Trifolium virginicum - Small ex Small & Vail
Kate's Mountain Clover
Other Common Names: Kates Mountain clover
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Trifolium virginicum Small ex Small & Vail (TSN 26328)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.157941
Element Code: PDFAB402D0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Pea Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Fabales Fabaceae Trifolium
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Trifolium virginicum
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 28Jun1999
Global Status Last Changed: 19Apr1997
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Trifolium virginicum is endemic to the central portion of the Ridge and Valley province, in Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, and southern Pennsylvania; its substrate is generally restricted to steep, south-facing, open shale outcrops ("shale barrens"), although it is known from a few open limestone outcrops. The plant is known overall from well over one hundred sites, but usually in low numbers. Most remote sites seem stable and many sites are within managed areas, although these areas are generally not managed for rare plants. The species is relatively unthreatened, but shale outcrops are occasionally quarried for construction fill. Construction and maintenance of roads and railroads has depleted or destroyed several sites. Development along roads adjacent to shale can result in steepening of the shale beds, making them inappropriate for this species. Competition from exotic weeds (especially spotted knapweed) are another threat to this species.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Maryland (S2S3), Pennsylvania (S1), Virginia (S3), West Virginia (S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Endemic to one portion of the Ridge and Valley province in Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, and southern Pennsylvania, known primarily from outcrops of Devonian, Ordovician, and Silurian shales, and rarely from limestone.

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Well over one hundred sites, with a significant number having >100 plants. Best sites in Virginia and West Virginia.

Population Size Comments: Apparently exceeding 10,000 in Virginia alone, although many sites have very few plants.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: For less restrictive shale barren plants, such as T. virginicum, few threats have been identified (Ludwig pers. comm.). Long-term threats to their habitat include road development at the bases of the barrens and overgrazing of the vegetation by deer. The severity of the threat caused by deer grazing has not been determined.

A significant threat to the insect pollinators of shale barrens plants is presented by the spraying of Dimilin and BT insecticides for gypsy moth control. Because of the open habitat, shale barren insects are maximally exposed to pesticides (Dix 1990). Dimilin is a broad-spectrum biocide that persists until leaf fall and up to a few years in the duff and would have a long-term impact of shale-barren slopes. All insect occurrences on shale-barrens sprayed with Dimilin should be considered extirpated (Schweitzer in litt). BT is lepidopteran-specific and only persists for roughly one week (Dix 1990). Application during larval development may have devastating impacts on the fauna, however.

Five shale barrens in West Virginia and three in Virginia have been partially destroyed by road construction. Two additional barrens in Virginia were partially destroyed by railroad construction and one was crossed by a hiking trail (USFWS 1989). One barren has been destroyed through inundation caused by the damming of a stream (Dix 1990). Similar concerns have been expressed for barrens along the South Fork Valley of West Virginia where flood control measures are planned (Bartgis in litt.). Habitats other than shale barrens have likely been destroyed (probably more frequently than barren habitats), but extent of this destruction has not been evaluated.

Moderately xeric sites may be subject to encroachment of exotic plant species such as spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) and a host of grass species (Dix 1990). Shale barren flora is also easily shaded out by encroaching higher vegetation and aggressive exotics such as crown vetch (Davison 1985).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Most remote sites appear stable; several in urban areas (e.g., Cumberland, Maryland) or near roads or railroads have been lost to development.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Resilient, deep-rooted (once established), but intolerant of shade or heavy disturbance.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: Endemic to one portion of the Ridge and Valley province in Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, and southern Pennsylvania, known primarily from outcrops of Devonian, Ordovician, and Silurian shales, and rarely from limestone.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States MD, PA, VA, WV

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
MD Allegany (24001), Washington (24043)
PA Bedford (42009), Franklin (42055), Fulton (42057), Huntingdon (42061)
WV Berkeley (54003), Grant (54023), Greenbrier (54025), Hampshire (54027), Hardy (54031), Mineral (54057), Monroe (54063), Morgan (54065), Pendleton (54071)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Raystown (02050303)+, South Branch Potomac (02070001)+, North Branch Potomac (02070002)+, Cacapon-Town (02070003)+, Conococheague-Opequon (02070004)+, Upper James (02080201)+
05 Greenbrier (05050003)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Technical Description: Gleason and Cronquist (1963) described Trifolium virginicum as follows:

"Perennial herb from a stout taproot, not stoloniferous; stems prostrate, pubescent, 1-2 dm; lfls linear to oblanceolate, 2-6 cm, 3-7 times as long as wide, thinly silky beneath; peduncles thinly hairy, 4-10 cm; pedicels hairy; fls 10-12 mm; cal hirsutulous, the tube exceeding the obtuse wings."

Fruits are a 1-6 seeded, small legume (Keener 1970).

Ecology Comments: Keener (1970) speculated that T. virginicum may have entered the shale barren region by way of a western or northwestern route in advance of the Pleistocene glaciation. Wherry (1930) considered Trifolium virginicum as a derivative of T. reflexum (buffalo clover). The chromosome number for T. virginicum is n=8 (Mosquin and Gillete 1965).

Genetic variation among populations of T. virginicum is likely, but little work in this regards has been initiated. Platt (1951) noted the differences in seed coloration among local races of the species, suggesting that genetic variability is present.

Trifolium virginicum plants typically flower in May and June (Gleason and Cronquist 1963).

Trifolium virginicum is able to tolerate the desiccated environment of the shale barrens by extending long tough roots into crevices within the more solid rock below (Wherry 1930).

Habitat Comments:

Trifolium virginicum is a native clover generally distributed within the shale-barren region of Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania (Davison 1985, Keener 1970, Core 1952). Although most commonly found on shale-barrens, it is not endemic to them (Bartgis pers. comm.). Outside of barrens, T. virginicum can be found in cedar glades, dry limestone woods with thin canopies and roadside rights-of-way. There is no apparent elevational constraint within the species. Plants are found between 300 feet and 4000 feet in elevation on suitable habitat (Bartgis pers. comm.).

The term "shale barrens" is a general reference to certain mid-Appalachian slopes that possess the following features: 1) southern exposures, 2) slopes of 20-70 degrees and 3) a covering of lithologically hard and weather-resistant shale or siltstone fragments (Dix 1990). These barrens support a sparse, scrubby growth of Quercus ilicifolia, Q. prinus, Q. rubra, Pinus virginiana, Juniperus virginiana, Prunus alleghaniensis,, Rhus aromatica, Celtis tenuifolia, Kalmia latifolia, Bouteloua curtipendula, Andropogon scoparius, Phlox subulata var. brittonii, Silene caroliniana ssp. pensylvanica, Sedum telephoides, Antennaria spp., Aster spp., and species of Solidago (Dix 1990). Local variations in associated flora may vary considerably.

Although adequate moisture is available for most plants within the substrata of the shale layers, adverse surface conditions act to restrict germination and establishment success of plants (Platt 1951). It is primarily the effect of high surface temperatures that limits reproductive success in these habitats. Surface soil temperatures are often well above the physiological tolerance of most plant species, reaching maximum temperatures of 63 degrees Celsius (Dix 1990). Such temperatures are high enough to cause direct damage to seedlings of other species. For additional detailed information pertaining to the shale-barren community, see Dix (1990).

In Pennsylvania, Kate's mountain clover inhabits south facing, open, dry slopes of Devonian shale in the south-central portion of the state (Davison 1985). Associates include other shale barren endemics, including Senecio antennariifolius and Pseudotaenidia montana (Davison 1985), as well as Opuntia humifusa, Phlox subulata, Oenothera argillicola, Convolvulus purshianus, Antennaria virginica, Viola pedata, Plantago aristata, Penstemon hirsutus, Silene pennsylvanica, Houstonia longifolia Geranium carolinianum and Asclepias tuberosa (Duppstadt 1972, Henry 1954, Wherry 1933).

In Maryland, T. virginicum is not a true shale-barren endemic. Populations are commonly found in cedar glades, dry limestone woodlands with open canopies and similar habitats (Bartgis pers. comm.). Some populations have also been found on roadbanks. Preferred habitats include sites with a 20-30% shrub/tree cover, a south-to-west orientation and substrates of circumneutral (Braillier formation) shale (Bartgis pers. comm.). Associates on shale barrens include Convolvulus purshianus, Senecio antennariifolius and Penstemon canescens (Wherry 1929).

The shale barrens of West Virginia, composed of Devonian shale, also contain populations of T. virginicum. Associates include Eriogonum alleni, Arabis serotina, Clematis viticaulis, Oenothera argillicola, Phlox subulata, Convolvulus purshianus, Senecio antennariifolius, Deschampsia flexuosa, Campanula flexuosa, Draba ramosissima, Arabis lyrata, Houstonia tenuifolia, Penstemon canescens, Dicentra eximia, Silene pennsylvanica, Asclepias quadrifolia, A. tuberosa and Iris cristata (Artz 1948). On the outcrops of shale, T. virginicum usually grows along crevices within the harder layers of rock. Recently, populations have also been found on limestone glades within the state (Ludwig pers. comm.).

In Virginia, T. virginicum occurs on xeric, open shale slopes most frequently referred to as shale barrens (Ludwig pers. comm.). Shales are principally of Devonian and Ordovician age with exposures being primarily south or west.

Economic Attributes
Help
Economically Important Genus: Y
Management Summary
Help
Stewardship Overview: Monitoring needs include the tracking of population status with respect to on-going management regimes. Tracking may consist of periodic estimates or actual counts of individuals, flower production, seed set and/or recruitment within a given population, monitoring of changes within the occupied habitat, and tracking of adjacent land-use practices. Research needs include an accurate assessment of the true status of T. virginicum and identification of insect pollinators. Management needs are primarily limited to exempting shale barren communities from pesticide application for gypsy moth control. Visitor management very important since roots presumably easily damaged in loose shale-flake substrate.
Restoration Potential: The recovery potential of Trifolium virginicum is largely unknown. It is likely, however, that restoration of populations via transplantation (if needed) should be successful if germination conditions are adequate for future reproduction. At present, however, restoration of this species is not needed.
Preserve Selection & Design Considerations: Land protection must encompass the land needed to protect against potential impacts to A. serotina populations and their pollinators. Occupied habitats should be protected with sufficient buffer of scrub oak woodland or other habitat type to reduce the effects of pesticide application and other detrimental factors.
Management Requirements: Management needs are primarily limited to exempting shale barren communities from pesticide application for gypsy moth control. Preventing application of Dimilin and BT may be necessary in order to preserve the insect fauna that pollinate the species.

No active management of shale barrens appears necessary (Dix 1990). The influence of fire on barren formation and maintenance is likely negligible (Dix 1990). Fires do not typically carry through steep barrens where surfaces are bare and tree cover sparse (Platt 1951). These barrens remain open and do not require fire for maintenance. On barrens with shallower slopes, herbaceous cover may get relatively thick and fire may play a sole in limiting shrub succession (Thompson in litt.). Periods of severe drought may also act to eliminate shrub encroachment and reestablish the barren character (Bartgis in litt.).

Monitoring Requirements: Monitoring should track the status of extant populations with respect to on-going management regimes. Tracking may consist of periodic estimates or actual counts of individuals, flower production, seed set and/or recruitment within a given population.

Monitoring of changes within the occupied habitat may also be initiated. Such changes may be observed through vegetational analyses or photo-monitoring efforts.

Finally, monitoring needs should include the tracking of adjacent land-use practices including the use of pesticides by U.S. Forest Service personnel to control gypsy moth infestations. Information gained through this tracking may prove useful in delineating causes for apparent population or habitat changes.

In small populations, periodical visits should be conducted in order to count individuals fruiting stems, note population boundaries and observe changes and threats to the habitat (Ludwig pers. comm.). In large populations, sampling of representative portions of the population through randomized placement of quadrats should provide detailed information pertaining to numbers of individuals, flower production, seed set and habitat maintenance.

If additional monitoring of habitat is needed, photo-monitoring may be solicited to track habitat change on a gross scale. Photo-monitoring may include both ground-oriented monitoring or aerial photography.

Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 03Nov1994
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Morse, L.E. (ca. 1983), C. Ludwig (1987), rev. L. Morse (1994, 1995, 1997, 1999) W. Ostile (1991)
Management Information Edition Date: 02Jan1991
Management Information Edition Author: WAYNE OSTLIE
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 02Jan1991
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): OSTILE, W.(1990, 1991)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Artz, L. 1948. Plants of the shale-barrens of the tributaries of the James River in Virginia. Castanea 13:141-145.

  • Britton, N. L. and A. B. Brown. 1913. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada, and the British Possessions. 2nd Edition in 3 Volumes. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. B13BRI01PAUS.

  • Britton, N. L. and A. Brown. 1913. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada. 3 vol. Dover Publications, Inc., N. Y. 2052 pp.

  • Core, E. L. 1940. The shale barren flora of West Virginia. Proc. W. Va. Acad. Sci. 14:27-36.

  • Core, E. L. 1952. The ranges of some plants of the Appalachian shale barrens. Castanea 17:105-116.

  • Core, E.L. 1940. THE SHALE BARREN FLORA OF WEST VIRGINIA. PROC PA ACAD OF SCI 14:27-36.

  • Core, E.L. 1946. Wild Flowers of the Appalachain Shale Barrens. Wild Flowers 22:13-18.

  • Core, E.L. 1946. Wild Flowers of the Appalachain Shale Barrens. Wild Flowers 22:13-18. A46COR01PAUS.

  • Core, E.L. 1952. The Range of some Plants of the Appalachain Shale Barrens. Cast. 17:105-116. A52COR01PAUS

  • Davison, S. 1985. Kate's mountain clover (Trifolium virginicum). Pp. 62-64, In Genoways, H. H. and F. J. Brenner (eds.), Species of special concern in Pennsylvania. Spec. Publ. Carnegie Mus. Nat. Hist. 11.

  • Duppstadt, W. H. ND. Flora of Bedford County, Pennsylvania. I. Plant communities. pp. 86-94.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1949. Gray's Manual of Botany, Eighth edition. American Book Co. New York. B49FER01PAUS

  • Fernald, M.L. 1950 Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th ed. American Book Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1950. Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th ed., Corr. Printing, 1970. Van Nostrand, New York. LXIV+1632 pp.

  • GLEASON, H.A. AND A. CRONQUIST. 1963. MANUAL OF VASCULAR PLANTS OF NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES AND ADJACENT CANADA. D. VAN NOSTRAND CO., NEW YORK. 810 PAGES.

  • Gleason, H.A. & Cronquist, A. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Second Edition. The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY 10458. U.S.A. B91GLE01PAUS.

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. New Britton & Brown. Illustrated Flora. Lancaster Press Inc. Lancaster, Pa. B52GLE01PAUS

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 3 volumes. Hafner Press, New York. 1732 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1963. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. D. Van Nostrand Company, New York, NY. 810 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Henry, L. K. 1954. Shale-barren flora in Pennsylvania. Proc. Penn. Acad. Sci. 28: 65-68.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Keener, C.S. 1970. The natural history of the mid-Appalachian shale barren flora. Pages 215-248 in: P.C. Holt, ed. The Distributional History of the Biota of the Southern Appalachians. II. Flora. Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, VA.

  • Mosquin, T. and J. M. Gillete. 1965. Chromosome numbers in American Trifolium (Leguminosae). Brittonia 17: 136-143.

  • Platt, R.B. 1951. An ecological study of the mid-Appalachian shale barrens and the plants endemic to them. Ecol. Monogr. 21:269-300.

  • Steele, E.S. 1911. New Plants From the Eastern United States in Contributions From U.S. National Herbarium. 13:359-374. A11STE01PAUS.

  • Steele, E.S. 1911. New Plants From the Eastern United States. Contributions From U.S. National Herbarium 13:359-374.

  • Wherry, E. T. 1930. Plants of the Appalachian shale-barrens. J. Washington Acad. Sci. 20(3): 43-52.

  • Wherry, E. T. 1933. Four shale barren plants in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Academy of Science Proceedings 7:160-164.

  • Wherry, E.T. 1929. Three Shale-slope Plants in Maryland. Torreya 29:104-107. A29WHE01PAUS.

  • Wherry, E.T. 1929. Three shale-slope plants in Maryland. Torreya 29:104-107.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2019 NatureServe, 2511 Richmond (Jefferson Davis) Highway, Suite 930, Arlington, VA 22202, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.