Trifolium friscanum - (Welsh) Welsh
Frisco Clover
Synonym(s): Trifolium andersonii var. friscanum Welsh
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Trifolium friscanum (Welsh) Welsh (TSN 507840)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.139756
Element Code: PDFAB40300
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Pea Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Fabales Fabaceae Trifolium
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.
Concept Reference Code: B99KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Trifolium friscanum
Taxonomic Comments: USFWS had tracked as Trifolium andersonii var. friscanum, as originally described. Newly recognized at the full species level (T. friscanum) by Welsh (1993); also recognized as a full species by Kartesz (1999). As of 2011, USFWS also recognizes at the full species level.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 21Sep2011
Global Status Last Changed: 26Mar1998
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Endemic to 4 mountain ranges in Beaver and western Millard Counties of west-central Utah. Approximately seven occurrences and 3000-7500 plants are known. Land ownership is a mixture of Federal (DOD, BLM), state, and private. Disturbance from mining and quarrying has been observed in at at least two of the known sites, and a third site has been fragmented by a grazing allotment fence; considered one of the more threatened rare plants in this part of Utah.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Utah (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): C: Candidate (05Dec2014)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R6 - Rocky Mountain

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Utah endemic known from Beaver County (San Francisco Mountains, Wah Wah Mountains [Blue Mountain], Beaver Lake Mountains) and western Millard County (Tunnel Spring Mountains). Reports from California and Nevada are false.

Area of Occupancy: 3-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: It is estimated that the area of occupancy would fit within five 2x2 km grid cells (NatureServe element occurrence data 2011).

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: Six occurrences have been mapped, and one additional occurrence has recently been discovered (Franklin 2011). In addition to these locations, it has also been reported from the Beaver Lake Mountains (10-15 km east of mapped occurrences) (Utah Native Plant Society 2008, Welsh et al. 2008).

Population Size Comments: The most recent available counts estimate a population of approximately 3000-13,000 plants. However, these figures should be considered preliminary, as in general site status is not considered well documented (Atwood 2002d cited in Franklin 2005, England 2009).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: One of the more threatened rare plants in this part of Utah (Atwood 2002d cited in Franklin 2005). Both sites in the San Franciso Mountains are on un-mined patented mining claims; seismic activity and mining-related disturbance has been observed at one of the sites. On Blue Mountain, plants are adjacent to an active quarry. Finally, one of the sites in the Tunnel Spring Mountains population has been fragmented by a newly built grazing allotment fence (Atwood 2002d cited in Franklin 2005). A 12 month finding published by USFWS (2009) concluded that the two most critical threats to populations are habitat destruction from mining and quarring and the spread of the invasive Bromus tectorum, which is proliferated by the disturbances of mining.

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Utah endemic known from Beaver County (San Francisco Mountains, Wah Wah Mountains [Blue Mountain], Beaver Lake Mountains) and western Millard County (Tunnel Spring Mountains). Reports from California and Nevada are false.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States UT

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
UT Beaver (49001), Millard (49027)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
16 Hamlin-Snake Valleys (16020301)+*, Pine Valley (16020302)+*, Escalante Desert (16030006)+*, Sevier Lake (16030009)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A mat-forming perennial herb, 0.8-3 cm tall. The inflorescense consists of 4-9 flowers with reddish purple banners and pale wings and keels. Seed pods are enclosed within the persistent, withered petals and calyx. Flowers in June.
Technical Description: Densely pulvinate-caespitose, acaulescent, mat-forming perennial, 0.8-3 cm tall; tap root present; stems thick and woody, obscured by imbricated stipules and persistent leaf bases; leaflets 3, herbage silvery-hairy; petioles 0.3-1.1 cm long; calyx densely woolly-villous; flowers 4-9, the banner reddish purple, the keel and wings pale.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Distinguished from Trifolium andersonii by its 3 (not 4 or 5) leaflets per leaf, shorter free tips of the stipules, short petioles, and few-flowered heads (Welsh 1993). It also has woolly-villous calyces and silvery-hairy herbage (Utah Native Plant Society 2008). Occurs more than 250 km distant from the nearest known locality for T. andersonii (Welsh 1993).
Duration: PERENNIAL
Habitat Comments: Grows on calcareous (ordovician limestone, dolomite) and volcanic gravels, usually on relatively steep slopes, within pinyon-juniper woodland communities (often with mountain mahogany). Soils are shallow with gravels, rocks and boulders on teh surface (USFWS 2011). Other associated species include Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana, Bromus tectorum, Castilleja scabrida var. barnebyana, Elymus elymoides, Ephedra viridis, Eriogonum shockleyi, Eriogonum soredium, Glossopetalon nevadense, Gutierrezia sarothrae, Haplopappus acaulis, Lepidium ostleri, Lomatium scabrum, Machaeranthera grindelioides var. depressa, Petradoria pumila, and Stipa comata.


Trifolium friscanum is a narrow
endemic restricted to soils derived from
volcanic gravels, Ordovician limestone,
and dolomite outcrops. Soils are
shallow, with gravels, rocks, and
boulders on the surface (Kass

Economic Attributes
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Economically Important Genus: Y
Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Seek long term protection for sites on private and state lands, especially at sites where new mining activities might be pursued. Monitor and remove invasive species, in particular Bromus tectorum.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 25Jul1996
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: B. Franklin (1995); J. Beckman (1996), rev. B. Franklin (1996), rev. L. Morse (1998), rev. K. Gravuer (2009), rev. A. Treher (2011)
Management Information Edition Date: 21Sep2011
Management Information Edition Author: Treher, A.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Anderson, J. [1977-8]. Several plants species lists from BLM Cedar City District. Unpaginated [10 pp.].

  • Armstrong, L. 1995. Photocopy of a map from the files of the Beaver River Resource Area.

  • Barneby, R.C. 1989. Fabales. In A. Cronquist, A.H. Holmgren, N.H. Holmgren, J.L. Reveal, and P.K. Holmgren (eds.). Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 3, Part B. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx. 279 pp.

  • Evenden, A.G. 1999. Tunnel Spring Mountains and adjacent West Desert rare plant survey and conservation area analysis. 8 pp. + appendices.

  • Evenden, A.G., and D. Atwood. 1998. Plant field survey forms and maps for the San Francisco Mountains species: Lepidium ostleri, Eriogonum soredium, Trifolium andersonii var. friscanum, and Machaeranthera grindelioides var. depressa. Unpaginated.

  • Franklin, M.A. 2005. Plant information compiled by the Utah Natural Heritage Program: A progress report. Publication Number 05-40. Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, Salt Lake City, Utah. 341 pp. [http://dwrcdc.nr.utah.gov/ucdc/ViewReports/plantrpt.htm]

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Kartesz, J.T., and C. Meacham. 1998a. Unpublished review draft of Floristic Synthesis, 8 Jan. 1998. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, NC.

  • Kass, R. J. 1992. Status report on Trifolium andersonii var. friscanum. Unpublished report on file Utah Natural Heritage Program, Salt Lake City, Utah. 17 pp.

  • Kass, R. J. 1992. Status report on Trifolium andersonii var. friscanum. Unpublished report on file Utah Natural Heritage Program, Salt Lake City, Utah. 17 pp.

  • Mendenhall, M. 1990. Correspondence of October 3 to Ben Franklin. Bureau Of Land Management, Warm Springs Resource Area, Fillmore.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2011. 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Astragalus hamiltonii, Penstemon flowersii, Eriogonum soredium, Lepidium ostleri, and Trifolium friscanum as Endangered or Threatened. Federal Register 76(36):10166-10203.

  • USBLM. [1979]. Lists I, II, and III, i.e., threatened, endangered, and sensitive plant species. Cedar City District. Unpaginated (6 pp.) + map.

  • Utah Native Plant Society. 2003-2008. Utah Rare Plant Guide. Salt Lake City, UT: Utah Rare Plant Guide Home Page. Online. Available: http://www.utahrareplants.org (accessed 2009).

  • Welsh, S. L. 1978. Utah Fora: Fabaceae (Leguminosae). Great Basin Natrl. 38(3): 225-367.

  • Welsh, S. L., N. D. Atwood, S. Goodrich, and L. C. Higgins [eds]. 1993. A Utah Flora (2nd ed., revised). Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 986 pp.

  • Welsh, S.L. 1993. New taxa and new nomenclatural combinations in the Utah flora. Rhodora 95(883/884):392-421.

  • Welsh, S.L., N.D. Atwood, S. Goodrich and L.C. Higgins. (Eds.) 2008. A Utah Flora. 4th edition, revised. Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, U.S.A. 1019 pp.

  • Welsh, S.L., N.D. Atwood, S. Goodrich, and L.C. Higgins (eds.) 1993. A Utah flora. 2nd edition. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, Utah. 986 pp.

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