Neotamias canipes - (V. Bailey, 1902)
Gray-footed Chipmunk
Synonym(s): Eutamias canipes ;Tamias canipes (V. Bailey, 1902)
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Tamias canipes (V. Bailey, 1902) (TSN 180191)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.101405
Element Code: AMAFB02150
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Rodents
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Rodentia Sciuridae Neotamias
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.
Concept Reference Code: B93WIL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Tamias canipes
Taxonomic Comments: This species formerly was regarded as a subspecies of T. cinereicollis; it was elevated to species status by Fleharty (1960) and regarded as such by Jones et al. (1992) Hoffmann et al. (in Wilson and Reeder 1993), Baker et al. (2003) and Thorington and Hoffmann (in Wilson and Reeder 2005).

Chipmunks of this genus formerly were included in the genus Eutamias, which recently was included in the genus Tamias (Levenson et al. 1985; Jones et al. 1992, Hoffmann et al., in Wilson and Reeder 1993). Based on patterns of variation in ectoparasites (Jameson 1999) and molecular phylogenetics (Piaggio and Spicer 2001), the North American mammal checklist by Baker et al. (2003) placed all North American chipmunks (except Tamias striatus) in the genus Neotamias. Thorington and Hoffmann (in Wilson and Reeder 2005) noted that chipmunks could be legitimately allocated to one (Tamias), two (Neotamias, Tamias), or three (Tamias, Neotamias, Eutamias) genera; they chose to adopt the single-genus (Tamias) arrangement.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 12Apr2006
Global Status Last Changed: 12Apr2006
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Occurs in several mountain ranges in southeastern New Mexico and southwestern Texas; population trend is unknown but evidently the species is not threatened.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4 (12Apr2006)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States New Mexico (S3), Texas (S2S3)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 5000-20,000 square km (about 2000-8000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: The range includes the Gallinas, Sacramento, Jicarilla, Capitan, White (= Sierra Blanca), and Guadalupe mountains, Sierra Diablo, and Carrizozo Malpais lava flow in the Tularosa Valley in southeastern New Mexico and southwestern Texas (Best et al. 1992, Frey 2004, Schmidly 2004). In Texas, this species occurs at elevations of 1,800-2,500 meters (Schmidly 2004). Elevational range in New Mexico extends as low as about 1,600 meters and as high as around 3,600 meters.

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species occurs in dozens of locations in several mountain ranges (Schmidly 2004).

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but probably exceeds 100,000. Except for Peromyscus, this is the most common mammal in the Guadalupe Mountains.

Overall Threat Impact: Low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Small populations may be vulnerable to massive fires (Schmidly 2004), but no major threats have been identified..

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend of population is unknown (Federal Register 1994, cited by New Mexico Department of Game and Fish 1996), but existing information does not indicate a decline.

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%
Long-term Trend Comments: Extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, number of subpopulations, and population size probably have not declined much if at all.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (5000-20,000 square km (about 2000-8000 square miles)) The range includes the Gallinas, Sacramento, Jicarilla, Capitan, White (= Sierra Blanca), and Guadalupe mountains, Sierra Diablo, and Carrizozo Malpais lava flow in the Tularosa Valley in southeastern New Mexico and southwestern Texas (Best et al. 1992, Frey 2004, Schmidly 2004). In Texas, this species occurs at elevations of 1,800-2,500 meters (Schmidly 2004). Elevational range in New Mexico extends as low as about 1,600 meters and as high as around 3,600 meters.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States NM, TX

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: Sechrest, 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NM Eddy (35015)*, Lincoln (35027)*, Otero (35035)*, Torrance (35057)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
13 Western Estancia (13050001)+*, Eastern Estancia (13050002)+*, Tularosa Valley (13050003)+*, Salt Basin (13050004)+*, Arroyo Del Macho (13060005)+*, Gallo Arroyo (13060006)+*, Rio Hondo (13060008)+*, Rio Penasco (13060010)+*, Upper Pecos-Black (13060011)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Small mammal (chipmunk).
Reproduction Comments: Young are born apparently from mid-May through August. A female captured in Texas had four embryos in early August (Schmidly 1977).
Ecology Comments: Little is known.
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Conifer, Forest - Mixed, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Mixed
Special Habitat Factors: Fallen log/debris
Habitat Comments: Habitats include coniferous forests (spruce, fir, Douglas-fir), dense mixed oak/pine/fir forests, pinyon-juniper woodland, and brushy hillsides with rocky crevices. In Texas, gray-footed chipmunks occur only in higher-elevation forests and brushy hillsides (Schmidly 2004). These chipmunks are most numerous among or near the cover of logs and rocks, etc. They climb and perch on logs, rocks, cliffs, and woody plants. Nests often are in cavities of downed timber; sometimes underground among roots of decaying stumps (see Best et al. 1992).
Adult Food Habits: Frugivore, Granivore, Herbivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Frugivore, Granivore, Herbivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats acorns, seeds, mushrooms, small fruits, some herbaceous vegetation and insects. Known to feed on Douglas-fir seed. Climbs into oaks to collect acorns.
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Phenology Comments: Relatively inactive in winter, especially when snow is deep.
Length: 25 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Chipmunks

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals in appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Mapping Guidance: If parts of the occurrence are separated (by less than 1 kilometer), these should be mapped as separate polygons.
Separation Barriers: Major water barriers of greater than 30 meters width; major roads of more than 30 meters of bare clearance.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Home ranges generally small, 0.2-4.0 hectares (Broadbooks 1970, Sheppard 1972, Gashwiler 1965, Storer et al. 1944, Roberts 1962, Brown 1971, Eliot 1968, Wadsworth 1972). However, dispersal movements may extend to at least 0.86 km (Roberts 1976). Given that recorded dispersal can be a conservative indicator of actual dispersal characteristics, especially when methods other than radio-telemetry are used to monitor movements, the separation distance used here for suitable habitat assumes that chipmunk dispersal is more extensive than currently documented. Certainly these mammals are capable of making extensive movements. The separation distance for suitable habitat is a compromise between the documented sedentary habits and the likely low probability that two locations separated by less than several kilometers of suitable habitat would represent different populations.

Barriers: In a study of small mammals and road-crossing, no TAMIAS STRIATUS (n=179) crossed highways with more than 30 meters of clearance (Oxley et al. 1974).

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .1 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Based on a home range of about 1 hectare (see Separation Justification).
Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G., and S. G. Cannings
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 12Apr2006
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Clausen, M. K., and G. Hammerson
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 12Apr2006
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Baker, R. J., L. C. Bradley, R. D. Bradley, J. W. Dragoo, M. D. Engstrom, R. S. Hoffman, C. A. Jones, F. Reid, D. W. Rice, and C. Jones. 2003a. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 2003. Museum of Texas Tech University Occasional Papers 229:1-23.

  • Banfield, A. W. F. 1974. The mammals of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada. 438 pp.

  • Best, T. L., J. L. Bartig, and S. L. Burt. 1992. Tamias canipes. Am. Soc. Mamm., Mammalian Species No. 411:1-5.

  • Broadbooks, H. E. 1970a. Home ranges and territorial behavior of the yellow-pine chipmunk, Eutamius amoenus. Journal of Mammalogy 51:310-26.

  • Broadbooks, H. E. 1970b. Populations of the yellow pine chipmunk, Eutamias amoenus. American Midland Naturalist 83:472-488.

  • Brown, J. H. 1971. Mechanisms of competitive exclusion between two species of chipmunks. Ecology 52:305-311.

  • Elliot, L. 1978. Social behavior and foraging ecology of the eastern chipmunk (TAMIAS STRIATUS) in the Adirondack Mountains. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 265. 107 pp.

  • Fleharty, E. D. 1960. The status of the gray-necked chipmunk in New Mexico. J. Mamm. 41:235-242.

  • Frey, J. K. 2004. Taxonomy and distribution of the mammals of New Mexico: an annotated checklist. Museum of Texas Tech University Occasional Papers 240. 32 pp.

  • Gashwiler, J. S. 1965. Longevity and home range of a Townsend chipmunk. Journal of Mammalogy 46:693.

  • Jackson, H. H. 1961. Mammals of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 504 pp.

  • Jameson, E. W., Jr. 1999. Host-ectoparasite relationships among North American chipmunks. Acta Theriologica 44:225-231.

  • Jones, J. K., Jr., R. S. Hoffman, D. W. Rice, C. Jones, R. J. Baker, and M. D. Engstrom. 1992a. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 1991. Occasional Papers, The Museum, Texas Tech University, 146:1-23.

  • Levenson, H., et al. 1985. Systematics of the Holarctic chipmunks (TAMIAS). J. Mammalogy 66:219-242.

  • New Mexico Department of Game and Fish. 1996. October 1-last update. Fish and Wildlife Information Exchange-VA Tech. Online. Available: http//www.fw.vt.edu/fishex/nm.html. Accessed 1997, April 8.

  • Oxley, D. J., M. B. Fenton and G. R. Carmody. 1974. The effects of roads on populations of small mammals. Journal of Applied Ecology 11: 51-59.

  • Piaggio, A. J., and G. S. Spicer. 2001. Molecular phylogeny of the chipmunks inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase II gene sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 20:335-350.

  • Roberts, D. R. 1962. Rodent movements in a cutover forest of the Sierra Nevada, California. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley.

  • Schmidly, D. J. 1977. The mammals of Trans-Pecos Texas including Big Bend National Park and Guadalupe Mountains National Park. Texas A & M University Press, College Station.

  • Schmidly, D. J. 2004. The mammals of Texas. Revised edition. University of Texas Press, Austin. xviii + 501 pp.

  • Sheppard, D. 1972. Home ranges of chipmunks (EUTAMIAS) in Alberta. Journal of Mammalogy 53:379- 380.

  • Storer, T. I., F. C. Evans, and F. G. Palmer. 1944. Some rodent populations in the Sierra Nevada of California. Ecological Monographs 14:166-192.

  • Sutton, D. A. 1992. Tamias amoenus. Am. Soc. Mamm., Mammalian Species No. 390:1-8.

  • Wadsworth, C. E. 1972. Observations of the Colorado chipmunk in southeastern Utah. Southwestern Naturalist 16:451-454.

  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.

  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 2005. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Third edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. Two volumes. 2,142 pp. Available online at: http://vertebrates.si.edu/msw/mswcfapp/msw/index.cfm

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