Triphora trianthophora - (Sw.) Rydb.
Nodding Pogonia
Other English Common Names: Threebirds
Other Common Names: threebirds
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Triphora trianthophora (Sw.) Rydb. (TSN 43709)
French Common Names: Triphore penché
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.144833
Element Code: PMORC2F050
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Orchid Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Orchidales Orchidaceae Triphora
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Triphora trianthophora
Taxonomic Comments: Kartesz 1999 does not recognize subspecies of Triphora trianthophora, however Flora North America vol. 26 treatment recognizes a Mexican and South American subspecies (= T. trianthophora ssp. mexicana), which means all of the material in North America above Mexico is T. trianthophora ssp. trianthophora if using that treatment. Brown and Pike (2006) argue that the typical and mexicana material should be treated as varieties rather than as subspecies.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4?
Global Status Last Reviewed: 13Aug2018
Global Status Last Changed: 13Aug2018
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Triphora trianthophora occurs in southern Ontario and is widespread in the eastern United States from Maine to Florida and west to Wisconsin, Nebraska, Kansas, and Texas. It also occurs in Mexico, Guatemala, and Panama. This species seems to be uncommon through much of its large range in eastern North America, as recorded by many Heritage Programs. However, there are many known occurrences that are secure with large populations across the species range.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4?
Nation: Canada
National Status: N1 (09Oct2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNR), Arkansas (SNR), Connecticut (S1), Delaware (S1), District of Columbia (SH), Florida (S3), Georgia (S2?), Illinois (S3?), Indiana (SNR), Iowa (S3), Kansas (S1), Kentucky (SNR), Louisiana (S2), Maine (S2), Maryland (S1), Massachusetts (S1), Michigan (S1), Mississippi (S2), Missouri (SNR), Nebraska (SNR), New Hampshire (S2), New Jersey (S1), New York (S2), North Carolina (S2?), Ohio (S2), Oklahoma (S2S3), Pennsylvania (S1), South Carolina (S2), Tennessee (SNR), Texas (SNR), Vermont (S1), Virginia (S1), West Virginia (S2), Wisconsin (S2)
Canada Ontario (S1)

Other Statuses

Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA) Schedule 1/Annexe 1 Status: E (05Jun2003)
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Endangered (26Nov2010)
Comments on COSEWIC: Reason for designation: This small showy orchid of rich woodland soils undergoes variable periods of dormancy. In Canada, this species is known from only two populations in southwestern Ontario, one of which has not been observed in more than 20 years. About 1400 flowering stems were documented at one site in 2008 during a year of high rainfall, in contrast to a decade previously when the Canadian population was documented as consisting of only 50 individuals. Although grazing by deer has been reduced, invasive plants have contributed to a loss in habitat quality and exotic earthworms are likely the cause of the reduction of the organic layer of the forest floor. Chance events could also impact the population.

Status history: Designated Threatened in April 1988. Status re-examined and designated Endangered in April 1999. Status re-examined and confirmed in May 2000 and November 2010.

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Triphora trianthophora occurs in southern Ontario and is widespread in the eastern United States from Maine to Florida and west to Wisconsin, Nebraska, Kansas, and Texas (Kartesz 1999). It also occurs in Mexico, Guatemala, and Panama (Correll 1950). The report for Puerto Rico (Liogier and Martorell 1982) was based on a misidentification of Triphora latifolia (Ackerman 1995).

Number of Occurrences: 21 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is difficult to detect because it can remain dormant for many years and due to its small size and ephemeral life cyc. It is rare in the northern part of its range but more frequent in the southeast.

Population Size Comments: This species is usually found in small numbers per population, but there may be several hundred to thousands of individuals depending on the year (up to 10,000 seen at one site on New Hampshire, depending on the year).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Unknown

Overall Threat Impact: High - medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: The New England occurrences are threatened by road widening, logging, low genetic diversity, and development (Zika 1983, Ramstetter 2001). In Ohio, the species is threatened by drying of forest humus following logging, trampling and compacting of the forest floor, and over-collecting (McCance and Burns 1984). Rangewide there are a variety of threats causing habitat loss and habitat alteration, as well as herbivory to plants by deer, chipmunks, and slugs (COSEWIC 2010).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Triphora trianthophora occurs in southern Ontario and is widespread in the eastern United States from Maine to Florida and west to Wisconsin, Nebraska, Kansas, and Texas (Kartesz 1999). It also occurs in Mexico, Guatemala, and Panama (Correll 1950). The report for Puerto Rico (Liogier and Martorell 1982) was based on a misidentification of Triphora latifolia (Ackerman 1995).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Canada ON

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CT Hartford (09003), New Haven (09009)*
DE Kent (10001), Sussex (10005)
GA Camden (13039), Charlton (13049)*, Lanier (13173), Paulding (13223), Towns (13281), Walker (13295)
IA Allamakee (19005)*, Benton (19011), Buchanan (19019)*, Clayton (19043), Delaware (19055)*, Dubuque (19061)*, Jones (19105), Linn (19113), Tama (19171)
KS Brown (20013)*, Doniphan (20043)*, Douglas (20045)*, Johnson (20091)*, Miami (20121)*, Wyandotte (20209)*
LA Bossier (22015), Caddo (22017), East Feliciana (22037)*, Iberville (22047)*, Natchitoches (22069)*, Pointe Coupee (22077), Rapides (22079), St. Martin (22099)*, West Feliciana (22125)
MA Berkshire (25003), Franklin (25011)
MD Cecil (24015)*, Harford (24025)*, Montgomery (24031), Queen Annes (24035)
ME Cumberland (23005), Kennebec (23011), Oxford (23017), York (23031)
MI Allegan (26005)*, Berrien (26021), Cass (26027)*, Ionia (26067)*, Kalamazoo (26077)*, Kent (26081)*, Leelanau (26089), Muskegon (26121)*, Oceana (26127)*, Van Buren (26159)*
MS Attala (28007), Chickasaw (28017), Choctaw (28019), Clarke (28023), Clay (28025)*, Grenada (28043), Lafayette (28071), Monroe (28095), Newton (28101), Oktibbeha (28105), Perry (28111), Prentiss (28117)*, Rankin (28121), Smith (28129), Tishomingo (28141)*, Winston (28159)
NE Richardson (31147), Sarpy (31153)
NH Belknap (33001)*, Carroll (33003), Cheshire (33005)*, Coos (33007)*, Grafton (33009), Hillsborough (33011)*, Merrimack (33013)*, Sullivan (33019)*
NJ Bergen (34003)*, Hudson (34017)*, Morris (34027)
NY Albany (36001), Cayuga (36011), Erie (36029), Genesee (36037), Monroe (36055)*, Onondaga (36067)*, Otsego (36077)*, Tompkins (36109)*, Ulster (36111), Warren (36113)*, Washington (36115)*, Wayne (36117)*
OH Adams (39001), Ashland (39005), Clark (39023), Franklin (39049), Fulton (39051), Greene (39057), Hamilton (39061), Highland (39071), Huron (39077), Licking (39089), Preble (39135), Richland (39139), Shelby (39149), Warren (39165), Wood (39173)
OK Caddo (40015)*, Choctaw (40023), Le Flore (40079), McCurtain (40089), Tulsa (40143)
PA Bucks (42017)*, Chester (42029)*, Delaware (42045)*, Forest (42053)*, Lehigh (42077)*, Montgomery (42091)*, Philadelphia (42101)*, Schuylkill (42107)*, York (42133)*
SC Berkeley (45015), Charleston (45019), Greenville (45045), Oconee (45073)*, Pickens (45077)*
VA Amherst (51009), Bath (51017), Botetourt (51023), Dickenson (51051), Fairfax (51059), Rockbridge (51163), Rockingham (51165), Scott (51169), Surry (51181)*
VT Windham (50025)
WI Adams (55001)*, Columbia (55021)*, Crawford (55023), Grant (55043), Green (55045), Iowa (55049), Juneau (55057), Lafayette (55065), Monroe (55081), Richland (55103), Sauk (55111), Vernon (55123)
WV Barbour (54001), Fayette (54019), Kanawha (54039)*, Nicholas (54067), Summers (54089)*, Upshur (54097)*, Webster (54101)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Lower Kennebec (01030003)+, Lower Androscoggin (01040002)+, Presumpscot (01060001)+, Saco (01060002)+, Piscataqua-Salmon Falls (01060003)+, Pemigewasset (01070001)+, Merrimack (01070002)+, Contoocook (01070003)+*, Nashua (01070004)+*, Merrimack (01070006)+*, West (01080107)+, Middle Connecticut (01080201)+, Deerfield (01080203)+, Farmington (01080207)+, Quinnipiac (01100004)+*
02 Hudson-Hoosic (02020003)+, Middle Hudson (02020006)+, Rondout (02020007)+*, Lower Hudson (02030101)+*, Hackensack-Passaic (02030103)+, Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105)+*, Lehigh (02040106)+*, Lower Delaware (02040202)+*, Schuylkill (02040203)+*, Brandywine-Christina (02040205)+*, Chincoteague (02040303)+, Upper Susquehanna (02050101)+*, Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna (02050107)+*, Lower Susquehanna (02050306)+*, Chester-Sassafras (02060002)+, Choptank (02060005)+, South Fork Shenandoah (02070005)+, Middle Potomac-Catoctin (02070008)+, Upper James (02080201)+, Maury (02080202)+, Middle James-Buffalo (02080203)+, Lower James (02080206)+*
03 Upper Broad (03050105)+, Saluda (03050109)+, Cooper (03050201)+, Bulls Bay (03050209)+, Seneca (03060101)+*, Tugaloo (03060102)+*, Satilla (03070201)+, Upper Suwannee (03110201)+*, Alapaha (03110202)+, Etowah (03150104)+, Upper Coosa (03150105)+, Upper Tombigbee (03160101)+*, Town (03160102)+, Tibbee (03160104)+, Noxubee (03160108)+, Chunky-Okatibbee (03170001)+, Upper Chickasawhay (03170002)+, Upper Leaf (03170004)+, Pascagoula (03170006)+, Upper Pearl (03180001)+, Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002)+
04 St. Joseph (04050001)+, Kalamazoo (04050003)+*, Lower Grand (04050006)+*, Thornapple (04050007)+*, Pere Marquette-White (04060101)+*, Muskegon (04060102)+*, Betsie-Platte (04060104)+, Tiffin (04100006)+, Cedar-Portage (04100010)+, Huron-Vermilion (04100012)+, Cattaraugus (04120102)+, Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001)+, Irondequoit-Ninemile (04140101)+*, Seneca (04140201)+, Oneida (04140202)+*, Mettawee River (04150401)+*, Lake Champlain (04150408)+*
05 Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003)+*, Tygart Valley (05020001)+, Little Kanawha (05030203)+*, Licking (05040006)+, Lower New (05050004)+*, Gauley (05050005)+, Upper Kanawha (05050006)+*, Elk (05050007)+, Upper Scioto (05060001)+, Upper Levisa (05070202)+, Upper Great Miami (05080001)+, Lower Great Miami (05080002)+, Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201)+, Little Miami (05090202)+
06 Upper French Broad (06010105)+*, Upper Clinch (06010205)+, Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001)+, Hiwassee (06020002)+, Bear (06030006)+*
07 Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Upper Iowa (07060002)+*, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003)+, Turkey (07060004)+, Maquoketa (07060006)+, Castle Rock (07070003)+, Lower Wisconsin (07070005)+, Kickapoo (07070006)+, Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102)+, Middle Cedar (07080205)+, Lower Cedar (07080206)+, Pecatonica (07090003)+, Sugar (07090004)+
08 Upper Hatchie (08010207)+*, Yocona (08030203)+, Yalobusha (08030205)+, Upper Big Black (08060201)+, Lower Mississippi-Baton Rouge (08070100)+, Bayou Sara-Thompson (08070201)+, Lower Grand (08070300)+, Atchafalaya (08080101)+*, Bayou Teche (08080102)+
10 Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006)+, Tarkio-Wolf (10240005)+, Lower Kansas (10270104)+*, Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102)+*
11 Bird (11070107)+, Upper Washita (11130302)+*, Kiamichi (11140105)+, Upper Little (11140107)+, Mountain Fork (11140108)+, Red Chute (11140204)+, Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207)+*, Cross Bayou (11140304)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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General Description: This is a small attractive orchid with a very short bloom time. The purple to green stems are 10-30 cm tall and nodding at first but straighten out as they grow. A few small, clasping, oval, green leaves can be seen along the stem which is topped by 1-3 white tubular flowers with magenta edges. The flowers turn a pinkish color as they age. The triangular lip curves down and is surrounded by 4 forward-facing petals.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Leaf-lined depressions on gentle slopes in old-age/maturing forests dominated by Tsuga canadensis and Fagus grandifolia.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 13Aug2018
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Morse, L.E., 6/83; partial update: MacBryde, B., 9/2000, rev. A. Olivero, rev. Treher (2018)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Ackerman, J.D. 1995. An orchid flora of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Memoirs of The New York Botanical Garden Vol. 73. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx. 203 pp.

  • Ambrose, J.D. and J.V. Jalava. 2007. Recovery Strategy for Nodding Pogonia (Triphora trianthophora) in Canada, January 2007. In Species at Risk Act Recovery Strategy Series. Environment Canada. Ottawa [Draft] v + XX pp.

  • Anderson, A.B. 1990. Improved germination and growth of rare native Ontario orchid species. Pages 65-73 in "Conserving Carolinian Canada: Conservation Biology in the Deciduous Forest Region", edited by G.M. Allen, P.F.J. Eagles, and S.D. Price. University of Waterloo Press, Waterloo, Ontario..

  • Argus, G.W., K.M. Pryer, D.J. White and C.J. Keddy (eds.). 1982-1987. Atlas of the Rare Vascular Plants of Ontario.. Botany Division, National Museum of National Sciences, Ottawa.

  • Brackley, F. E. 1985. The orchids of New Hampshire. Rhodora 87:1-117.

  • Brackley, F.E. 1985. The Orchids of New Hampshire. Rhodora 87(849): 1-117.

  • Brackley, F.E. 1985. The Orchids of New Hampshire. Rhodora 87:1-117. A85BRA01PAUS

  • Brown, P. M. and R. B. Pike. 2006. Triphora trianthophora var. texensis (Orchidaceae): A new variety endemic to Texas. North American Native Orchid Journal 12: 4-10.

  • COSEWIC. 2010. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Nodding Pogonia Triphora trianthophoros in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. x + 22 pp. (www.sararegistry.gc.ca/status/status_e.cfm).

  • Camp, W.H. 1940. A new variety of TRIPHORA. Rhodora 4:55-56.

  • Case, F. W. 1987. Orchids of the Western Great Lakes Region. Cranbrook Institue of Science.

  • Case, F.W. Jr. 1987. Orchids of the Western Great Lakes Region. Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Mich., USA. B87CAS01PAUS

  • Case, F.W., Jr. 1987. Orchids of the Western Great Lakes Region. Revised Edition. Bulletin 48, Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan. 251 pp.

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  • Correll, D.S. 1950. Native Orchids of North America, North of Mexico. Chronica Botanica Company, Waltham, Mass. USA. B50COR01PAUS

  • Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Division of Forestry, Dept. of Conservation, Indianapolis, Indiana. 1236 pp.

  • Environment and Climate Change Canada. 2016. Recovery Strategy for the Nodding Pogonia (Triphora trianthophoros) in Canada. Species at Risk Act Recovery Strategy Series. Environment and Climate Change Canada, Ottawa. 3 parts, 22 pp., v + 29 pp. and 5 pp.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1949. Gray's Manual of Botany, Eighth edition. American Book Co. New York. B49FER01PAUS

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  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 3 volumes. Hafner Press, New York. 1732 pp.

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  • Henry, L.K., W.E. Buker and D.L. Pearth. 1975. Western Pennsylvania Orchids. Castanea 40 (2):93-171.

  • Holmgren, Noel. 1998. The Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual. Illustrations of the Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.

  • Homoya, M.A. 1993. Orchids of Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis, Indiana. 276 pp.

  • Homoya, Michael A. 1993. Orchids of Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science. Bloomington, Indiana. 276 pp.

  • Hough, M. Y. 1983. New Jersey Wild Plants. Harmony Press, Harmony, New Jersey. 414 pp.

  • Jones, J., J.V. Jalava, and J. Ambrose. 2013. Recovery Strategy for the Nodding Pogonia (Triphora trianthophora) in Ontario. Ontario Recovery Strategy Series. Prepared for the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, Ontario. v + 29 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Keenan, P.E. 1984. New station for Platanthera flava and Triphora trianthophora and other observations. Rhodora 88: 409-410.

  • Keenan, P.E. 1990. Documentatin on longevity of GOODYERA PUBESCENS leaves and update on TRIPHORA TRIANTHOPHORA in New Hampshire. Rhodora 92(871):126-128.

  • Keenan, P.E. 1992. A new form of TRIPHORA TRIANTHOPHORA (Swartz) Rydberg, and part 3 of observations on the ecology of TRIPHORA TRIANTHOPHORA (Orchidaceae) in New Hampshire. Rhodora 94(877):38-42.

  • Keenan, P.E. 1992. A new form of Triphora trianthophora (Swartz) Rydberg, and part 3 of observations on the ecology of Triphora trianthophora (Orchidaceae) in New Hampshire. Rhodora 94: 38-42.

  • LOWNES, A.E. 1920. NOTES ON POGONIA TRIANTHOPHORA. RHODORA 22(255):53-55.

  • Line, J., and M.J. Oldham. 1999. COSSARO Candidate V, T, E Species Evaluation Form for Nodding Pogonia (Triphora trianthophora). Unpublished report prepared by Natural Heritage Information Centre for Committee on the Status of Species at Risk in Ontario (COSSARO), Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 4 pp + appendices.

  • Lownes, A.E. 1920. Notes on Pogonia trianthophora. Rhodora 1920:53-55.

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  • Ramstetter, J.M. 2001. Triphora trianthophora (Swartz) Rydb. (Three-birds Orchid) Conservation Plan. New England Wild Flower Society, Framingham, Massachusetts, USA. 26 pp.

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  • Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project. 2002. A partnership between the U.S. Forest Service-Region 8, Natural Heritage Programs in the Southeast, NatureServe, and independent scientists to develop and review data on 1300+ regionally and locally rare species in the Southern Appalachian and Alabama region. Database (Access 97) provided to the U.S. Forest Service by NatureServe, Durham, North Carolina.

  • Specimen (temporary placeholder citation)

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