Tragopogon dubius - Scop.
Meadow Goat's-beard
Other English Common Names: Yellow Goatsbeard
Other Common Names: yellow salsify
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Tragopogon dubius Scop. (TSN 38564)
French Common Names: salsifis majeur
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.135343
Element Code: PDAST9E010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Aster Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Asterales Asteraceae Tragopogon
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Tragopogon dubius
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (30Sep2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Arizona (SNA), Arkansas (SNA), California (SNA), Colorado (SNR), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), Idaho (SNA), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Iowa (SNA), Kansas (SNA), Kentucky (SNA), Louisiana (SNA), Maine (SNA), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNA), Minnesota (SNA), Missouri (SNA), Montana (SNA), Nebraska (SNA), Nevada (SNA), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New Mexico (SNA), New York (SNA), North Carolina (SNA), North Dakota (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Oklahoma (SNA), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Rhode Island (SNA), South Dakota (SNA), Tennessee (SNA), Texas (SNA), Utah (SNA), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (SNA), Washington (SNA), West Virginia (SNA), Wisconsin (SNA), Wyoming (SNA)
Canada Alberta (SNA), British Columbia (SNA), Manitoba (SNA), New Brunswick (SNA), Nova Scotia (SNA), Ontario (SNA), Quebec (SNA), Saskatchewan (SNA), Yukon Territory (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States ARexotic, AZexotic, CAexotic, CO, CTexotic, DEexotic, IAexotic, IDexotic, ILexotic, INexotic, KSexotic, KYexotic, LAexotic, MA, MDexotic, MEexotic, MIexotic, MNexotic, MOexotic, MTexotic, NCexotic, NDexotic, NEexotic, NHexotic, NJexotic, NMexotic, NVexotic, NYexotic, OHexotic, OKexotic, ORexotic, PAexotic, RIexotic, SDexotic, TNexotic, TXexotic, UTexotic, VAexotic, VTexotic, WAexotic, WIexotic, WVexotic, WYexotic
Canada ABexotic, BCexotic, MBexotic, NBexotic, NSexotic, ONexotic, QCexotic, SKexotic, YTexotic

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: Medium/Low
Rounded I-Rank: Medium
I-Rank Reasons Summary: A widespread weed mostly of fields, pastures, and waste places but apparently having some impact on higher quality native species habitats in Alaska and possibly also in the Pacific Northwest of the contiguous U.S.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Low/Insignificant
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: High
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: Medium/Low
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: Medium/Insignificant
I-Rank Review Date: 29Jun2005
Evaluator: Maybury, K.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Europe

Download "An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-Native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity". (PDF, 1.03MB)
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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: A widespread weed reported as established in most of the United States.

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Low/Insignificant

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:Insignificant
Comments: No abiotic ecosystem processes / system-wide parameters affected as far as as been noted in the literature.

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Medium/Low significance
Comments: In Alaska, has been reported to establish in otherwise sparse herbaceous communities and create a new, much more dense layer (Alaska Natural Heritage Program 2004). Evidence of significant changes in vegetation structure not noted elsewhere. Rutledge and McLendon (1996) indicate that there has been no perceivable alteration in successional processes.

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:Medium/Low significance
Comments: The Alaska Natural Heritage Program (2004) indicated that this species likely inhibits growth and recruitment of native herbaceous plants due to its tendancy to establish at high densities. Significant changes in composition not noted elsewhere.

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Medium/Low significance
Comments: May distract pollinating insects from native plant species as it is attractive to many pollinators (Alaska Natural Heritage Program 2004). May affect mammals by providing more food than native plants: pocket gophers consume the roots of this plant and deer, squirrels, and other mammals consume foliage (Reichman and Smith 1991).

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Insignificant
Comments: This species is primarily a weed of pastures, edges of cultivated fields, orchards, roadsides, and other waste areas and highly disturbed places (e.g., Muenscher 1955; Rutledge and McLendon 1996; Haddock 2002; Virginia Cooperative Extension, not dated). The Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council considers this to be a "Rank 3" plant "..species that spread in or near disturbed areas and are not presently considered a threat ot native plant communities." Similarly, Rutledge and McLendon (1996) emphasize that this is a species of low quality sites that does not appear to be affecting native plants in Rocky Mountain National Park.

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: High

6. Current Range Size in Nation:High significance
Comments: Found throughout most of the U.S. (e.g., Kartesz 1999).

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:High significance
Comments: At least some negative impacts assumed throughout the range as this species is clearly somewhat to very invasive with disturbance.

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:High significance

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Unknown
Comments: Difficult to answer in terms of natural ecological systems. Many artifically disturbed habitats noted; presumably also found in some naturally disturbed habitats.

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: Medium/Low

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Found virtually throughout the U.S.

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Insignificant

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:High significance
Comments: As a weed of hayfields, edges of cultivated fields, etc., the seeds of this species are certainly transported inadvertently with feed and other products. Also, the common name, Goat's Beard, comes from the long white hair-like pappus which undoubtedly enables the seeds to be easily dispersed by wind (a mature seedhead resembles that of an outsized dandelion).

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:Moderate significance
Comments: Reported to be becoming more common in the eastern United States (Virginia Cooperative Extension, not dated). Found in Rocky Mountain National Park within the last 11-50 years (Rutledge and McLendon 1996). Probably increasing in abundance in many areas due to overall increases in human-caused disturbance.

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Medium/Low significance
Comments: This species is primarily a weed of pastures, edges of cultivated fields, orchards, roadsides, and other waste areas and highly disturbed places (e.g., Muenscher 1955; Haddock 2002; Virginia Cooperative Extension, not dated). Frakes (unpublished) found T. dubius to be a common exotic along trails in the Rawah Wilderness of Colorado, but only growing in disturbed areas immediately adjacent to the trail or in campsites. The Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council (2001) considers this to be a "Rank 3" plant "..species that spread in or near disturbed areas..." However, Alaska Natural Heritage (2004) cites a personal observation that this plant can establish in intact to moderately grazed prairies in Oregon.

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:Low significance
Comments: A widespread weed in Canada but found in similar situations.

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Low significance
Comments: Does not seem to be considered a particularly aggressive weed. Seeds apparently germinate quickly and do not remain viable for long (e.g., see Haubensak and Smyth, not dated).

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: Medium/Insignificant

17. General Management Difficulty:Medium significance/Insignificant
Comments: In Alaska, management is apparently difficult, with multiple years of hand-pulling having failed to control this species (see Alaska Natural Heritage Program 2004). In contrast, Rutledge and McLendon (1996) say that "control is seldom necessary."

18. Minimum Time Commitment:Unknown

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:Insignificant

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:High significance
Comments: This species is found on private lands throughout the U.S.
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Alaska Natural Heritage Program. 2004. Non-native plant species of Alaska: Goat's beard, Tragopogon dubius Scop. Last updated November 2004. Alaska Natural Heritage Program, Anchorage. Available: http://akweeds.uaa.alaska.edu/pdfs/species_bios_pdfs/Species_bios_TRDU.pdf (Accessed 2005).

  • Frakes, N. Not dated. A case study of exotic plant invasion into the Rawah Wilderness, Colorado. Unpublished thesis. Online: http://ucsu.colorado.edu/%7Efrakesn/thesis.html (accessed 2005).

  • Haddock, M. 2002. Kansas wildflowers and grasses: Western salsify. Available: http://www.lib.ksu.edu/wildflower/. Accessed 2005.

  • Haubensak, K. and A. Smyth. Not dated. Factsheet on Tragopogon porrifolius prepared for Channel Islands National Park. Available from the Southwest Exotic Plant Information Clearinghouse: http://www.usgs.nau.edu/SWEPIC/. Accessed 2005.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Muenscher, W. C. 1955. Weeds. The MacMillan Co., New York.

  • Reichman, O. J. and S. C. Smith. 1991. Responses of simulated leaf and root herbivory by a biennial, Tragopogon dubius. Ecology 72:1379-1386.

  • Rutledge, C.R. and T. McLendon. 1996. An assessment of exotic plant species of Rocky Mountain National Park. Department of Rangeland Ecosystem Science, Colorado State University. 97 pp. Online: http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/plants/explant/summinfo.htm

  • Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council (TNEPPC). 2001. Invasive Exotic Plants in Tennessee. First revision of Feb. 1995 list. Available: http://www.se-eppc.org/states/TN/TNIList.html or www.tneppc.org/Invasive_Exotic_Plant_List/The_List.htm.

  • Virginia Cooperative Extension. No date. Virginia Tech weed identification guide. Available: http://www.ppws.vt.edu/weedindex.htm. Accessed 2005.

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