Townsendia spathulata - Nutt.
Sword Townsendia
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Townsendia spathulata Nutt. (TSN 38558)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.128512
Element Code: PDAST9C0M0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Aster Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Asterales Asteraceae Townsendia
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Townsendia spathulata
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 23Aug2013
Global Status Last Changed: 06Feb1990
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Townsendia spathulata is found in central Wyoming and southern Montana where it occurs in a highly localized habitats along calcareous ridges and crests in the Northern Rocky Mountains. Between 35-70 occurrences are known, and populations tend to be small. The only known threats to this species are quarrying of limestone and air pollution from quarrying activities.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Montana (S3S4), Wyoming (S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Bighorn, Park, Fremont, Sweetwater, Natrona Counties in Wyoming; and mountainous portions of southern Montana in Beaverhead, Broadwater and Carbon Counties.

In Wyoming, it is found along the rims of Ross Butte and Ross Ridge (Fertig 1998). In Montana, it is restrictued to calcareous outcrops in the foothills of the Northern Rocky Mountains (Heidel 1994).

Area of Occupancy: 26-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: 100 2x2 sq km grid cells (NatureServe element occurrence data 2013).

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: Known from southern Montana and central Wyoming, between 35-50 occurrences are known (Fertig 1998).

Population Size Comments: Populations are typically small (Fertig 1998).

Overall Threat Impact: Medium - low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Limestone quarrying is a threat to this species in the Limestone Hills, Montana. Quarrying activities have eliminated potential habitat at the northern end of its primary habitat. Further, in the form of high levels of sulphuric and nitic acid, produced by quarrying activities, are also threats. Non-native species are also a threat (Heidel 1994).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: A short statured perennial that is dependent on spring rains and sparsely vegetated areas is a poor competitor (Heidel 1994).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Bighorn, Park, Fremont, Sweetwater, Natrona Counties in Wyoming; and mountainous portions of southern Montana in Beaverhead, Broadwater and Carbon Counties.

In Wyoming, it is found along the rims of Ross Butte and Ross Ridge (Fertig 1998). In Montana, it is restrictued to calcareous outcrops in the foothills of the Northern Rocky Mountains (Heidel 1994).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States MT, WY

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
MT Beaverhead (30001), Broadwater (30007), Carbon (30009), Madison (30057), Silver Bow (30093)
WY Fremont (56013), Natrona (56025), Sublette (56035)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
10 Red Rock (10020001)+, Beaverhead (10020002)+, Ruby (10020003)+, Big Hole (10020004)+, Upper Missouri (10030101)+, Clarks Fork Yellowstone (10070006)+, Upper Wind (10080001)+, Big Horn Lake (10080010)+, Shoshone (10080014)+, Middle North Platte-Casper (10180007)+
14 Upper Green (14040101)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Plant, a low-growing composite (an Easter daisy).
General Description: Sword Townsendia is a perennial 1-5 cm tall with a stemless crown surmounting a taproot. Leaves are spathulate, 1-1.5 cm long and 2-4 cm wide, covered by dense, long hairs which give them a woolly appearance, and tightly clustered in a rosette. 1-many flower heads are sessile, or solitary on leafless stalks. Ray flowers are 1-2 cm long, with a pale off-white color.
Reproduction Comments: In Montana, the northern part of this species' range the Sword townsendia blooms in a narrow two week window between early May and from late June. Flowering and fruiting occur within a one month period. Flowering appears to be closely synchronized within locations (Heidel 1994).
Habitat Comments: In Wyoming, it is found along the ridges of Ross Butte and Ross Ridge in wind-blasted cushion plant communities (Fertig 1998). In Montana Sword townsendia is found on ridge crests of a highly localized foothill habitat, occurring in a narrow zone of mountain mahogany Cercocarpus ledifolius, especially in openings with cusion plant grasslands or early successional states of mountain mahogany on calcareous outcrops (Heidel 1994).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 23Aug2013
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Olilver, L.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 16Dec1999
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): BLH

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Fertig, W. 1998a. Plant species of special concern of the Ross Butte Ecosystem, Sublette County, Wyoming. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY. Accessed online on August 23, 2013 at: http://www.uwyo.edu/wyndd/_files/docs/reports/wynddreports/u98fer06wyus.pdf

  • Heidel, B. L. 1994a. Status review of the sword townsendia (Townsendia spathulata) and Limestone Hills survey, Broadwater County, Montana. Unpublished report for the Butte District, Bureau of Land Management. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena. 14 pp. plus appendices. Accessed online on August 23, 2013 at: http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/61486#page/3/mode/1up

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

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