Townsendia rothrockii - Gray ex Rothrock
Rothrock's Townsend-daisy
Other Common Names: Rothrock's Townsend daisy
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Townsendia rothrockii A. Gray ex Rothr. (TSN 38555)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.146769
Element Code: PDAST9C0K0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Aster Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Asterales Asteraceae Townsendia
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Townsendia rothrockii
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 19May2008
Global Status Last Changed: 19May2008
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Colorado endemic, known from thirteen counties, in central and southwestern Colorado. New Mexico reports are apparently false (Beatty et al. 2004). Known from approximately 35 occurrences, several are protected, and most are on USFS lands. Current threats are thought to be minimal.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Colorado (S2S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Colorado endemic, known from thirteen counties, in central and southwestern Colorado. New Mexico reports are apparently false (Beatty et al. 2004). Colorado herbaria have 23 specimens from 10 Colorado counties. Estimated range of the 14 occurrences in the CNHP database is 25,365 square kilometers (9,793 square miles), calculated in GIS by drawing a minimum convex polygon around the occurrences (Colorado Natural Heritage Program 2008)
.

Area of Occupancy: 1-25 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: The total occupied habitat of the 14 occurrences in the CNHP database is about 294 acres. Occurrences without specific information on occupied habitat were considered to occupy 0.5 acre.

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: There are 14 principal occurrences documented in the Colorado Natural Heritage Program database. Six of the 14 occurrences have not been observed in over 20 years (as of 2006). There are an additional 19 possible occurrences documented in manual files at CNHP; therefore there may be 33 or more occurrences. The USFS Conservation Assessment documents 35 occurrences (Beatty et al. 2004). Colorado herbaria have 23 specimens from 10 Colorado counties.

Population Size Comments: Total estimated sum of individuals from 4 of the 14 occurrences documented in the CNHP database is 4,300. The remaining 10 occurrences do not report the number of individuals.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Few (4-12)
Viability/Integrity Comments: There are 4 occurrences (out of the 14 occurrences in the CNHP database) with an A or B rank.

Overall Threat Impact: High - medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Motorized recreation is considered to be the primary threat to the species at this time (Rondeau et al. 2011). Possible human-related threats to T. rothrockii include motorized and non-motorized recreation, road and structure construction, erosion and sedimentation related to roads, grazing activities, exotic species invasion, small-scale mining, and any changes to natural disturbance regimes. The extent of these activities near existing populations of T. rothrockii is unknown. Environmental and biological threats to populations of T. rothrockii include succession, environmental fluctuations, herbivory, genetic isolation, inadequate pollination, global climate changes, and changes to the natural disturbance regime (Beatty et al. 2004).

Short-term Trend: Unknown
Short-term Trend Comments: Inadequate abundance data or demographic information are available to conclude whether populations of Townsendia rothrockii are increasing, decreasing, or remaining stable (Beatty et al. 2004).

Long-term Trend: Unknown
Long-term Trend Comments: There are no data on population trends of Townsendia rothrockii.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Colorado endemic, known from thirteen counties, in central and southwestern Colorado. New Mexico reports are apparently false (Beatty et al. 2004). Colorado herbaria have 23 specimens from 10 Colorado counties. Estimated range of the 14 occurrences in the CNHP database is 25,365 square kilometers (9,793 square miles), calculated in GIS by drawing a minimum convex polygon around the occurrences (Colorado Natural Heritage Program 2008)
.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CO

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CO Chaffee (08015)*, Dolores (08033), Gunnison (08051), Hinsdale (08053), La Plata (08067), Lake (08065), Mesa (08077), Ouray (08091)*, Park (08093), Pitkin (08097), San Juan (08111), Summit (08117)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
10 South Platte Headwaters (10190001)+
11 Arkansas Headwaters (11020001)+
13 Rio Grande headwaters (13010001)+
14 Blue (14010002)+, Roaring Fork (14010004)+, East-Taylor (14020001)+, Upper Gunnison (14020002)+, Tomichi (14020003)+*, Lower Gunnison (14020005)+, Uncompahange (14020006)+*, Upper Dolores (14030002)+, Upper San Juan (14080101)+, Piedra (14080102)+, Animas (14080104)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial herb that forms low tufts of thick leaves. Large, showy flower heads with pale blue rays surrounding the yellow disk flowers begin to bloom as the snow melts in early summer. Leaves are 1-3.5 cm long.
General Description: Townsendia rothrockii  plants are perennials, with stems more or less erect, and 1-3 cm long. Plants are glabrous or somewhat strigose. Leaves are basal and cauline, spatulate to oblanceolate, 10-35 × 2-7 mm, and fleshy. Heads are sessile or on peduncles. Involucres are hemispheric, and 12-28+ mm in diameter. Phyllaries are 40-60+ in (3-)4-5+ series, obovate to oblanceolate, 7-9+ mm long, and the apices are obtuse to acute. Ray florets are 18-40; and are blue to purplish (Flora of North America 2006).
Technical Description: From Flora of North America 2006: Perennials, 13 cm (± pulvinate). Stems ± erect; internodes 0.11+ mm, glabrous or ± strigose. Leaves basal and cauline, ± spatulate to oblanceolate, 1035 × 27 mm, ± fleshy, faces sparsely strigose or glabrous. Heads ± sessile or on peduncles 525+ mm. Involucres ± hemispheric, 1228+ mm diam. Phyllaries 4060+ in (3)45+ series, the longer obovate to oblanceolate, 79+ mm (l/w = 2.55), apices obtuse to acute, abaxial faces glabrous. Ray florets 1840; corollas blue to purplish adaxially, laminae 816 mm, glabrous abaxially. Disc florets 60100+; corollas 3.54.5+ mm. Cypselae 4 mm, faces nearly glabrous (discs) or sparsely hairy (ray, hairs mostly at bases), hair tips glochidiform; pappi persistent; on ray cypselae 1220 lanceolate to subulate scales 0.51.5 mm; on disc cypselae 1530 subulate to setiform scales 36 mm. 2n = 36 (apomicts).
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Alpine, Forest - Conifer, Forest/Woodland
Habitat Comments: This species has been reported growing in alpine fellfields, krummholtz, subalpine meadows, oak brush, grasslands, shrub/herbaceous areas, talus slopes, forest openings, high plateau ridgetops, mountain passes, late-snow and cornice areas, limestone outcrops, rocky streamsides, disturbed mine and roadside areas, bare sandstone slopes, lava cliffs, and summit ridges (Beatty et al. 2004).  Associated species include Abies lasiocarpa, Agrostis thurberiana, Anemone multifida, Draba nivalis var. exigua, Eritrichium aretioides, Festuca thurberi, Frageria spp., Frasera spp., Juniperus spp., Oreoxis alpina, Physaria spp., Pinus spp., Pinus ponderosa, Polemonium viscosum, Populus spp., Quercus spp., Rydbergia grandiflora, Shepherdia spp., Stipa spp., Trifolium dasyphyllum, Trifolium nanum, and Valeriana capitata (Beatty et al. 2004).

Areas above timberline that retain snow into summer. Also high plateau ridgetops in openings in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest. 2440-4115 m elevation.
This species has been reported growing in alpine fellfields, krummholtz, subalpine meadows, oak brush, grasslands, shrub/herbaceous areas, talus slopes, forest openings, high plateau ridgetops, mountain passes, late-snow and cornice areas, limestone outcrops, rocky streamsides, disturbed mine and roadside areas, bare sandstone slopes, lava cliffs, and summit ridges (Beatty et al. 2004). Associated species include Abies lasiocarpa, Agrostis thurberiana, Anemone multifida, Draba nivalis var. exigua, Eritrichium aretioides, Festuca thurberi, Frageria spp., Frasera spp., Juniperus spp., Oreoxis alpina, Physaria spp., Pinus spp., Pinus ponderosa, Polemonium viscosum, Populus spp., Quercus spp., Rydbergia grandiflora, Shepherdia spp., Stipa spp., Trifolium dasyphyllum, Trifolium nanum, and Valeriana capitata (Beatty et al. 2004).

Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Any naturally occurring population that is separated by a sufficient distance or barrier from a neighboring population.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1.61 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 3.22 km
Separation Justification: The rationale for this large a separation distance across suitable but apparently unoccupied habitat is that it is likely additional research will find this habitat to be occupied. It can often be assumed that apparently unconnected populations will eventually be found to be more closely connected; these are best regarded as suboccurrences. No information on mobility of pollen and propagules is available on which to base the separation distance for this species.
Date: 28Sep2000
Author: Spackman, S. and D. Anderson
Population/Occurrence Viability
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Excellent Viability: Size: No population size information is available for this species at this time. Condition: the occurrence has an excellent likelihood of long-term viability as evidenced by the presence of multiple age classes and evidence of flowering and fruiting, indicating that the reproductive mechanisms are intact. This occurrence should be in a high-quality site with less than 1% cover of exotic plant species and/or no significant anthropogenic disturbance. Landscape Context: the occurrence is surrounded by an area that is unfragmented and includes the ecological processes needed to sustain this species.
Good Viability: Size: No population size information is available for this species at this time. Condition: the occurrence should have a good likelihood of long-term viability as evidenced by the presence of multiple age classes and evidence of flowering and fruiting, indicating that the reproductive mechanisms are intact. Anthropogenic disturbance within the occurrence is minimal. If exotic species are present, they comprise less than 10% of the total ground cover. Landscape Context: the surrounding landscape should contain the ecological processes needed to sustain the occurrence but may be fragmented and/or impacted by humans.
Fair Viability: Size: No population size information is available for this species at this time. Condition: The occurrence may be less productive than the above situations, but is still viable, with multiple age classes and evidence of flowering and fruiting, indicating that the reproductive mechanisms are intact. The occupied habitat is somewhat degraded (exotic plant species make up between 10-50% of the total ground cover and/or there is a moderate level of anthropogenic disturbance). Landscape Context: there may be significant human disturbance, but the ecological processes needed to sustain the species are still intact.
Poor Viability: Size: Less than 10 individuals. Condition: little or no evidence of successful reproduction is observed (poor seedling recruitment, no flowering or fruiting observed, or poor age class distribution). Exotic plant species make up greater than 50% of the total ground cover, and/or there is a significant level of human disturbance. Landscape context: the surrounding area is fragmented with many ecological processes no longer intact. The occurrence has a low probability of long-term persistence due to inbreeding depression, natural stochastic events, and its intrinsic vulnerability to human impacts.
Justification: A Rank: Large populations in high quality sites are presumed to contain a high degree of genetic variability, to have a low susceptibility to the effects of inbreeding depression, and to be relatively resilient. When more information is acquired, the eospecs should be reassessed for this species.

C Rank: EOs not meeting "C"-rank criteria are likely to have a very high probability of inbreeding depression and extirpation due to natural stochastic processes and/or occur in degraded habitat with low long-term potential for survival. We estimate that the effects of inbreeding depression would become severe over time in an isolated population of less than 10 individuals, although there is no data available on the population biology of this species or on the sizes of known populations at this time.

Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
Date: 28Sep2000
Author: Spackman, S. and D. Anderson
Notes: COHP
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 23May2006
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Maybury, K. and S. Spackman, rev. Spackman, S. and D. Anderson/L. Morse (2000), rev. P. Lyon (2003), rev. Neuhaus, K., J. Handwerk, and S. Spackman Panjabi (2006)
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): rev. SSP (2013)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee, ed. (FNA). 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Oxford Univ. Press, New York, Oxford.

  • Ackerfield, J. 2012. The Flora of Colorado. Colorado State University Herbarium. 433 pp.


  • Beatty, B.L., W.F. Jennings, and R.C. Rawlinson. 2004. Townsendia rothrockii Gray ex Rothrock (Rothrock's Townsend daisy): a technical conservation assessment. [Online]. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region. Available http://www.fs.fed.us/r2/projects/scp/assessments/townsendiarothrockii.pdf.

  • Colorado Natural Heritage Program. 2008. The Fifth Annual Colorado Rare Plant Symposium: G2 Plants of Colorado. Symposium Minutes. Available on-line http://www.cnhp.colostate.edu/teams/botany.asp#symposia.

  • Colorado Natural Heritage Program. 2012. Biodiversity Tracking and Conservation System. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.


  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2006b. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 20. Magnoliophyta: Asteridae, part 7: Asteraceae, part 2. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxii + 666 pp.

  • Heil, K.D., S.L. O'Kane Jr., L.M. Reeves, and A. Clifford, 2013. Flora of the Four Corners Region, Vascular Plants of the San Juan River Drainage; Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, Missouri. 1098 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Lavender, A.E., M.M. Fink, S.E. Linn, D.M. Theobald. 2011. Colorado Ownership, Management, and Protection v9 Database. Colorado Natural Heritage Program and Geospatial Centroid, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO. (30 September).

  • Neely, B., S. Panjabi, E. Lane, P. Lewis, C. Dawson, A. Kratz, B. Kurzel, T. Hogan, J. Handwerk, S. Krishnan, J. Neale, and N. Ripley. 2009. Colorado Rare Plant Conservation Strategy, Developed by the Colorado Rare Plant conservation Initiative. The Nature Conservancy, Boulder, Colorado, 117 pp.

  • Rickett, H. W. 1973. Wild flowers of the United States: Vol. 6 (3 parts). The central mountains and plains. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York. 784 pp. + plates.

  • Rondeau, R., K. Decker, J. Handwerk, J. Siemers, L. Grunau, and C. Pague. 2011. The state of Colorado's biodiversity 2011. Prepared for The Nature Conservancy. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 

  • Schneider, A. 2013. Wildflowers, Ferns, and Trees of the Four Corners Regions of Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and Utah. Accessed on-line at http://www.swcoloradowildflowers.com.

  • USDA, NRCS. 2013. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.

  • Weber, W. A. and R. C. Wittmann. 2012. Colorado Flora, Eastern Slope, A Field Guide to the Vascular Plants, Fourth Edition. Boulder, Colorado. 555 pp.

  • Weber, W. A. and R. C. Wittmann. 2012. Colorado Flora, Western Slope, A Field Guide to the Vascular Plants, Fourth Edition. Boulder, Colorado. 532 pp.

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