Trillium nivale - Riddell
Snow Trillium
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Trillium nivale Riddell (TSN 43079)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.152540
Element Code: PMLIL200L0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Lily Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Liliales Liliaceae Trillium
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Trillium nivale
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 03Oct2002
Global Status Last Changed: 18Nov1986
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Fairly widespread across the northeastern United States (Kartesz 1999). Trillium nivale grows in calcareous wooded habitats, often in small populations. It is scattered to rare across its range.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Illinois (S3?), Indiana (SNR), Iowa (S3), Kentucky (S1), Maryland (S1), Michigan (S2), Minnesota (S3), Missouri (S3), Nebraska (S1), Ohio (S3), Pennsylvania (S2), South Dakota (S2), Virginia (S1), West Virginia (S2), Wisconsin (S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Ranging from Pennsylvania and Michigan west to South Dakota south to Virginia and Nebraska (Kartesz 1999), on calcareous substrates.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: May be threatened by habitat destruction such as quarrying and logging. Threatened by exotic species invasion in Maryland. May be threatened by grazing in Nebraska. May be threatened by alterations to hydrology that increase flooding in Michigan.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Ranging from Pennsylvania and Michigan west to South Dakota south to Virginia and Nebraska (Kartesz 1999), on calcareous substrates.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States IA, IL, IN, KY, MD, MI, MN, MO, NE, OH, PA, SD, VA, WI, WV

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
KY Jessamine (21113), Mercer (21167)
MD Garrett (24023), Washington (24043)
MI Clinton (26037), Ionia (26067), Ottawa (26139)*, Shiawassee (26155)
MN Blue Earth (27013), Brown (27015), Dakota (27037), Douglas (27041), Faribault (27043), Fillmore (27045), Goodhue (27049), Hennepin (27053), Jackson (27063), Le Sueur (27079), Lyon (27083), Martin (27091), Nicollet (27103), Olmsted (27109), Renville (27129)*, Sibley (27143)*, Wabasha (27157), Waseca (27161), Watonwan (27165), Winona (27169)
MO Boone (29019), Clark (29045), Crawford (29055)*, Daviess (29061), Dent (29065)*, Lewis (29111)*, Lincoln (29113), Marion (29127), Monroe (29137)*, Montgomery (29139), Ralls (29173)*, Shannon (29203)*, Texas (29215)*
NE Cass (31025)
OH Adams (39001), Clark (39023), Delaware (39041), Fayette (39047), Franklin (39049), Greene (39057), Highland (39071), Jefferson (39081), Madison (39097), Miami (39109), Preble (39135)
PA Allegheny (42003), Beaver (42007), Butler (42019)*, Cambria (42021)*, Greene (42059), Washington (42125), Westmoreland (42129)
SD Deuel (46039)*, Lincoln (46083), Union (46127)
VA Highland (51091)*
WI Brown (55009), Calumet (55015), Grant (55043), Manitowoc (55071), Milwaukee (55079), Outagamie (55087), Ozaukee (55089), Pierce (55093), Shawano (55115), Sheboygan (55117), St. Croix (55109)*, Washington (55131)*, Waukesha (55133)
WV Cabell (54011)*, Grant (54023), Pendleton (54071), Preston (54077)*, Randolph (54083)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 South Branch Potomac (02070001)+, North Branch Potomac (02070002)+, Conococheague-Opequon (02070004)+
04 Manitowoc-Sheboygan (04030101)+, Duck-Pensaukee (04030103)+, Wolf (04030202)+, Lake Winnebago (04030203)+, Lower Fox (04030204)+, Milwaukee (04040003)+, Upper Grand (04050004)+, Maple (04050005)+, Lower Grand (04050006)+*, Shiawassee (04080203)+
05 Conemaugh (05010007)+*, Lower Allegheny (05010009)+, Tygart Valley (05020001)+, Cheat (05020004)+, Lower Monongahela (05020005)+, Youghiogheny (05020006)+, Upper Ohio (05030101)+, Beaver (05030104)+*, Connoquenessing (05030105)+*, Upper Scioto (05060001)+, Lower Scioto (05060002)+, Paint (05060003)+, Upper Great Miami (05080001)+, Lower Great Miami (05080002)+, Raccoon-Symmes (05090101)+*, Twelvepole (05090102)+*, Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201)+, Little Miami (05090202)+, Lower Kentucky (05100205)+
07 Lac Qui Parle (07020003)+*, Chippewa (07020005)+, Middle Minnesota (07020007)+, Cottonwood (07020008)+, Blue Earth (07020009)+, Watonwan (07020010)+, Le Sueur (07020011)+, Lower Minnesota (07020012)+, Lower St. Croix (07030005)+*, Rush-Vermillion (07040001)+, Cannon (07040002)+, Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003)+, Zumbro (07040004)+, Root (07040008)+, Lower Chippewa (07050005)+, Upper Iowa (07060002)+, Lower Wisconsin (07070005)+, Des Moines Headwaters (07100001)+, Lower Des Moines (07100009)+, Bear-Wyaconda (07110001)+, North Fabius (07110002)+*, South Fabius (07110003)+, North Fork Salt (07110005)+*, South Fork Salt (07110006)+*, Salt (07110007)+*, Cuivre (07110008)+, Meramec (07140102)+*
10 Lower Big Sioux (10170203)+, Keg-Weeping Water (10240001)+, Upper Grand (10280101)+, Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102)+
11 Current (11010008)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A small, early spring blooming herb with a whorl of three leaves, and three showy white petals.
Technical Description: Stem 3-15 cm tall. Leaves elliptic to ovate-lanceolate or ovate 1.5-5 cm, rounded at the base to a distinct 5-10 mm petiole. Peduncle erect or nearly so 1-3 cm long recurved in fruiting. Lanceolate sepals much shorter than the petals. Petals white, elliptic to ovate-elliptic, 2.5-4 cm long. Anthers 7-10 mm exceeding the filments. Ovary subglobose, roundly 3 lobed. Berry depressed subglobose 6-8 mm long.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Flowers peduncled. Ovary 3 lobed (not winged), leaves definitely petioled. Chromosome # N=10.
Duration: PERENNIAL, DECIDUOUS
Reproduction Comments: The ants Formica neogates and Aphaenogaster rudis reported as dispersal vectors.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Hardwood, Forest - Mixed, Forest/Woodland
Habitat Comments: Alluvial woods and riverbanks with calcareous soils, rocky calcareous woods, shaded calcareous ledges, and rich loamy woods (Braun 1967, Voss 1972, Van Bruggen 1976, Weakley 2000). Most populations are within the boundaries of previously glaciated territory (exceptions are extreme eastern and western populations.)
Economic Attributes
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Economically Important Genus: Y
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 03Oct2002
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Olivero, A. (2002), rev. L. Morse (2002)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 30Apr1991
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): ISAAC, J.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Bayer, R. J., J. C. La Duke, and D. J. Crawford. 1987. Isozyme variation in Trillium nivale (Liliaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 65:2250-2254.

  • Braun, L.E. 1967. The Monocotyledoneae: cat-tails to orchids. Vol. One. Ohio State Univ. Press, Columbus, Ohio. 464 pp.

  • Case, F. W. 2002. Trillium. Pages 90-117 in Flora of North America Editorial Committee, editors. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Volume 26. Oxford University Press, New York, New York.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1949. Gray's Manual of Botany, Eighth edition. American Book Co. New York. B49FER01PAUS

  • Fernald, M.L. 1950 Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th ed. American Book Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002a. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 26. Magnoliophyta: Liliidae: Liliales and Orchidales. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxvi + 723 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. New Britton & Brown. Illustrated Flora. Lancaster Press Inc. Lancaster, Pa. B52GLE01PAUS

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 3 volumes. Hafner Press, New York. 1732 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • MacMillan, C. 1892. The metaspermae of the Minnesota Valley: A list of the higher seed-producing plants indigenous to the drainage-basin of the Minnesota River. Harrison and Smith, State Printers, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

  • Martin, J. N. 1935. The distribution and life history of the Trillium nivale Riddell. Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science 42:49-54.

  • Mellor, C. C. 1889. Specimens deposited at Carnegie Museum of Natural History.

  • NESOM, G.L. AND J.C. LADUKE. 1985. BIOLOGY OF TRILLIUM NIVALE (LILIACEAE). CAN. J. BOT. 63:7-13.

  • NatureServe. 2009. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. . Accessed 30 March 2009.

  • Nesom, G. L., and J. C. La Duke. 1985. Biology of Trillium nivale (Liliaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 63:7-14.

  • Nesom, G.L. and J.C. Laduke. 1985. Biology of Trillium nivale (Liliaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 63:7-14.

  • Nesom, G.L. and J.C. Laduke. 1985. Biology of Trillium nivale (Liliaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 63:7-14. A83NES51PAUS.

  • Parker. 1921. Specimens deposited at Carnegie Museum of Natural History.

  • Patterson, B. H. 1909. Specimens deposited in Carnegie Museum of Natural History.

  • Richards, D. 1966. Trillium nivale. In Wildflowers of the United States Northeastern States, Part One, Plate 3. Gen. Ed. Steere, W.

  • Richards, D. ?? Trillium nivale In Wildflowers of the United States Northeastern States, Part One, Plate 3. Gen. Ed. Steere, W. I66RIC01PAUS

  • Selby, A.D. 1980. The Snowy Trillium (T. nivale Riddell). J. Columbus Hort. Soc. 5:36.

  • Selby, A.D. 1980. The Snowy Trillium (T. nivale Riddell). J. Columbus Hort. Soc. 5:36 I80SEL01PAUS

  • Smith, B. H., P. D. Forman, and A. E. Boyd. 1989. Spatial patterns of seed dispersal and predation of two myrmecochorous forest herbs. Ecology 70(06):1649-1656.

  • Staflev, F.A. and Cowan, R.S. Taxonomic literature Second Edition Volume IV P-Sak:784. Dr. W. Junk b.v., Publishers The Hague/Boston.

  • Staflev, F.A. and Cowan, R.S. Taxonomic literature Second Edition Volume IV P-Sak:784. Dr. W. Junk b.v., Publishers The Hague/Boston. B83STA01PAUS

  • Stuckey, R. L. 1976. Trillium nivale (Liliaceae): the snow trillium in Ohio. Ohio Journal of Science 76(3):143-144.

  • Van Bruggen, T. 1976. The vascular plants of South Dakota. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames. 538 pp.

  • Voss, E.G. 1972. Michigan flora: A guide to the identification and occurrence of the native and naturalized seed-plants of the state. Part I. Gymnosperms and monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science and Univ. Michigan Herbarium. Ann Arbor. 488 pp.

  • Weakley, A.S. 2000. Flora of the Carolinas and Virginia: working draft of May 15, 2000. Unpublished draft, The Nature Conservancy, Southern Resource Office.

  • Woodworth, B.L. 1985. Pennsylvania/ Global Range Element Abstract. Trillium nivale Riddell. PA Natural Diversity Inventory. Western PA Conservancy, Pittsburgh, PA.

  • Woodworth, B.L. 1985. Pennsylvania/ Global Range Element Abstract. Trillium nivale Riddell. Pa. Natural Diversity Inventory. Western Pa. Conservancy 316 Fourth Avenue Pittsburgh, Pa. 15222. U85WOO01PAUS

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