Tringa melanoleuca - (Gmelin, 1789)
Greater Yellowlegs
Other Common Names: Maçarico-Tititiu, Maçarico-de-Perna-Amarela
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Tringa melanoleuca (J. F. Gmelin, 1789) (TSN 176619)
French Common Names: grand chevalier
Spanish Common Names: Patamarilla Mayor, Pitotoy Grande
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.105760
Element Code: ABNNF01020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Shorebirds
Image 11042

© Jeff Nadler

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Tringa
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Tringa melanoleuca
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 10Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 25Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5B,N5N (05Jan1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,N4N,N5M (15Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S4N), Alaska (S5B), Arizona (S3N), Arkansas (S3N), California (SNRN), Colorado (S4N), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (S3N), Florida (SNRN), Georgia (S5), Idaho (S3M), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (S3M), Iowa (S5N), Kansas (S4N), Kentucky (SNA), Louisiana (S5N), Maine (S4N), Maryland (S1N), Massachusetts (S4N), Michigan (SNRN), Minnesota (SNRM), Mississippi (SNA), Missouri (SNA), Montana (SNA), Navajo Nation (SNA), Nebraska (SNRN), Nevada (S4N), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (S4N), New Mexico (S4N), New York (SNRN), North Carolina (S4N), North Dakota (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Oklahoma (S5N), Oregon (S5N), Pennsylvania (SNA), Rhode Island (SNA), South Carolina (SNRN), South Dakota (SNA), Tennessee (S5N), Texas (S5), Utah (SNA), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (SNRN), Washington (S4S5N), West Virginia (SNA), Wisconsin (SNA), Wyoming (S4N)
Canada Alberta (S4), British Columbia (S5B), Labrador (S4B,SUM), Manitoba (S5B), New Brunswick (S1?B,S5M), Newfoundland Island (S3B,S4M), Northwest Territories (SUB), Nova Scotia (S3B,S3S4M), Nunavut (SUB,SUM), Ontario (S4B,S4N), Prince Edward Island (S3S4M), Quebec (S5), Saskatchewan (S5B,S5M), Yukon Territory (S3B)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: BREEDING: from southern Alaska, central British Columbia, and southern Mackenzie east across northern and central parts of Canadian Provinces to Labrador, northeastern Nova Scotia, southern Quebec, and Newfoundland. NON-BREEDING: from Oregon, central California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, southern South Carolina through Mexico and Central America to Tierra del Fuego, including West Indies; rare in Hawaii. The Guianas are the major coastal nonbreeding areas in South America (Morrison and Ross 1989). Nonbreeders sometimes summer in winter range, especially in coastal U.S. and West Indies (AOU 1983). Fairly common throughout most of range.

Population Size: 100,000 - 1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: The total population has been roughly estimated to be at least 100,000 (Morrison et al. 2001).

Short-term Trend Comments: Morrison (1993/1994) categorized the population trend in Canada as "stable?"

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) BREEDING: from southern Alaska, central British Columbia, and southern Mackenzie east across northern and central parts of Canadian Provinces to Labrador, northeastern Nova Scotia, southern Quebec, and Newfoundland. NON-BREEDING: from Oregon, central California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, southern South Carolina through Mexico and Central America to Tierra del Fuego, including West Indies; rare in Hawaii. The Guianas are the major coastal nonbreeding areas in South America (Morrison and Ross 1989). Nonbreeders sometimes summer in winter range, especially in coastal U.S. and West Indies (AOU 1983). Fairly common throughout most of range.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NN, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, NU, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002; WILDSPACETM 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Ada (16001), Bear Lake (16007), Bingham (16011), Blaine (16013), Boundary (16021), Camas (16025), Fremont (16043), Jefferson (16051), Nez Perce (16069)
OR Wallowa (41063)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
16 Bear Lake (16010201)+
17 Lower Kootenai (17010104)+, Idaho Falls (17040201)+, Upper Henrys (17040202)+, American Falls (17040206)+, Beaver-Camas (17040214)+, Camas (17040220)+, Little Wood (17040221)+, Lower Boise (17050114)+, Imnaha (17060102)+, Lower Grande Ronde (17060106)+, Clearwater (17060306)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Breeding begins in late May or early June (Harrison 1978). Usually 4 eggs are incubated (probably by both sexes) for 23 days (Terres 1980). Nestlings are precocial. Young are tended by both adults; capable of first flight in about 18-20 days.
Ecology Comments: Generally not as gregarious as lesser yellowlegs; nonbreeding: usually solitary or in small groups.
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Migrates throughtout North America south of breeding range. Arrives in northern U.S. April-May or June during northward migration. Departures from breeding areas begin in mid-July (Hayman et al. 1986). Most common in fall in Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands (Raffaele 1983). Migrates through Costa Rica Aug. or September-October and April-May (Stiles and Skutch 1989). Usually migrates in small flocks, day or night.
Estuarine Habitat(s): Herbaceous wetland, Lagoon, Tidal flat/shore
Riverine Habitat(s): Low gradient
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen, HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Grassland/herbaceous, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Nonbreeding: marshes, ponds, lakes, stream margins and sand and gravel bars, lagoons, salinas, and coastal mudflats (AOU 1983, Stiles and Skutch 1989). Nests in muskeg country or at other wetlands, on the ground in a slight depression in moss or dry peat, usually near water.
Adult Food Habits: Carnivore, Invertivore, Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Carnivore, Invertivore, Piscivore
Food Comments: Feeds on small fishes, insects and their larvae, snails, crabs, worms, and tadpoles. Wades through water and pecks at food with bill or skims suface with lower mandible.
Adult Phenology: Circadian
Immature Phenology: Circadian
Phenology Comments: Foraged with comparable frequency during day and night in northeastern Venezuela (Robert et al. 1989). May migrate day or night.
Length: 36 centimeters
Weight: 171 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Shorebirds

Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Feeding Area, Breeding Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding, or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Mapping Guidance: Breeding occurrences include nesting areas as well as foraging areas of nesting adults and broods. Because separations are based on nesting areas, the foraging areas of different occurrences may overlap if nesting birds are traveling to distant places to feed.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance pertains specifically to nesting areas, not to locations of dispersed foraging individuals. For example, nesting areas separated by a gap of more than 5 km are different occurrences, regardless of the foraging locations of individuals from those nesting areas.

The separation distance is an arbitrary value; it is impractical to attempt to delineate shorebird occurrences on the basis of dispersal patterns or metapopulation dynamics. Foraging ranges of some nesting shorebird species (see following) may suggest use of a larger separation distance, but this likely would result in occurrences that are too large and less effective for conservation planning.

Separation distance based on larger 'typical' breeding home ranges with diameters of 1.5 to 3 kilometers. Semipalmated Plovers have breeding home ranges up to 3 square kilometers, i.e. a diameter of just under 2 kilometers (Nol and Blanken 1999). Red-necked Phalaropes have a core home range of 1-3 hectares, but occasionally travel 1.5 kilometers to feed (Rubega et al. 2000). Stilt Sandpipers can forage up to 8 kilometers from nest (Jehl 1973). Mountain Plovers have an average home range of 56.6 hectares (Knopf 1996) but broods typically move 1-2 kilometers shortly after hatching (Knopf and Rupert 1996).

Territories: Common Snipe, 6.4-28.6 hectares (Mueller 1999); Long-billed Dowitcher, 100-300 meter diameter (Johnsgard 1981); golden-plovers, average 10-59 hectares (Johnson and Connors 1996); Long-billed Curlew, 6-20 hectares (Johnsgard 1981).

Nesting densities: Black-bellied Plover, 0.3-2.3 pairs per square kilometer (44 ha per pair at latter density; Hussell and Page 1976, Parmelee et al. 1967); Marbled Godwit, maximum density 1 pair/32 hectares (Stewart and Kantrud 1972).

Foraging distances: Greater and Lesser Yellowlegs, up to 13 kilometers from nest (Elphick and Tibbits 1998, Tibbits and Moskoff 1999).

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 1.5 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Based on a smaller 'typical' home ranges (see Separation Justification).
Date: 25Mar2004
Author: Hammerson, G., and S. Cannings

Use Class: Migratory stopover
Subtype(s): Roost, Foraging concentration area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds in appropriate habitat (minimum can be reduced in the case of rarer species). Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; set at 5 kilometers to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging or roosting birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Date: 15Apr2002
Author: Cannings, S.

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Roost, Winter Feeding Area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of wintering flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds in appropriate habitat. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 20 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; set at 5 kilometers to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging or roosting birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Date: 25Mar2004
Author: S. Cannings
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 11Apr1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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