Triplasis purpurea - (Walt.) Chapman
Purple Sandgrass
Other Common Names: purple sandgrass
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Triplasis purpurea (Walter) Chapm. (TSN 41284)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.141693
Element Code: PMPOA66020
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Grass Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Cyperales Poaceae Triplasis
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Triplasis purpurea
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 16Aug2016
Global Status Last Changed: 04May1984
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Widespread in the eastern two-thirds of the United States along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts and the shores of the Great Lakes, and locally inland where it spreads to disturbed areas. It is common to occasional in most of the southeast (Wunderlin 1998, Weakley 2000) and rare in most of the midwest and northeast (Van Bruggen 1976, Haines and Vining 1998). More information on its status in the south-central United States is needed.
Nation: United States
National Status: NNR
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4 (29Jun2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNR), Arkansas (SNR), Colorado (SNR), Connecticut (SNR), Delaware (S5), Florida (SNR), Georgia (SNR), Illinois (S3S4), Indiana (SNR), Iowa (S4), Kansas (SNR), Kentucky (S1?), Louisiana (SNR), Maine (SNR), Maryland (SNR), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (S2), Minnesota (S3), Mississippi (SNR), Missouri (SNR), Nebraska (SNR), New Hampshire (SH), New Jersey (S4), New Mexico (SNR), New York (S4), North Carolina (S3?), North Dakota (S1), Ohio (S3), Oklahoma (SNR), Pennsylvania (S1), Rhode Island (SNR), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (SNR), Tennessee (SNR), Texas (SNR), Virginia (S4S5), Wisconsin (SNR)
Canada Ontario (S4)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Occurs in southern Ontario and from Maine to North Dakota south to Florida and New Mexico (Kartesz 1999). Also in Hondurus (Hitchcock and Chase 1950).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: In Ohio, may be threatened by ORV traffic on beaches and grazing.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Occurs in southern Ontario and from Maine to North Dakota south to Florida and New Mexico (Kartesz 1999). Also in Hondurus (Hitchcock and Chase 1950).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, CO, CT, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, WI
Canada ON

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
KY Ballard (21007)*, Fulton (21075)
MI Berrien (26021), Kent (26081), Muskegon (26121), St. Clair (26147)*, Van Buren (26159)
MN Anoka (27003), Houston (27055)*, Norman (27107), Wabasha (27157), Washington (27163), Winona (27169)*
ND Ransom (38073), Richland (38077)
NH Rockingham (33015)*
OH Ashtabula (39007), Cuyahoga (39035)*, Erie (39043), Jackson (39079)*, Lake (39085), Lorain (39093), Lucas (39095), Ottawa (39123)
PA Bucks (42017), Delaware (42045), Erie (42049), Philadelphia (42101)*
SD Bennett (46007), Yankton (46135)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Piscataqua-Salmon Falls (01060003)+*
02 Crosswicks-Neshaminy (02040201)+, Lower Delaware (02040202)+, Schuylkill (02040203)+*
04 Little Calumet-Galien (04040001)+, St. Joseph (04050001)+, Lower Grand (04050006)+, Pere Marquette-White (04060101)+, Muskegon (04060102)+, Lake St. Clair (04090002)+*, Lower Maumee (04100009)+, Cedar-Portage (04100010)+, Sandusky (04100011)+, Huron-Vermilion (04100012)+, Black-Rocky (04110001)+, Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003)+, Grand (04110004)+, Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101)+, Lake Erie (04120200)+*
05 Lower Scioto (05060002)+*, Lower Ohio (05140206)+*
07 Twin Cities (07010206)+, Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003)+, La Crosse-Pine (07040006)+*, Coon-Yellow (07060001)+*
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100)+
09 Elm-Marsh (09020107)+, Lower Sheyenne (09020204)+
10 Little White (10140203)+, Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A tufted, purple stemmed, stiff jointed grass and a few flowered panicle of short flowering spikes.
Technical Description: Culms: ascending to widely spreading, terete, pubescent at the several to many nodes, 30 to 100 cm tall, rarely taller. Leaves: blades flat or loose involute, 1-3 mm wide, mostly 4-8 cm long. Inflorescence: a panicle 3 to 5 cm long with few spreading few flowered branches, the axillary more or less enclosed in the sheaths. Spikelets: short pediceled, 2-4 flowered, 6-8 mm long. Lemmas: 3-4 mm long the lobes broad, rounded or truncate, the nerves and callus short villous. Awns: as long as the lobes or exceeding them. Glumes: nearly equal, smooth, 1 nerved, acute. Palea: conspicuously silky-villous on the upper half of the keels. Grain: about 2 mm long.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Inflorescences mostly hidden in the upper sheaths, several to many fertile florets per spikelet, lemmas pubescent and conspicuously 3 veined, upper portion of the palea conspicuously hairy.
Duration: ANNUAL
Reproduction Comments: Old culms tend to disarticulate at the nodes into short segments, each with a reduced fruiting inflorescence and the rachilla disarticulates above the glumes and between the florets. This leaves some light vegetative matter (easily carried by the wind) to aid in dispersal in it's sandy habitat.
Ecology Comments: Inhabits hot, dry, sandy areas where competition is light. Naturally confined to beaches but spreading to disturbed areas inland.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Sand/dune
Habitat Comments: Dry, sandy beaches and dunes of the Atlantic and Gulf coast, and of the Great Lakes. Also in suitable locations in the interior.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 26Sep2002
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Olivero, A.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 31Jan1992
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): ISAAC, J.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Britton, N. L. and A. B. Brown. 1913. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada, and the British Possessions. 2nd Edition in 3 Volumes. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. B13BRI01PAUS.

  • Britton, N. L. and A. Brown. 1913. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada. 3 vol. Dover Publications, Inc., N. Y. 2052 pp.

  • Brown, L. 1979. Grasses: An Identification Guide. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA.

  • Brown, Lauren. 1979. Grasses An Identification Guide. Houghton Mifflin Co. 2 Park St. Boston, MA. 021098. B79BRO01PAUS.

  • Chase, A. 1908. Axillary cleistogenes in some American grasses. Botanical Gazette 45:135-136.

  • Cheplick, G. P. 1996. Cleistogamy and seed heteromorphism in Triplasis purpurea (Poaceae). Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 123(1):25-33.

  • Cheplick, G. P. 2006. Seed rain, transient seed banks, and seedling recruitment of annuals on a coastal beach. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 133(3):379-392.

  • Cheplick, G. P., and H. Demetri. 2000. Population biology of the annual grass Triplasis purpurea in relation to distance from shore on Staten Island, New York. Journal of Coastal Conservation 5:145-154.

  • Cheplick, G. P., and K. Grandstaff. 1997. Effects of sand burial on purple sandgrass (Triplasis purpurea): the significance of seed heteromorphism. Plant Ecology 133:79-89.

  • Coffin, B., and L. Pfannmuller, editors. 1988. Minnesota's endangered flora and fauna. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. 473 pp.

  • Correll, D.S., and M.C. Johnston. 1970. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas. Texas Research Foundation, Renner. 1881 pp.

  • Dore, W.G. and J. McNeill. 1980. Grasses of Ontario. Monograph 26, Agriculture Canada, Research Branch, Biosystematics Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario. 566 pp.

  • Dore, W.G. and McNeill, J. 1980. Grasses of Ontario. Canadian Gvt. Publishing Centre Hull, Quebec, Canada. B80DOR01PAUS.

  • Dore, W.G., and J. McNeill. 1980. Grasses of Ontario. Research Branch, Agriculture Cananda, Ottawa. 566 pp.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1949. Gray's Manual of Botany, Eighth edition. American Book Co. New York. B49FER01PAUS

  • Fernald, M.L. 1950 Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th ed. American Book Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A. & Cronquist, A. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Second Edition. The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY 10458. U.S.A. B91GLE01PAUS.

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. New Britton & Brown. Illustrated Flora. Lancaster Press Inc. Lancaster, Pa. B52GLE01PAUS

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 3 volumes. Hafner Press, New York. 1732 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Haines, A. and T.F. Vining. 1998. Flora of Maine, A Manual for Identification of Native and Naturalized Vascular Plants of Maine. V.F.Thomas Co., Bar Harbor, Maine.

  • Hatch, S. L. 2003. Triplasis. Pages 41-42 in Flora of North America Editorial Committee, editors. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Volume 25, part 2. Oxford University Press, New York, New York.

  • Hitchcock, A. S. and A. Chase. 1950. Manual of the grasses of the United States, second edition. USDA miscellaneous Publication No. 200. United States Government Printing Office, Washington. 1051 pp.

  • Hitchcock, A.S. 1950. Manual of the Grasses of the United States. Dover Publishers, Inc. New York. 2nd edition revised by Agnes Chase. 2 volumes.

  • Hitchcock, A.S. 1950. Manual of the Grasses of the United States. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. B50HIT01PAUS

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Soper, J.H. 1962. Some genera of restricted range in the Carolinian flora of Canada. Transactions of the Royal Canadian Institute 34(1):3-56.

  • Van Bruggen, T. 1976. The vascular plants of South Dakota. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames. 538 pp.

  • Voss, E.G. 1972. Michigan flora: A guide to the identification and occurrence of the native and naturalized seed-plants of the state. Part I. Gymnosperms and monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science and Univ. Michigan Herbarium. Ann Arbor. 488 pp.

  • Weakley, A.S. 2000. Flora of the Carolinas and Virginia: working draft of May 15, 2000. Unpublished draft, The Nature Conservancy, Southern Resource Office.

  • Wunderlin, R.P. 1998. Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida. University Press of Florida: Gainesville, Florida. 806 pp.

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