Troglodytes aedon - Vieillot, 1809
House Wren
Other Common Names: Curruíra-de-Casa, Cambaxirra
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Troglodytes aedon Vieillot, 1809 (TSN 178541)
French Common Names: troglodyte familier
Spanish Common Names: Chivirín Saltapared, Ratona Común, Chercán
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.902043
Element Code: ABPBG09010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Perching Birds
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Passeriformes Troglodytidae Troglodytes
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). Chesser, T.R., R.C. Banks, F.K. Barker, C.Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen Jr., J.D.Rising, D.F. Stotz and K.Winker. 2013. Fifty-Fourth Supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. Auk 130(3):558-571.
Concept Reference Code: A13AOU01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Troglodytes aedon
Taxonomic Comments: Formerly included extralimital species T. cobbi, which is separated on the basis of morphological, ecological, genetic, and vocal differences (Woods 1993, Campagna et al. 2012) (AOU 2013).

Complex of five groups; species limits within complex are not well understood (AOU 1983). Groups are: aedon (Northern House-Wren), brunneicollis (Brown-throated Wren), musculus (Southern House-Wren), martinicensis Antillean House-Wren), and beani (Cozumel Wren) (AOU 1998). Phillips (1986) used the specific name domesticus for this species, from which he separated the Cozumel Island beani. Banks and Browning (1995) acknowledged that based on priority alone, the correct name is T. domesticus, but they argued for retention of the name T. aedon because that would best serve nomenclatural stability.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 10Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 03Dec1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5B,N5N (05Jan1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,N5M (26Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S2B,S5N), Arizona (S5), Arkansas (S5), California (SNR), Colorado (S5), Connecticut (S5B), Delaware (S5B), District of Columbia (S4N,S5B), Florida (SNRN), Georgia (S4), Idaho (S4B), Illinois (S5), Indiana (S5B), Iowa (S5B,S5N), Kansas (S5B), Kentucky (S4S5B), Louisiana (S4N), Maine (S4S5B), Maryland (S5B), Massachusetts (S5B), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (SNRB), Mississippi (S5N), Missouri (SNRB), Montana (S5B), Navajo Nation (S4B,S2N), Nebraska (S5), Nevada (S5B), New Hampshire (S5B), New Jersey (S4B), New Mexico (S5B,S5N), New York (S5), North Carolina (S5B,S5N), North Dakota (SNRB), Ohio (S5), Oklahoma (S4S5), Oregon (S4), Pennsylvania (S5B), Rhode Island (S5B), South Carolina (SNRB,SNRN), South Dakota (S5B), Tennessee (S4), Texas (S2B,S5N), Utah (S5B,S3N), Vermont (S5B), Virginia (S5), Washington (S5B), West Virginia (S4N), Wisconsin (S5B), Wyoming (S5B,S5N)
Canada Alberta (S5), British Columbia (S5B), Manitoba (S5B), New Brunswick (S1S2B,S1S2M), Ontario (S5B), Quebec (S4B), Saskatchewan (S5B)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Breeding range extends from southern British Columbia across southern Canada to New Brunswick, and south to northern Baja California, Texas, and northern Georgia; also Mexico, West Indies, and Central and South America (to Tierra del Fuego). During the northern winter, this species ranges from the southern United States southward.

The southern limit of the wintering range of North American populations is about at the northern limit of resident populations in Central America, so migratory and resident populations rarely co-occur (AOU 1983).

Short-term Trend Comments: Breeding Bird Survey data indicate a significant population increase in North America between 1966 and 1989 (Droege and Sauer 1990).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Breeding range extends from southern British Columbia across southern Canada to New Brunswick, and south to northern Baja California, Texas, and northern Georgia; also Mexico, West Indies, and Central and South America (to Tierra del Fuego). During the northern winter, this species ranges from the southern United States southward.

The southern limit of the wintering range of North American populations is about at the northern limit of resident populations in Central America, so migratory and resident populations rarely co-occur (AOU 1983).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NN, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, MB, NB, ON, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Ada (16001), Bannock (16005), Bonneville (16019), Cassia (16031), Custer (16037), Franklin (16041), Gooding (16047), Latah (16057), Lemhi (16059), Owyhee (16073), Valley (16085)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
16 Middle Bear (16010202)+, Curlew Valley (16020309)+
17 Willow (17040205)+, Portneuf (17040208)+, Raft (17040210)+, Goose (17040211)+, Upper Snake-Rock (17040212)+, Big Lost (17040218)+, Upper Owyhee (17050104)+, Middle Owyhee (17050107)+, Boise-Mores (17050112)+, North Fork Payette (17050123)+, Lemhi (17060204)+, Clearwater (17060306)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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General Description: This is a moderately small wren that from a distance appears brownish gray, without a strong pattern. The head, nape, and back are brown, darker and more reddish in eastern populations, paler and grayer in western populations. There is a pale, often indistinct line above the eye and no striping on the crown. The throat and chest are light gray, sometimes with a buffy or brownish tinge. The flanks, tail, and wings have black, dark brown, and buffy barring. The sexes are identical in plumage. The plaumage does not change in appearance between summer and winter. Length is around 4.75 inches (12 cm). Song is a series of rapid trills and rattles.
Reproduction Comments: Breeding season is relatively short and strongly seasonal in the north, protracted and variable in the tropics (e.g., see Young, 1994, Condor 96:341-353). Egg laying in the United States begins as early as April in some areas, in May in most regions. Nesting may extend into July or August in some areas. Clutch size averages about 3-4 at low latitudes, about 5-7 at high latitudes (Young, 1994, Auk 111:545-555). Individual females in the north produce 2, sometimes 3, broods per year (3-4 in Costa Rica). Incubation, by the female, lasts 12-15 days. Young are tended by both parents, leave nest at 12-18 days; male may feed fledged young while the female renests. Breeding is most commonly monogamous; males sometimes polygynous.
Ecology Comments: See Drilling and Thompson (1988) for intensive study, using 910 nest boxes over several years, of natal and breeding dispersal in Illinois.

Density was 10-18 pairs per 40 ha in northern Arizona pine forest (Brawn and Balda 1988).

Sometimes destroys the clutches of other birds, including conspecifics.

Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: North- and south-temperate populations are migratory; tropical populations are resident. Breeding populations north of the southern United States migrate south for winter, south to southern Mexico. Spring migrants arrive in northern breeding areas March-May.
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, Riparian, SCRUB-SHRUB WETLAND
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Old field, Shrubland/chaparral, Suburban/orchard, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Special Habitat Factors: Standing snag/hollow tree
Habitat Comments: House wrens inhabit thickets, shrubbery, and brushy areas in partly open situations, open woodland, farmlands, chaparral, and areas around human habitations; also (south of the United States) humid montane forest, forest edge, clearings, pine-oak associations, and mangroves. This species occurs most often in human-disturbed habitats. It sleeps in all seasons in crannies in buildings, holes in trees, niches in banks, or in similar sites. Nests usually are in cavities (natural, abandoned woodpecker holes, bird boxes, and within various human artifacts).

House wrens commonly reuse nesting cavities in successive years. Prior to reuse, the male usually removes the old nest-lining and sometimes the old sticks as well. Removal of old nest material can significantly reduce the abundance of parasitic mites that may attack the wrens.

Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats almost entirely insects; also other small invertebrates (Terres 1980).
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Length: 12 centimeters
Weight: 11 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Management Requirements: See Mitchell (1988) for specifications for the construction and placement of nest boxes.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Passerines

Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Nest Site, Nesting Colony
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding, or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.

Mapping Guidance: Breeding occurrences include nesting areas as well as foraging areas.

For swallows and other species that have separate nesting and foraging areas, separations are based on nest sites or nesting areas, not to locations of foraging individuals. For example, nesting areas separated by a gap larger than the separation distance are different occurrences, regardless of the foraging locations of individuals from those nesting areas. This separation procedure is appropriate because nesting areas are the critical aspect of swallow breeding occurrences, tend to be relatively stable or at least somwhat predictable in general location, and so are the basis for effective conservation; foraging areas are much more flexible and not necessarily static.

Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Significant dispersal and associated high potential for gene flow among populations of birds separated by tens of kilometers (e.g., Moore and Dolbeer 1989), and increasing evidence that individuals leave their usual home range to engage in extrapair copulations, as well as long foraging excursions of some species, make it difficult to circumscribe occurrences on the basis of meaningful population units without occurrences becoming too large. Hence, a moderate, standardized separation distance has been adopted for songbirds and flycatchers; it should yield occurrences that are not too spatially expansive while also accounting for the likelihood of gene flow among populations within a few kilometers of each other.

Be careful not to separate a population's nesting areas and foraging areas as different occurrences; include them in the same occurrence even if they are more than 5 km apart. Mean foraging radius (from nesting area) of Brown-headed Cowbird females was 4.0 kilometers in California, 1.2 kilometers in Illinois-Missouri (Thompson 1994). Yellow-headed Blackbirds, Brewer's Blackbirds, and probably Red-winged Blackbirds all forage up to 1.6 kilometers away from breeding colony (Willson 1966, Horn 1968). In one study, Brewer's Blackbirds were found as far as 10 kilometers from nesting area (Williams 1952), but this may be unusual.

For swallows and other parrerines with similar behavioral ecology, separation distance pertains to nest sites or nesting colonies, not to locations of foraging individuals. For example, nesting areas separated by a gap of more than 5 km are different occurrences, regardless of the foraging locations of individuals from those nesting areas. This separation procedure is appropriate because nesting areas are the critical aspect of swallow breeding occurrences, tend to be relatively stable or at least somwhat predictable in general location, and so are the basis for effective conservation; foraging areas are much more flexible and not necessarily static.

Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.

Unsuitable habitat: Habitat not normally used for breeding/feeding by a particular species. For example, unsuitable habitat for grassland and shrubland birds includes forest/woodland, urban/suburban, and aquatic habitats. Most habitats would be suitable for birds with versatile foraging habits (e.g., most corvids).

Date: 10Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.

Use Class: Migratory stopover
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Roost Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: For most passerines: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating individuals (including historical) and potential recurring presence at a given location; minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds in appropriate habitat.

For swallows: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating flocks (including historical) and potential recurring presence at a given location; minimally a reliable observation of 100 birds in appropriate habitat (e.g., traditional roost sites).

Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually.

EOs should not be described for species that are nomadic during nonbreeding season: e.g., Lark Bunting.

Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.

Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary but intended to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.

For swallows and other species with similar behavioral ecology, the separation distance pertains to communal roost sites rather than to foraging areas; the former tend to be more stable and specific over time than the latter.

Date: 03Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G., and S. Cannings

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Roost Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Any area used traditionally in the nonbreeding season (used for populations that are not resident in a location year-round). Minimally, reliable observations of 10 or more individuals in appropriate habitat for 20 or more days at a time. For G1-G3 species, observations of fewer individuals could constitute an occurrence of conservation value. Sites used during migration should be documented under the 'migratory stopover' location use class.

Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance is necessarily arbitrary but attempts to balance the high mobility of birds with the need for occurrences of reasonable spatial scope. Note that a population's roost sites and foraging areas are parts of the same occurrence, even if they are more than 5 km apart.

For swallows and other species with similar behavioral ecology, the separation distance pertains to communal roost sites rather than to foraging areas; the former tend to be more stable and specific over time than the latter.

Date: 03Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.

Use Class: Nonmigratory
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a particular location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals in or near appropriate habitat.

These occurrence specifications are used for nonmigratory populations of passerine birds.

Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Significant dispersal and associated high potential for gene flow among populations of birds separated by tens of kilometers (e.g., Moore and Dolbeer 1989), and increasing evidence that individuals leave their usual home range to engage in extrapair copulations, as well as long foraging excursions of some species, make it difficult to circumscribe occurrences on the basis of meaningful population units without occurrences becoming too large. Hence, a moderate, standardized separation distance has been adopted for songbirds and flycatchers; it should yield occurrences that are not too spatially expansive while also accounting for the likelihood of gene flow among populations within a few kilometers of each other.

Be careful not to separate a population's nesting areas and breeding-season foraging areas as different occurrences; include them in the same occurrence even if they are more than 5 km apart. Blue jays have small summer home ranges but fly up to 4 kilometers to harvest mast (Tarvin and Woolfenden 1999). Flocks of pinyon jays range over 21-29 square kilometers (Ligon 1971, Balda and Bateman 1971); nesting and foraging areas may be widely separated. Tricolored blackbirds forage in flocks that range widely to more than 15 kilometers from the nesting colony (Beedy and Hamilton 1999).

Unsuitable habitat: Habitat not normally used for breeding/feeding by a particular species. For example, unsuitable habitat for grassland and shrubland birds includes forest/woodland, urban/suburban, and aquatic habitats. Most habitats would be suitable for birds with versatile foraging habits (e.g., most corvids).

Date: 10Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Notes: These specs pertain to nonmigratory species.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 01Feb2010
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 01Feb2010
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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