Thelypodium paniculatum - A. Nels.
Northwestern Thelypody
Synonym(s): Thelypodium sagittatum var. crassicarpum Payson
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Thelypodium paniculatum A. Nels. (TSN 23407)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.156879
Element Code: PDBRA2N0B0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Mustard Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Capparales Brassicaceae Thelypodium
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Thelypodium paniculatum
Taxonomic Comments: This species was included as a synonym of Thelypodium sagittatum in Hitchcock et al. (1964), which recognized T. sagittatum var. crassicarpum for plants of similar morphology. However Al-Shehbaz (1973) and more recent authors recognize T. paniculatum, and Rollins (1993) has T. sagittatum var. crassicarpum as a synonym of this species.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 09Feb2009
Global Status Last Changed: 30Sep1999
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Documented range includes southwestern Montana (1-2 counties; historical), western Wyoming (6 counties), and adjacent southeastern Idaho (1 county); the species recurs in southeastern Wyoming (2 counties) and north-central Colorado (2 counties). Approximately 20 sites have been documented, about half of which are currently believed extant. Within its range, this species' riparian and wet meadow habitat is threatened by hydrological alterations including irrigation diversions, channel degradation, and ditching (expected to impact the species) and heavy livestock grazing (unknown effect on the species), although specific impacts on the species have not been documented.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Colorado (SH), Idaho (S1), Montana (SH), Wyoming (S2)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Documented range includes southwestern Montana (historical in Beaverhead Co. and reported from Madison Co. [Dorn 1984]), western Wyoming (Park, Teton, Sublette, Lincoln, Uinta, and Fremont cos. [Rocky Mountain Herbarium 1998]), and adjacent southeastern Idaho (Bonneville Co. [Holmgren et al. 2005]); the species recurs in southeastern Wyoming (Carbon and Platte cos. [Rocky Mountain Herbarium 1998]) and north-central Colorado (Jackson and Moffat Cos. [Ackerfield 2012]). Range size is on the order of 100,000 square km.

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: There are 7 extant and 9 historical occurrences in Wyoming (pers. com. W. Fertig, Wyoming NDD to K. Fayette 1999). The species reaches its southeastern limit in North Park in north-central Colorado, where Weber and Wittmann (1996a) say it was collected once at Camp Creek; there is one specimen at the Colorado State University Herbarium (1999) from Moffat County in the northwest (collected 1947), but the species is not in Weber and Wittmann (1996b), so its documentation on the CO western slope is questionable. For Montana, there is one 1899 collection from Beaverhead County and a report from Madison County (Lesica 2003). Known from one county (Bonneville Co.) in Idaho, but occurrences have not been mapped.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Riparian meadow habitats within this species' range are threatened by hydrological alterations including irrigation diversions, channel degradation, and ditching, which result in lowered water tables (Lesica 2003); at least one occurrence may have been impacted by ditching. Riparian meadow habitats are also often subject to heavy livestock grazing (at least one site is known to have been grazed), but the effects of such grazing on this species is uncertain because many species in this family respond positively to disturbance (Lesica 2003).

Short-term Trend Comments: Limited efforts to relocate the Alaska Basin occurrence at the head of the Centennial Valley in Montana have been unsuccessful to date, possibly indicating extirpation.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Documented range includes southwestern Montana (historical in Beaverhead Co. and reported from Madison Co. [Dorn 1984]), western Wyoming (Park, Teton, Sublette, Lincoln, Uinta, and Fremont cos. [Rocky Mountain Herbarium 1998]), and adjacent southeastern Idaho (Bonneville Co. [Holmgren et al. 2005]); the species recurs in southeastern Wyoming (Carbon and Platte cos. [Rocky Mountain Herbarium 1998]) and north-central Colorado (Jackson and Moffat Cos. [Ackerfield 2012]). Range size is on the order of 100,000 square km.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CO, ID, MT, WY

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CO Jackson (08057)*
MT Beaverhead (30001)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
10 Red Rock (10020001)+*, Upper North Platte (10180002)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Purple-flowered biennial or short-lived perennial herb 1.4-7.5 dm high, with upper stem-leaves mostly arrowhead-shaped at base; terete siliques 1.3-2.3 mm wide, with plump seeds. Flowers June-August and fruits July-August.
General Description: Northwestern thelypody is an herbaceous biennial or short-lived perennial with solitary, simple or branched stems that are 3-7 dm high and arising from a taproot. Its lower leaves are 4-10 cm long and have petioles and narrowly lance-shaped, entire-margined blades. The upper stem leaves are 2-6 cm long and lance-shaped with basal wings that clasp the stem. Foliage is glabrous and has a thin, waxy coating. Flowers are borne on ascending stalks in cylindric inflorescences that are up to 35 cm long when mature. Each flower has 4 separate sepals that are 5-8 mm long, 4 separate, lavendar petals that are 10-16 mm long and 2-6 mm wide, and 4 long and 2 short stamens. The ascending, straight, cylindrical capsules, or siliques, are not flattened, and are 25-40 mm long and 1.3-2.3 mm wide.
Technical Description: From Flora of North America (2010): Biennials or perennials; (short-lived); glaucous, glabrous or sparsely pubescent. Stems branched often proximally and distally, (1.4-)2-6.5(-7.5) dm, (glabrous or pubescent). Basal leaves: petiole (0.8-)2-4 (-6.5) cm, ciliate; blade usually oblanceolate, rarely spatulate or oblong, (3-)6-15(-22) cm × (6-)10-25 (-40) mm, margins entire, (surfaces glabrous). Cauline leaves (ascending); sessile; blade lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, (1.7-)2.2-6(-9) cm × (3-)5-15(-30) mm, (base sagittate to somewhat amplexicaul), margins entire, (surfaces glabrous). Racemes corymbose, dense, terminal not elongated in fruit, (flower buds ovate). Fruiting pedicels usually horizontal to divaricate, rarely divaricate-ascending, often curved upward, slender, 6-11.5(-17) mm, slightly flattened at base. Flowers: sepals erect, ovate to oblong-ovate, (3-)3.5-5(-6) × (1-)1.5-2 mm; petals lavender to purple, spatulate to broadly obovate, (6.5-)8-11.5(-14) × 2.5-5(-6) mm, margins not crisped, claw strongly differentiated from blade, [slender, (2-)2.5-4(-5) mm, narrowest at base]; nectar glands confluent, subtending bases of stamens; filaments tetradynamous, median pairs (3-)3.5-5(-6) mm, lateral pair (2-)2.5-4(-5) mm; anthers included, ovate to ovate-oblong, 1-2 mm, not circinately coiled; gynophore (stout), 0.5-0.8(-1.2) mm. Fruits erect, slightly torulose, usually slightly incurved, rarely straight, terete, (1-)1.3-3.2(-5) cm × (0.8-)1.5-2.3 mm; ovules 20-30 per ovary; style cylindrical, (0.5-)1.5-1.7(-3) mm. Seeds (plump), (1.3-)1.5-2 × 0.8-1 mm. Flowering Jun-Jul. 
Diagnostic Characteristics: This species is similar to Thelypodium sagittatum, but the latter has fruits less than 1.2 mm wide and petals less than 3 mm wide. T. paniculatum might also be confused with species of Arabis, but those plants have flattened rather than cylindrical siliques.
Reproduction Comments: Has lightweight seeds that are probably very easily distributed. Wind may be important for dispersal in open habitats, but rain wash is probably important as well. Flooding is likely to be a major means of seed dispersal for populations growing on stream banks, and may also be important for those found in meadows (Al-Shehbaz 1973 cited in Lesica 2003).
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Habitat Comments: This species is found in boggy flats, wet sedge meadows and wet stream banks (Rollins 1993) and on hills (Dorn 1984, 1992). The genus is often on alkaline soils and chiefly in desert areas; Thelypodium sagittatum (including T. paniculatum as a synonym and T. sagittatum var. crassicarpum as a "poorly understood variant") occurs in lower mountain valleys to desert plains in moist often alkaline meadows that usually dry by midsummer (Hitchcock et al. 1964).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Any naturally occurring population that is separated by a sufficient distance or barrier from a neighboring population.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1.61 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 3.22 km
Separation Justification: The rationale for this large a separation distance across suitable but apparently unoccupied habitat is that it is likely additional research will find this habitat to be occupied. It can often be assumed that apparently unconnected populations will eventually be found to be more closely connected; these are best regarded as suboccurrences. No information on mobility of pollen and propagules is available on which to base the separation distance for this species.
Date: 28Sep2000
Author: Spackman, S. and D. Anderson
Population/Occurrence Viability
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Excellent Viability: Size: No quantitative information is available on population size at this time for Thelypodium paniculatum. Condition: the occurrence has an excellent likelihood of long-term viability as evidenced by the presence of multiple age classes and evidence of flowering and fruiting, indicating that the reproductive mechanisms are intact. This occurrence should be in a high-quality site with less than 1% cover of exotic plant species and/or no significant anthropogenic disturbance. Landscape Context: the occurrence is surrounded by an area that is unfragmented and includes the ecological processes needed to sustain this species.
Good Viability: Size: No quantitative information is available on population size at this time for Thelypodium paniculatum. Condition: the occurrence should have a good likelihood of long-term viability as evidenced by the presence of multiple age classes and evidence of flowering and fruiting, indicating that the reproductive mechanisms are intact. Anthropogenic disturbance within the occurrence is minimal. If exotic species are present, they comprise less than 10% of the total ground cover. Landscape Context: the surrounding landscape should contain the ecological processes needed to sustain the occurrence but may be fragmented and/or impacted by humans.
Fair Viability: Size: No quantitative information is available on population size at this time for Thelypodium paniculatum. Condition: The occurrence may be less productive than the above situations, but is still viable, with multiple age classes and evidence of flowering and fruiting, indicating that the reproductive mechanisms are intact. The occupied habitat is somewhat degraded (exotic plant species make up between 10-50% of the total ground cover and/or there is a moderate level of anthropogenic disturbance). Landscape Context: there may be significant human disturbance, but the ecological processes needed to sustain the species are still intact.
Poor Viability: Size: Less than 10 individuals. Condition: Little or no evidence of successful reproduction is observed (poor seedling recruitment, no flowering or fruiting observed, or poor age class distribution). Exotic plant species make up greater than 50% of the total ground cover, and/or there is a significant level of human disturbance. Landscape context: The surrounding area is fragmented with many ecological processes no longer intact. The occurrence has a low probability of long-term persistence due to inbreeding depression, natural stochastic events, and its intrinsic vulnerability to human impacts.
Justification: A Rank: Sparse specimen label data are the only information currently known for this species. No quantitative information is available on population size or quality for this species at this time. Large populations in high quality sites are presumed to contain a high degree of genetic variability, to have a low susceptibility to the effects of inbreeding depression, and to be relatively resilient. When more information is acquired, the eospecs should be reassessed.

C Rank: EOs not meeting "C"-rank criteria are likely to have a very high probability of inbreeding depression and extirpation due to natural stochastic processes and/or occur in degraded habitat with low long-term potential for survival. We estimate that the effects of inbreeding depression would become severe over time in an isolated population of less than 10 individuals, although there is no data available on the population biology of this species or on the sizes of known populations at this time.

Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
Date: 28Sep2000
Author: Spackman, S. and D. Anderson
Notes: COHP
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 28Sep2000
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Kim Fayette; revised by Bruce MacBryde, 99-09-27; rev. B. Heidel (1999), rev. S. Spackman and D. Anderson (2000), rev. K. Gravuer (2009)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 10Dec1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): JM, rev. SSP (2014)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Ackerfield, J. 2011. The Flora of Colorado. Plant Identification BZ 223. Colorado State University Herbarium, Ft. Collins, CO.

  • Al-Shehbaz, I.A. 1973. Biosystematics of Thelypodium. Contributions from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University 204:3-148.

  • Colorado State University Herbarium. 1999. "Colorado State University Herbarium Database". http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Biology/Herbarium/ database.html. (May 15 1999).

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2010. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 7. Magnoliophyta: Salicaceae to Brassicaceae. Oxford University Press, New York. xxii + 797 pp.

  • Harrington, H.D. 1954. Manual of the plants of Colorado. Sage Press, Chicago. 666 pp.

  • Holmgren, N.H., P.K. Holmgren, and A. Cronquist. 2005. Intermountain flora. Volume 2, part B. Subclass Dilleniidae. The New York Botanical Garden Press. 488 pages.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Lesica, P. 2003. Conserving globally rare plants on lands administered by the Dillon Office of the Bureau of Land Management. Report to the USDI Bureau of Land Management, Dillon Office. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 22 pp. plus appendices.

  • Montana Field Guide. 2008. Accessed online at: http://fieldguide.mt.gov (August 2008)

  • Montana Natural Heritage Program. 1999. Biological Conservation Database. http://nris.state.mt.us/mtnhp. (May 15 1999).

  • Neely, B., S. Panjabi, E. Lane, P. Lewis, C. Dawson, A. Kratz, B. Kurzel, T. Hogan, J. Handwerk, S. Krishnan, J. Neale, and N. Ripley. 2009. Colorado Rare Plant Conservation Strategy, Developed by the Colorado Rare Plant conservation Initiative. The Nature Conservancy, Boulder, Colorado, 117 pp.

  • Rocky Mountain Herbarium. 1998. Atlas of the Vascular Flora of Wyoming. University of Wyoming. Online. Available: http://www.esb.utexas.edu/tchumley/wyomap/atlas.htm (accessed 2009).

  • Rollins, R.C. 1993a. The Cruciferae of continental North America: Systematics of the mustard family from the Arctic to Panama. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, California. 976 pp.

  • USDA, NRCS. 2013. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.

  • Weber, W. A. and R. C. Wittmann. 2012. Colorado Flora, Eastern Slope, A Field Guide to the Vascular Plants, Fourth Edition. Boulder, Colorado. 555 pp.

  • Weber, W.A., and R.C. Wittmann. 1996a. Colorado flora: Eastern slope. Revised edition. Univ. Press of Colorado, Niwot, Colorado. 524 pp.

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