Torreyochloa pallida - (Torr.) Church
Pale Manna Grass
Other English Common Names: Pale False Mannagrass
Other Common Names: pale false mannagrass
Synonym(s): Glyceria pallida (Torr.) Trin. ;Puccinellia pallida (Torr.) Clausen
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Torreyochloa pallida (Torr.) G.L. Church (TSN 505539)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.157102
Element Code: PMPOA61030
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Grass Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Cyperales Poaceae Torreyochloa
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Torreyochloa pallida
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 29Jun2016
Global Status Last Changed: 02Mar2005
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Widespread in the United States and Canada.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5?
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (29Jun2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alaska (SNR), Arizona (SNR), California (SNR), Colorado (SNR), Connecticut (SNR), Delaware (SNR), Florida (SNR), Georgia (SH), Idaho (SNR), Illinois (S1), Indiana (SNR), Kentucky (SH), Maine (SNR), Maryland (S3), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (S3), Missouri (SNR), Montana (SNR), Nevada (SNR), New Hampshire (SNR), New Jersey (SNR), New Mexico (SNR), New York (SNR), North Carolina (S1), Ohio (SNR), Oregon (SNR), Pennsylvania (SNR), Rhode Island (SNR), South Carolina (S1), South Dakota (SNR), Tennessee (S1), Utah (SNR), Vermont (SNR), Virginia (S4), Washington (SNR), West Virginia (S2), Wisconsin (SNR), Wyoming (S3)
Canada Alberta (SNR), British Columbia (S1), Labrador (SNR), Manitoba (S2), New Brunswick (S5), Newfoundland Island (SNR), Nova Scotia (S4S5), Ontario (S4), Prince Edward Island (S4), Quebec (SNR), Saskatchewan (S2), Yukon Territory (SNR)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Range for the species as a whole: Newfoundland to Alaska, south in the east to Georgia and Missouri, in the west to New Mexico and California. Variety pallida: Nova Scotia west to Ontario and Minnesota, south to North Carolina, northwestern South Carolina, northern Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky, and southeast Missouri. Variety fernaldii: Newfoundland to British Columbia, south to Minnesota, Michigan, West Virginia, Delaware; also Wyoming. Variety pauciflora: Alaska to South Dakota, south to California and New Mexico. Sometimes considered to be conspecific with the east Asian T. natans [V.. Komarov] Church and T. viridis [A. Hitchc.] Church (Davis 1991).

Population Size Comments: Uncommon in many parts of its range.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Highly threatened by land-use conversion, habitat fragmentation, sedimentation, and to a lesser extent by forest management practices (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Range for the species as a whole: Newfoundland to Alaska, south in the east to Georgia and Missouri, in the west to New Mexico and California. Variety pallida: Nova Scotia west to Ontario and Minnesota, south to North Carolina, northwestern South Carolina, northern Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky, and southeast Missouri. Variety fernaldii: Newfoundland to British Columbia, south to Minnesota, Michigan, West Virginia, Delaware; also Wyoming. Variety pauciflora: Alaska to South Dakota, south to California and New Mexico. Sometimes considered to be conspecific with the east Asian T. natans [V.. Komarov] Church and T. viridis [A. Hitchc.] Church (Davis 1991).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DE, FL, GA, ID, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MT, NC, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
GA Bartow (13015)*
IL Jackson (17077)*, Union (17181)
KY Ballard (21007)*, Livingston (21139)*, McCracken (21145)*
MD Anne Arundel (24003)*, Caroline (24011), Dorchester (24019), Garrett (24023), Montgomery (24031)*, Prince Georges (24033), Somerset (24039), St. Marys (24037), Washington (24043), Worcester (24047)
MN Aitkin (27001), Beltrami (27007), Carlton (27017), Cass (27021), Clearwater (27029)*, Cook (27031), Hubbard (27057)*, Itasca (27061), Koochiching (27071), Lake (27075), Otter Tail (27111), Pine (27115), St. Louis (27137)
MO Bollinger (29017), Butler (29023)*, Cape Girardeau (29031)*, Franklin (29071)*, Howell (29091), Jefferson (29099)*, Mississippi (29133)*, New Madrid (29143)*, Phelps (29161)*, Reynolds (29179), Ripley (29181)*, Scott (29201)*, Shannon (29203), St. Charles (29183)*, St. Louis (29189)*, St. Louis (city) (29510)*, Stoddard (29207), Wayne (29223)
NC Currituck (37053), Gates (37073), Harnett (37085)
NJ Sussex (34037)
SC York (45091)
TN Robertson (47147), White (47185)
VT Addison (50001), Bennington (50003)
WV Preston (54077), Randolph (54083), Tucker (54093)
WY Teton (56039)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 White (01080105)+
02 Hudson-Hoosic (02020003)+, Rondout (02020007)+, Severn (02060004)+*, Choptank (02060005)+, Patuxent (02060006)+*, North Branch Potomac (02070002)+*, Conococheague-Opequon (02070004)+, Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan (02070010)+*, Lower Potomac (02070011)+, Western Lower Delmarva (02080109)+, Pokomoke-Western Lower Delmarva (02080111)+
03 Ghowan (03010203)+, Albemarle (03010205)+, Upper Cape Fear (03030004)+, Upper Broad (03050105)+, Coosawattee (03150102)+*, Oostanaula (03150103)+*, Etowah (03150104)+*
04 Baptism-Brule (04010101)+, Beaver-Lester (04010102)+, St. Louis (04010201)+, Cloquet (04010202)+, Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301)+*, Lake Superior (04020300)+*
05 Cheat (05020004)+, Youghiogheny (05020006)+, Caney (05130108)+, Red (05130206)+, Lower Ohio (05140206)+*
06 Lower Tennessee (06040006)+*
07 Mississippi Headwaters (07010101)+, Prairie-Willow (07010103)+, Pine (07010105)+, Upper St. Croix (07030001)+, Kettle (07030003)+, Peruque-Piasa (07110009)+*, Cahokia-Joachim (07140101)+*, Meramec (07140102)+*, Big (07140104)+*, Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105)+, Big Muddy (07140106)+*, Whitewater (07140107)+*
08 New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201)+*, Upper St. Francis (08020202)+, Lower St. Francis (08020203)+, Little River Ditches (08020204)+
09 Otter Tail (09020103)+, Red Lakes (09020302)+, Rainy Headwaters (09030001)+, Vermilion (09030002)+, Rainy Lake (09030003)+, Little Fork (09030005)+, Big Fork (09030006)+
10 Lower Gasconade (10290203)+*, Lower Missouri (10300200)+*
11 Upper Black (11010007)+, Current (11010008)+, Spring (11010010)+, Eleven Point (11010011)+
17 Snake headwaters (17040101)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Pale green, slender, wetland grass.
General Description: Pale green, slender, wetland grass.
Technical Description: Culms slender and flaccid, usually more or less decumbent and creeping at base, 3-10 dm tall. Leaf-blades soft, 3-8 mm wide. Panicle with relatively few branches, eventually diffuse, 5-15 cm long. Spikelets narrowly ovate, 4-7 mm long, 4-6-flowered; glumes broadly rounded at the scarious tip; lemmas ovate, sharply nerved, finely pubescent or scaberulous, erose at the rounded apex; palea 4-5 times as long as wide. Var. fernaldii Hitchc.: culms usually very slender and weak, with leaf-blades seldom more than 5 mm wide and small panicles; first glume 0.9-1.7 mm long; second glume 1.1-2.1 mm long, lemmas 2-2.9 mm long; anthers broadly oblong, 0.3-0.5 mm long. Var. pallida: culms stouter, with leaf-blades to 8 mm wide and usually larger panicles; spikelets similar but slightly larger; first glume 1.3-2.1 mm long; second glume 1.6-2.4 mm long; lemmas 2.6-3.2 mm long; anthers linear, 1-1.6 mm long. (Gleason 1952) Var. pauciflora (J. Presl.) J.I. Davis: culms 50 to 120 cm tall; sheaths open, smooth or scaberulous, sometimes inflated in floating plants; blades thin, flat, lax, scaberulous, mostly 10 to 15 cm long, 5 to 15 mm wide; panicle open or rather dense, nodding, 10 to 20 cm long, the branches ascending or spreading, rather flexuous, the spikelets crowded on the upper half, the lowermost usually 2 to 4; spikelets mostly 5- or 6-flowered, 4 to 5 mm long, often purplish; glumes broadly ovate or oval, about 1 and 1.5 mm long, the margins erose-scarious, the second 3-nerved; lemmas oblong, 2 to 2.5 mm long, with 5 prominent nerves and an outer short faint pair near the margins, scaberulous on the nerves and somewhat so between them, the tip rounded, scarious, somewhat erose (Hitchcock 1951); often from subterranean stems (Hulten 1968).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Genus distinguished from Glyceria as follows: basic chromosome number of 7 (vs. 10); lemma 5-nerved (vs. 7-nerved); upper glume 3-nerved (vs. 1-nerved); leaf sheaths open (vs. closed, rupturing later); rhizomes lacking [but present in the western var. pauciflora] (vs. rhizomes present). Genus distinguished from Puccinellia as follows: chromosomes much larger in Torreyochloa than in Puccinellia; nerves of lemma raised, equally prominent, more or less equally spaced (vs. not prominent or not equally so, and not equaly spaced in Puccinellia). (Dore and McNeill 1980). Over most of the continent, this is the only species in the genus. In the west, var. pauciflora may be distinguished from T. erecta as follows: inflorescence ovate to elliptic or obovate in outline (vs. linear to narrowly ellipitic), 1-6 x width (vs. 5-15 x width), 1-12 cm wide (vs. less than 1cm wide); leaf blade 3.5-17.5 mm wide (vs. 3.5-7 mm wide) (Hickman 1993). Panicles of T. pallida tend to be lax and open; those of T. erecta are narrow with ascending branches (Hitchcock 1951). T. californica, maintained as a separate species by Kartesz, is sometimes considered to be part of T. pallida as well: it is found at higher elevations and is generally smaller, with compact, ovate to obovate panicles, ca. 6-10 mm long and ca. 2-3 times as long as wide, and leaves to 5 mm wide (Davis 1991, Munz 1959).
Duration: PERENNIAL
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen, FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian, TEMPORARY POOL
Habitat Comments: Bogs, marshy shores of ponds, lakes, streams, swamps, pools, sloughs, cattail marshes, temporary pools, shallow cold water of shaded stream & pond sides, wet hollows in woods (Godfrey and Wooten 1981, Deam 1940, Hough 1983, Roland & Smith 1983, Radford et al. 1968, Voss 1985, Cronquist 1977, Hulten 1968).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 06Mar1995
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: M.E. Stover, TNC-HO
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 06Mar1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): M.E. STOVER, TNC-HO

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Cronquist, A., A.H. Holmgren, N.H. Holmgren, J.L. Reveal, and P.K. Holmgren. 1977. Intermountain flora: vascular plants of the intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. Six. Monocotyledons. Columbia Univ. Press, New York. 584 pp.

  • Davis, J. I. 1991. A note on North American Torreyochloa (Poaceae), including a new combination. Phytologia 70(5):361-365.

  • Davis, J. I. 2007. Torreyochloa. Pages 607-609 in Flora of North America Editorial Committee, editors. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Volume 24. Oxford University Press, New York, New York.

  • Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Division of Forestry, Dept. of Conservation, Indianapolis, Indiana. 1236 pp.

  • Dore, W.G. et J. McNeill 1980. Grasses of Ontario. Monograph 26. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa. 565 p.

  • Dore, W.G., and J. McNeill. 1980. Grasses of Ontario. Research Branch, Agriculture Cananda, Ottawa. 566 pp.

  • Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. Corrected printing (1970). D. Van Nostrand Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 3 volumes. Hafner Press, New York. 1732 pp.

  • Godfrey, R.K., and J.W. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic and wetland plants of southeastern United States: Dicotyledons. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens. 933 pp.

  • Hickman, J. C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 1400 pp.

  • Hitchcock, A.S. 1951. Manual of the grasses of the United States. 2nd edition revised by Agnes Chase. [Reprinted, 1971, in 2 vols., by Dover Publications, Incorporated, New York.]

  • Hough, M.Y. 1983. New Jersey wild plants. Harmony Press, Harmony, NJ. 414 pp.

  • Hulten, E. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford Univ. Press, Palo Alto, CA. 1008 pp.

  • Kartesz, J. T. 1991. Synonym names from 1991 checklist, as extracted by Larry Morse, TNC, June 1991.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Milburn, S. A., M. Bourdaghs, and J. J. Husveth. 2007. Floristic quality assessment for Minnesota wetlands. Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, St. Paul, Minnesota. 197 pp.

  • Munz, P.A., with D.D. Keck. 1959. A California flora. Univ. California Press, Berkeley. 1681 pp.

  • Roland, A.E., and E.C. Smith. 1983. The flora of Nova Scotia: Volumes 1 and 2. Nova Scotia Museum, Halifax, NS, Canada. 746 pp.

  • Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project. 2002. A partnership between the U.S. Forest Service-Region 8, Natural Heritage Programs in the Southeast, NatureServe, and independent scientists to develop and review data on 1300+ regionally and locally rare species in the Southern Appalachian and Alabama region. Database (Access 97) provided to the U.S. Forest Service by NatureServe, Durham, North Carolina.

  • Voss, E. G. 1972. Michigan Flora Part I. Gymnosperms and Monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science Bulletin 55 and the University of Michigan Herbarium. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 488 pp.

  • Voss, E.G. 1972. Michigan flora: A guide to the identification and occurrence of the native and naturalized seed-plants of the state. Part I. Gymnosperms and monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science and Univ. Michigan Herbarium. Ann Arbor. 488 pp.

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