Triaenodes florida - Ross, 1941
Floridian Triaenode Caddisfly
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Triaenodes florida Ross, 1941 (TSN 206643)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.120770
Element Code: IITRI2F010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Caddisflies
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Trichoptera Leptoceridae Triaenodes
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Concept Reference
Concept Reference: Clemson University Department of Entomology (J.C. Morse, ed.). 2002. Last Updated 5 September 2006. Trichoptera World Checklist. Online. Available:
Concept Reference Code: N02CLE01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Triaenodes florida
Taxonomic Comments: Subgenus Triaenodella, Ignitus group. Described as morphologically distinct by Ross (1941)
Conservation Status

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 06Mar2009
Global Status Last Changed: 19Nov1997
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: It is somewhat rare and known only from a few populations in northern and central Florida, where it is stable and at times common, and adjacent Alabama (Covington Co.), USA.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2 (22Mar2005)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (S1), Florida (S2), Georgia (SNR)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 1000-5000 square km (about 400-2000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Known only from northern and central Florida (Glover, 1996; Rasmussen et al., 2008) and adjacent Alabama (Covington Co.), USA.

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: Recorded from five localities in Florida, and one in Alabama (Glover, 1996). Recently six new occurrences were found in Florida making Florida distribution as the Choctawhatchee, Kissimmee, Oklawaha, St. Johns (lower and upper), and St. Marks River basins in Alachua, Clay, Highlands, Holmes, Lake, Leon, Levy, Marion, Putnam, and Washington Cos. (Rasmussen et al., 2008). See Ross (1941) for original description.

Population Size: 1 - 1000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Presumed rare, but exact population remains unknown.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very few (1-3)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Particularly abundant in the natural lakes in Florida panhandle.

Overall Threat Impact: Unknown

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Unknown

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.
Environmental Specificity Comments: The long-term health of T. florida, as with Oecetis parva, depends on the conservation of Florida's natural lakes. Based on the distribution and local abundance of T. florida in some of Florida's healthiest lakes, Rasmussen et al. (2008) believe the species can serve as an excellent bioindicator of Florida lake health

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Survey for additional EOs and estimate relative abundance and density at known EOs.

Protection Needs: Protect several sites across range.

Global Range: (1000-5000 square km (about 400-2000 square miles)) Known only from northern and central Florida (Glover, 1996; Rasmussen et al., 2008) and adjacent Alabama (Covington Co.), USA.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, FL, GA

Range Map
No map available.

U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Highlands (12055), Lake (12069), Leon (12073), Marion (12083), Putnam (12107)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Upper St. Johns (03080101)+, Oklawaha (03080102)+, Kissimmee (03090101)+, Apalachee Bay-St. Marks (03120001)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
General Description: Larval description in Glover (1996).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Habitat Comments: It is endemic to natural lakes in Florida Panhandle and adjacent Alabama in aquatic macrophytes (Glover, 1996; Rasmussen et al., 2008).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Management Summary
Biological Research Needs: Determine species' habitat. Female and immature stages remain unknown and should be described.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Group Name: Caddisflies

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical presence or current presence of single or multiple specimens (including larvae or adults) at a given location with potentially recurring existence. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information. Sight records and photographs, though valuable, should not be accepted as the basis for new element occurrences as identification of caddisflies often requires close examination of the genitalia of adult males. Instead, such records should be utilized to further study an area to verify the element occurrence in that area.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: None
Separation Justification: Wiggins and Mackay (1978) found caddisfly distributions separated by trophic category as related to stream resource availability in Eastern streams; and to a lesser degree in Western streams. Shredders predominated in upstream habitats in relation to grazers and collectors, but the proportion of shredders became smaller downstream. Groups have also been separated ecologically into lotic-erosional (running water riffles), lotic-depositional (running water pools and margins), lentic-limnetic (standing water), lentic-littoral (standing water, shallow shore areas), lentic-profundal (standing water, basin), and beach zone (Wallace and Anderson, 1996). For the purpose of occurrence separation, however, the same genera or species often occur across habitats making such habitat classifications impractical.

Regardless of habitat, caddisfly adults tend to remain somewhat near the emergence site (LaFontaine, 1981; Collier and Smith, 1998) where oviposition occurs. Dispersal away from emergence sites tends to be negatively correlated with density of vegetation along the dispersal corridor; caddisflies tend to disperse shorter distances in dense forest compared with more open vegetation (Collier and Smith, 1998). Although dispersal flights are common especially from temporary habitats, such flights are relatively short and only occur immediately following emergence (unlike some Coleoptera and Hemiptera that also disperse additionally in autumn to overwinter) (Cummins and Merritt, 1996). Kovats et al. (1996) estimated that 85% of all adult Hydropsychidae were collected within 100 m of the water's edge with most of the remainder collected within 250 m, although significant, though small, numbers were collected up to 1845 m inland (esp. for Hexagenia). It is worth noting that in some instances, large river caddisflies may disperse a distance greater than five km from the river, suggesting long distance dispersal (Huryn and Harris, 2000; Kovats et al., 1996). Kovats et al. (1996) suggested this longer distance dispersal is likely accidental. Separation distances (unsuitable and suitable) have therefore been set at five km.

Date: 18Oct2004
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Population/Occurrence Viability
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 06Mar2009
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Cordeiro, J. (2009) Golden, W. C. III, and D. R. Jackson (1994)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 06Mar2009
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Cordeiro, J.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

  • Clemson University Department of Entomology (J.C. Morse, ed.). 2002. Last Updated 5 September 2006. Trichoptera World Checklist. Online. Available:

  • Deyrup, M. and R. Franz. 1994. Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida, Volume IV. Invertebrates. University Press of Florida: Gainesville, Florida. 798 pp.

  • Glover, J.B. 1996. Larvae of the caddisfly genera Triaenodes and Ylodes (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) in North America. Bulletin of the Ohio Biological Survey, New Series 11(2): 1-89.

  • Manuel, K.L. 2010. The longhorn caddisfly genus Triaenodes (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) in North America. The Caddis Press, Columbus, Ohio. 109 pp.

  • Rasmussen, A.K., D.R. Denson, and S.C. Harris. 2008. Status of caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) in greatest conservation need in Florida. Final report to the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida, Agreement 06009, June 1, 2008. 56 pp.

  • Unzicker, J.D., L. Argus, and L.O. Warren. 1970. A preliminary list of the Arkansas Trichoptera. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society 5(3): 167-174.

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