacked can die in several years (Souto and Shields 1999). A related threat is "pre-emptive logging" which may be occurring well outside the insect's present range (Foster 1999).

Short-term Trend: Decline of >30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Being killed by an exotic insect pest (hemlock wooly adelgid) in large portions of its range, particularly in the mid-Atlantic area and central Appalachians. In 2002, the adelgid is documented to be established in about half of eastern hemlock's range. The adelgid is established from New Hampshire to South Carolina and as far west as West Virginia (USFS 2002).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Ontario to Nova Scotia south to Maryland and eastern Minnesota, and along the Appalachian mountains to Georgia and Alabama (Fernald 1950, Kartesz 1999).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, CT, DC, DE, GA, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Canada NB, NS, ON, PE, QC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
DE New Castle (10003)
MN Aitkin (27001)*, Carlton (27017), Itasca (27061)*, Kanabec (27065)*, Mille Lacs (27095), Pine (27115), St. Louis (27137)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Brandywine-Christina (02040205)+
04 Beaver-Lester (04010102)+, St. Louis (04010201)+, Cloquet (04010202)+, Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301)+*
07 Rum (07010207)+, Upper St. Croix (07030001)+, Kettle (07030003)+*
09 Little Fork (09030005)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Habitat Comments: Mostly hilly or rocky woods (Fernald, 1950); in southern portion of range, frequently in moist, shaded ravines, or other sheltered microhabitats.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 14Oct2002
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Thurman, Carolyn (1993), rev. L. Morse (1995), rev. Adele Olivero (2002)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Anderson, R. C. and O. L. Loucks. 1979. White-tail deer (Odocoileus virginianus) influence on structure and composition of Tsuga canadensis forests. Journal of Applied Ecology 16: 855-61.

  • Calcote, R. R. 1986. Hemlock in Minnesota: 1200 years as a rare species. M.S. Thesis, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

  • Coffin, B., and L. Pfannmuller, editors. 1988. Minnesota's endangered flora and fauna. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. 473 pp.

  • Cohn, D'Vera. 1993. Shenandoah hemlocks under seige. Washington Post: September 4, 1993.

  • Collingwood, G.H. and W.D. Brush. 1974. Knowing your trees. Revised and edited by D. Butcher. The American Forestry Assoc. Washington, D.C. 374 p.

  • Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. Corrected printing (1970). D. Van Nostrand Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1993a. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol. 2. Pteridophytes and gymnosperms. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xvi + 475 pp.

  • Foster, D.R. 1999. Hemlock's future in the context of its history: An ecological perspective. In: McManus, K.A., K.S. Shields, and D.R. Souto eds. Proceedings: Symposium on Sustainable Management of Hemlock Ecosystems in Eastern North America, June 22-24, 1999. U.S. Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, General Technical Report NE-267. Durham, NH: 1-4.

  • Hett, J. M., and O. L. Loucks. Age structure models of balsam fir and eastern hemlock. Unknown source.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Lawson, E. L. 1942. What happened to the hemlock? Minnesota Conservation Volunteer. January: 64-66.

  • Little, E.L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agriculture Handbook No. 541. U.S. Forest Service, Washington, D.C. 375 pp.

  • Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 2003. Field guide to the native plant communities of Minnesota: the Laurentian mixed forest province. Ecological Land Classification Program, Minnesota County Biological Survey, and Natural Heritage and Nongame Research Program. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul, Minnesota. 352 pp.

  • Mitchell, Richard S. 1986. A checklist of New York State plants. Bulletin No. 458. New York State Museum. 272 pp.

  • Mladendoff, D. J. and F. Stearns. 1993. Eastern hemlock regeneration and deer browsing in the northern Great Lakes region: A re-examination and model simulation. Conservation Biology 7:889-900.

  • Onken, B. P. 2001. Hemlock woolly adelgid - A race in time. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Forest Health Protection, Morgantown, WV.

  • Rogers, R. S. 1978. Forests dominated by hemlock (Tsuga canadensis): Distribution as related to site and postsettlement history. Canadian Journal of Botany 56:843-854.

  • Rogers, R. S. 1980. Hemlock stands from Wisconsin to Nova Scotia: transitions in understory composition along a floristic gradient. Ecology 61(1):178-193.

  • Rooney, T. P., and D. M. Waller. 1998. Local and regional variation in hemlock seedling establishment in forests of the upper Great Lakes region, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 111:211-224.

  • Schmidt, K. N. and D. P. Christian. 1988. Porcupine-eastern hemlock interactions at Hemlock Ravine Scientific and Natural Area. Final report to Nongame Wildlife Program, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 25 pp.

  • Schmidt, K. N. and D. P. Christian. 1990. Winter feeding ecology of the North American porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) in an isolated population of Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) in northeastern Minnesota. A thesis submitted to the University of Minnesota for the degree of Master of Science. 65 pp.

  • Schmidt, Kristin N. and Donald P. Christian. 1988. Porcupine-Eastern Hemlock Interactions at Hemlock Ravine Scientific and Natural Area. Funded by the MN DNR, Section of Wildlife, Natural Heritage and Nongame Research Program and the University of Minnesota-Duluth. Thesis. Results in unpublished report.

  • Smith, W. R. 2008. Trees and shrubs of Minnesota. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. 703 pp.

  • Souto, D.R. and K.S. Shields 1999. Overview of hemlock health. In: McManus, K.A., K.S. Shields, and D.R. Souto eds. Proceedings: Symposium on Sustainable Management of Hemlock Ecosystems in Eastern North America, June 22-24, 1999. U.S. Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, General Technical Report NE-267. Durham, NH: 76-80.

  • Taylor, R. J. 1993. Tsuga. Pages 362-365 in Flora of North America Editorial Committee, editors. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Volume 2. Oxford University Press, New York, New York.

  • Tyrrell, L. E., and T. R. Crow. 1994. Structural characteristics of old-growth hemlock-hardwood forests in relation to age. Ecology 75:370-386.

  • U.S. Forest Service (USFS). 2002. Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Management Brief. USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Area, Newtown Square, PA.

  • Winchell, N. H. 1899. The geology of Minnesota / The geological and natural history survey of Minnesota. Volume 4. Johnson, Smith & Harrison, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

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