Tantilla coronata - Baird and Girard, 1853
Southeastern Crowned Snake
Other English Common Names: southeastern crowned snake
Synonym(s): Tantilla coronata coronata ;Tantilla coronata mitrifer
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Tantilla coronata Baird and Girard, 1853 (TSN 174280)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.105156
Element Code: ARADB35020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Reptiles - Snakes
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Reptilia Squamata Colubridae Tantilla
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Collins, J. T. 1990. Standard common and current scientific names for North American amphibians and reptiles. 3rd ed. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Herpetological Circular No. 19. 41 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B90COL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Tantilla coronata
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 10Feb2014
Global Status Last Changed: 30Oct1996
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: The species has a very large range in eastern North America. It can be locally abundant in many areas though has almost certainly declined in some as a result of habitat loss and fragmentation. Overall the species is secure because of the large number of viable occurrences, but nevertheless it is of conservation concern in some regions.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Oct1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5), Florida (S3), Georgia (S4), Indiana (S1), Kentucky (S3S4), Louisiana (S1), Mississippi (S4S5), North Carolina (S4), South Carolina (SNR), Tennessee (S5), Virginia (S3)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range extends from extreme southern Indiana and western Kentucky eastward to Virginia, and south to eastern Louisiana, Alabama, and the Florida panhandle (Barbour 1971, Ashton and Ashton 1981, Dundee and Rossman 1989, Mitchell 1994, Palmer and Braswell 1995, Minton 2001, Ernst and Ernst 2003).

Area of Occupancy: >12,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations); e.g., see dot maps of collection sites in Mount (1975), Dundee and Rossman (1989), Palmer and Braswell 1995), and Krysko et al. (2011).

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 100,000. This snake is secretive and likely more numerous than available records indicate. It is locally common statewide in Alabama (Mount 1975), nowhere abundant but locally common in some areas in Kentucky (Barbour 1971), and uncommon in Florida (Tennant 1997).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Many to very many (41 to >125)

Overall Threat Impact: Unknown
Overall Threat Impact Comments: In Florida, this snake may have been negatively affected by the recent invasion of imported fire ants (Tennant 1997).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Current trend is unknown, but extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, number of subpopulations, and population size probably are relatively stable or declining at a rate of less than 10 percent over 10 years or three generations.

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable
Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Small size increases vulnerability to predation, including to imported red fire ants.

Environmental Specificity: Moderate to broad.
Environmental Specificity Comments: From edges of swamps to xeric uplands; can survive in human-altered landscapes as well as natural systems.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Determine number, location, and status of extant occurrences. Record data in conjunction with other biotic surveys, especially on conservation lands.

Protection Needs: Provide legal protection in perpetuity for upland tracts known to be inhabited by the species. Prevent degradation of xeric and mesic upland habitats within the range of the species.

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Range extends from extreme southern Indiana and western Kentucky eastward to Virginia, and south to eastern Louisiana, Alabama, and the Florida panhandle (Barbour 1971, Ashton and Ashton 1981, Dundee and Rossman 1989, Mitchell 1994, Palmer and Braswell 1995, Minton 2001, Ernst and Ernst 2003).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, FL, GA, IN, KY, LA, MS, NC, SC, TN, VA

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2005


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IN Clark (18019)*, Floyd (18043)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
05 Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101)+, Blue-Sinking (05140104)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Mating occurs in late summer/fall and/or in spring (Aldridge, Copeia 1992:1103-1106). Lays clutch of 1-4 (usually 3-4) eggs, May-June (Florida?); usually 1-3 eggs in June-early July in South Carolina. In Florida, hatching occurs in August (Telford). Functional sexual maturity apparently is attained at about 34 months in males, at 21 months in most females (Aldridge and Semlitsch, 1992, Amphibia-Reptilia 13:209-225).
Habitat Type: Terrestrial
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest/Woodland, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Special Habitat Factors: Burrowing in or using soil, Fallen log/debris
Habitat Comments: Habitat varies but tends to be relatively dry and wooded (often pine and oak), with an abundance of rocks, logs, or rotting stumps on the surface; specific examples of occupied habitats include xeric pine/oak woodland on hillsides and ridges; sandy pine flatwoods; maritime forests; sandhills; and sometimes mesic meadows, hardwood hammocks, and the wet margins of marshes, swamps, and rivers (Barbour 1971, Mount 1975, Ashton and Ashton 1981, Dunee and Rossman 1989, Mitchell 1994, Palmer and Braswell 1995, Tennant 1997, Minton 2001, Ernst and Ernst 2003). In daytime, this snake generally is under rocks, debris, or other surface cover, or within or under rotting logs or stumps. At night, it may be found on roads. Eggs are laid under woody debris, in rotting logs or sawdust piles, or underground.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats earthworms, slugs, centipedes, termites, and insect larvae.
Adult Phenology: Hibernates/aestivates, Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Hibernates/aestivates, Nocturnal
Phenology Comments: Active from March to October in north (Minton 1972).
Length: 33 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: Study persistence of small populations and the effects of preserve size and population size on long-term viability of local populations. Greater research is needed on the population effects of predation by imported fire ants.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Small Colubrid Snakes

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs) in or near appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Busy highway or highway with obstructions such that snakes rarely if ever cross successfully; major river, lake, pond, or deep marsh (this barrier does not apply to aquatic or wetland species); densely urbanized area dominated by buildings and pavement.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Data are limited to only a few species, but small colubrid snakes such as Diadophis punctatus (Fitch 1975) and Carphophis amoenus (Barbour et al. 1969, Clark 1970) generally have relatively small home ranges less than, or much less than, 1 ha. However, because even small snakes occasionally move large distances (e.g., up to at least 1.7 km in Diadophis punctatus, Fitch 1975). Also, these snakes tend to be secretive and may be easily overlooked or not recorded in areas where they do in fact occur. It seems unlikely that occupied locations separated by a gap of less than several kilometers of suitable habitat would represent independent occurrences over the long term.
Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .2 km
Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Notes: This specs group is a somewhat arbitrary assemblage of small snakes that are believed to be among the most sedentary species of the family Colubridae.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 10Feb2014
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Jackson, D. R. (2014); Hammerson, G. (2006)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 05Sep2006
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Ashton, R. E., Jr., and P. S. Ashton. 1981. Handbook of reptiles and amphibians of Florida. Part One: The Snakes. Windward Publishing Company, Miami, Florida. 176 pp.

  • Barbour, R. W. 1971. Amphibians and reptiles of Kentucky. Univ. Press of Kentucky, Lexington. x + 334 pp.

  • Behler, J. L., and F. W. King. 1979. The Audubon Society field guide to North American reptiles and amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. 719 pp.

  • CONANT, R., AND J.T. COLLINS. 1991. A FIELD GUIDE TO REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS, EASTERN AND CENTRAL NORTH AMERICA, THIRD ED. HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS. 450 PP.

  • Cliburn, J.W. 1976. A key to the amphibians and reptiles of Mississippi. Fourth edition. Mississippi Museum of Natural Science, Jackson, Mississippi. 71 pp.

  • Collins, J. T. 1990. Standard common and current scientific names for North American amphibians and reptiles. 3rd ed. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Herpetological Circular No. 19. 41 pp.

  • Conant, R., and J. T. Collins. 1998. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians: eastern and central North America. Third edition, expanded. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Massachusetts. 616 pp.

  • Crother, B. I. (editor). 2008. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Sixth edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular 37:1-84.

  • Crother, B. I. (editor). 2008. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Sixth edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular 37:1-84. Online with updates at: http://www.ssarherps.org/pages/comm_names/Index.php

  • Crother, B. I. (editor). 2012. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. 7th edition. SSAR Herpetological Circular 39:1-92.

  • Dundee, H. A., and D. A. Rossman. 1989. The amphibians and reptiles of Louisiana. Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge.

  • Dundee, H.E., and D.A. Rossman. 1989. The amphibians and reptiles of Louisiana. Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge. 300 pp.

  • Endsley, J.R. 1954. An annotated listing of a herpetological collection mainly from Tennessee. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science 29(1): 36-41.

  • Ernst, C. H., and E. M. Ernst. 2003. Snakes of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Books, Washington, D.C.

  • Hardy, J. 1952. The crowned snake, Tantilla coronata cor- onata, in North Carolina. Copeia 1952(3):188

  • Krysko, K. L., K. M. Enge, and P. E. Moler. 2011. Atlas of amphibians and reptiles in Florida. Final report to Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Tallahassee, Florida. Submitted 15 December 2011.

  • Krysko, K. L., K. M. Enge, and P. E. Moler. 2011. Atlas of amphibians and reptiles in Florida. Final report to Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Tallahassee, Florida. Submitted 15 December 2011.

  • Lohoefener, R. and R. Altig. 1983. Mississippi herpetology. Mississippi State University Research Center, NSTL Station, Mississippi. 66 pp.

  • Martof, B. S., W. M. Palmer, J. R. Bailey, and J. R. Harrison, III. 1980. Amphibians and reptiles of the Carolinas and Virginia. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. 264 pp.

  • Minton, S. A., Jr. 1972. Amphibians and reptiles of Indiana. Indiana Academy Science Monographs 3. v + 346 pp.

  • Minton, S. A., Jr. 2001. Amphibians & reptiles of Indiana. Revised second edition. Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis. xiv + 404 pp.

  • Mirarchi, R.E., editor. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume 1. A checklist of vertebrates and selected invertebrates: aquatic mollusks, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 209 pages.

  • Mitchell, J. C. 1994. The reptiles of Virginia. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. xv + 352 pp.

  • Mount, R. H. 1975. The reptiles and amphibians of Alabama. Auburn University Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn, Alabama. vii + 347 pages.

  • Mount, R. H. 1975. The reptiles and amphibians of Alabama. Auburn University Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn, Alabama. vii + 347 pp.

  • Natural Resources Commission. 2014. Roster of Indiana Animals, Insects, and Plants That Are Extirpated, Endangered, Threatened or Rare. Information Bulletin #2 (Sixth Amendment. 20pp.

  • Palmer, W. M., and A. L. Braswell. 1995. Reptiles of North Carolina. North Carolina State Museum of Natural Sciences, University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

  • SEYLE, W., AND G. K. WILLIAMSON. 1988 (IN PREP). REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS OF GEORGIA: RANGE MAPS

  • Telford, S. R., Jr. 1982. Tantilla coronata. Cat. Am. Amph. Rep. 308.1-308.2.

  • Tennant, A. 1997. A field guide to snakes of Florida. Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas. xiii + 257 pp.

  • Tennant, A.  1997.  A Field Guide to Snakes of Florida.  Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas.  257 pp.

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