Trillium simile - Gleason
Jeweled Wakerobin
Other Common Names: jeweled wakerobin
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Trillium simile Gleason (TSN 43089)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.143834
Element Code: PMLIL200V0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Lily Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Liliales Liliaceae Trillium
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Trillium simile
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 12Mar2018
Global Status Last Changed: 27Apr1992
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Endemic to the Southern Appalachians of Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee where it occurs on rich soils over mafic or calcareous rocks. There are over 50 occurrences with many found on National Forest or State Park Lands. The most common threat across sites is damage by feral pigs and trash dumping. Overall the region is threatened by second home development. About a dozen occurrences are historic and one is extirpated.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Georgia (S2), North Carolina (S2), South Carolina (S1S2), Tennessee (SNR)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: This species is endemic to the southern Appalachians and occurs in western North Carolina, northwestern South Carolina, eastern Tennessee, and northern Georgia (Weakley 2000).

Area of Occupancy: 26-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: There are over 50 extant occurrences documented with seven in Georgia, twenty-seven in North Carolina, eighteen in South Carolina, and one in Tennessee. An additional 11 to 12 occurrences are historic and one is extirpated.

Population Size Comments: Based on site counts across 20 or more years, there are over 6,000 plants. There are four sites with at least 1000 plants.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Few (4-12)

Overall Threat Impact: Medium - low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Trillium simile has a narrow range in the vicinity of the Smoky Mountains and the southern edge of the Blue Ridge Mountains, making is especially vulnerable to land-use conversion and habitat fragmentation, such as second home developments. Forest management practices are a low-level threat to this species (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002). In addition, numerous occurrences are threatened by feral pigs, invasive plant species, litter/trash dumping, and road/vehicle damage. Some sites are threatened by recreation (biking and hiking) and utility lines.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Some sites have seen declines in plant numbers due to threats, especially feral pigs. There are around 12 historic and one extirpated sites.

Long-term Trend: Unknown

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: This species is endemic to the southern Appalachians and occurs in western North Carolina, northwestern South Carolina, eastern Tennessee, and northern Georgia (Weakley 2000).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States GA, NC, SC, TN

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
GA Fannin (13111), Gilmer (13123), Lumpkin (13187), Murray (13213), Towns (13281), Union (13291), White (13311)
NC Buncombe (37021), Burke (37023), Cherokee (37039), Graham (37075), Henderson (37089), Jackson (37099), Macon (37113), Madison (37115), McDowell (37111), Polk (37149), Rutherford (37161), Swain (37173)*, Yancey (37199)
SC Oconee (45073), Pickens (45077)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Upper Catawba (03050101)+, South Fork Catawba (03050102)+, Upper Broad (03050105)+, Seneca (03060101)+, Tugaloo (03060102)+, Upper Chattahoochee (03130001)+, Conasauga (03150101)+, Coosawattee (03150102)+
06 Upper French Broad (06010105)+, Nolichucky (06010108)+, Upper Little Tennessee (06010202)+, Tuckasegee (06010203)+, Hiwassee (06020002)+, Ocoee (06020003)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Duration: PERENNIAL
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest/Woodland
Habitat Comments: Occurs in "rich coves of mature forests, edges of Rhododendron thickets and at edges of forests, in moist humus soil" over mafic or calcareous rocks, often near seepage (FNA 2002, Weakley 2000).
Economic Attributes
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Economically Important Genus: Y
Economic Uses: LANDSCAPING, Cultivated ornamental, ESTHETIC, Showy wildflower
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 12Mar2018
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: rev. A. Olivero (2002), rev. Treher (2018)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002a. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 26. Magnoliophyta: Liliidae: Liliales and Orchidales. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxvi + 723 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project. 2002. A partnership between the U.S. Forest Service-Region 8, Natural Heritage Programs in the Southeast, NatureServe, and independent scientists to develop and review data on 1300+ regionally and locally rare species in the Southern Appalachian and Alabama region. Database (Access 97) provided to the U.S. Forest Service by NatureServe, Durham, North Carolina.

  • Weakley, A.S. 2000. Flora of the Carolinas and Virginia: working draft of May 15, 2000. Unpublished draft, The Nature Conservancy, Southern Resource Office.

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