Tamarix ramosissima - Ledeb.
Salt-cedar
Other English Common Names: Salt Cedar, Tamarisk
Other Common Names: saltcedar
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb. (TSN 22310)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.133641
Element Code: PDTAM01080
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Other flowering plants
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Violales Tamaricaceae Tamarix
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Tamarix ramosissima
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (22Mar1994)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Arizona (SNA), Arkansas (SNA), California (SNA), Colorado (SNA), Georgia (SNR), Kansas (SNA), Louisiana (SNA), Mississippi (SNA), Montana (SNA), Nebraska (SNA), Nevada (SNA), New Mexico (SNA), North Dakota (SNA), Oklahoma (SNA), South Carolina (SNA), South Dakota (SNA), Texas (SNA), Utah (SNA), Virginia (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States ARexotic, AZexotic, CAexotic, COexotic, GA, KSexotic, LAexotic, MSexotic, MTexotic, NDexotic, NEexotic, NMexotic, NVexotic, OKexotic, SCexotic, SDexotic, TXexotic, UTexotic, VAexotic

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NV Carson City (32510), Churchill (32001), Clark (32003), Elko (32007), Esmeralda (32009), Eureka (32011), Humboldt (32013), Lander (32015), Lincoln (32017), Lyon (32019), Mineral (32021), Nye (32023), Pershing (32027), Storey (32029), Washoe (32031), White Pine (32033)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
15 Lower Virgin (15010010)+, White (15010011)+, Muddy (15010012)+, Meadow Valley Wash (15010013)+, Las Vegas Wash (15010015)+
16 Hamlin-Snake Valleys (16020301)+, Upper Humboldt (16040101)+, North Fork Humboldt (16040102)+, South Fork Humboldt (16040103)+, Pine (16040104)+, Middle Humboldt (16040105)+, Reese (16040107)+, Lower Humboldt (16040108)+, Little Humboldt (16040109)+, Upper Quinn (16040201)+, Lower Quinn (16040202)+, Truckee (16050102)+, Pyramid-Winnemucca Lakes (16050103)+, Granite Springs Valley (16050104)+, Upper Carson (16050201)+, Middle Carson (16050202)+, Carson Desert (16050203)+, East Walker (16050301)+, West Walker (16050302)+, Walker (16050303)+, Walker Lake (16050304)+, Dixie Valley (16060001)+, Gabbs Valley (16060002)+, Southern Big Smoky Valley (16060003)+, Northern Big Smoky Valley (16060004)+, Diamond-Monitor Valleys (16060005)+, Little Smoky-Newark Valleys (16060006)+, Long-Ruby Valleys (16060007)+, Spring-Steptoe Valleys (16060008)+, Dry Lake Valley (16060009)+, Fish Lake-Soda Spring Valleys (16060010)+, Ralston-Stone Cabin Valleys (16060011)+, Hot Creek-Railroad Valleys (16060012)+, Sand Spring-Tikaboo Valleys (16060014)+
17 Alvord Lake (17120009)+
18 Honey-Eagle Lakes (18080003)+, Upper Amargosa (18090202)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: High
Rounded I-Rank: High
I-Rank Reasons Summary: Widespread in the western US where it has been associated with severe ecosystem degradation. May prove difficult to remove.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: High
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: High
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: High/Low
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: High/Medium
I-Rank Review Date: 01Apr2004
Evaluator: Fellows, M.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Eastern Europe, Asia (Weber 2003).

Download "An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-Native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity". (PDF, 1.03MB)
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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: (Kartesz 1999).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: (Bossard et al. 2000).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: High

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:High significance
Comments: Dense thickets lower the water table in arid habitats (Weber 2003). Also, increases the salinity under a stand (Weber 2003). Increases sediment deposition and effects magnitude and duration of floods (Weber 2003). Can also alter the fire regime of the local area (Weber 2003). Associated with changes in geomorphology, groundwater availability, soil chemistry, fire frequency, plant community composition, and native wildlife diversity (Bossard et al. 2000).

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Shrub or small tree 8 m tall (Weber 2003). Forms dense stands (Weber 2003). Associated with changes in geomorphology, groundwater availability, soil chemistry, fire frequency, plant community composition, and native wildlife diversity (Bossard et al. 2000).

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:High significance
Comments: Displace native vegetation, lower species richness (Weber 2003). Associated with changes in geomorphology, groundwater availability, soil chemistry, fire frequency, plant community composition, and native wildlife diversity (Bossard et al. 2000).

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Moderate significance
Comments: Lower available food resources for wildlife (Weber 2003). Little value for most amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals (Bossard et al. 2000).

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Completely replaces native vegetation of riparian corridors (Bossard et al. 2000).

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: High

6. Current Range Size in Nation:High significance
Comments: In southwestern states from CA and NV to TX and OK. Also in ND, SD, NE and KS. Scattered in east, from VA to LA. (Kartesz 1999).

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:High significance
Comments: Listed as noxious in NV, CO and NC (Kartesz 1999).

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Is probably restricted to most arid ecoregions, perhaps less than 34 (Kartesz 1999; TNC 2001).

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Low significance
Comments: Desert washes and streambanks, desert scrub, ditches (Weber 2003).

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: High/Low

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:Unknown

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Unknown

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:High significance
Comments: Originally planted as a windbreak, for erosion control and/or for shade (Bossard et al. 2000). Seeds are easily dispersed long distances by wind and water (Bossard et al. 2000).

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:Unknown

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Site disturbance increases establishment (Bossard et al. 2000).

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:High/Low significance
Comments: Australia, southern Africa (Weber 2003) and Canada (Kartesz 1999).

16. Reproductive Characteristics:High significance
Comments: Numerous seeds, up to 500,000 per plant per year or about 100 seeds per sq. inch of infestation (Bossard et al. 2000; Weber 2003). Effective resprouter (Bossard et al. 2000; Weber 2003). Plants can flower at the end of the first year of growth (Bossard et al. 2000). Produces seeds every 5.5 months (Bossard et al. 2000).

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: High/Medium

17. General Management Difficulty:High significance
Comments: Difficult to control because they will resprout from roots (Weber 2003). Hand pull small plants and cut and treat stumps with one of 6 effective herbicides for large trees (Bossard et al. 2000; Weber 2003). However, the location of the trees near water may limit which herbicides may be used (Bossard et al. 2000). Fire will not kill roots (Bossard et al. 2000). Flooding for periods of 2 years can kill most plants in a thicket (Bossard et al. 2000).

18. Minimum Time Commitment:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Monitoring for resprouts - also new seedlings will establish down wind/down stream of any other population (Bossard et al. 2000).

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:High significance
Comments: Techniques such as fire and flood could negatively effect native species, however, most thickets have few native species left. It may not be possible to kill Tamarix ramosissima without killing native shrubs, if they are interspersed (Carpenter 1998).

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:Unknown
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Bossard, C.C., J.M. Randall, and M. Hoshovsky. (eds.) 2000. Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

  • Carpenter, A.T. 1998. Element Stewardship Abstract for Tamarix ramosissima, Tamarix pentandra, Tamarix chinensis, Tamarix parviflora. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Little, E.L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agriculture Handbook No. 541. U.S. Forest Service, Washington, D.C. 375 pp.

  • Swenson, J. E., P. Hendricks, and A. Farjon. 1982. Arrival and occurrence of TAMARIX CHINENSIS along the Yellowstone River in Treasure and Rosebud County, Montana. Proceedings of the Montana Academy of Science 41:67-70.

  • The Nature Conservancy. 2001. Map: TNC Ecoregions of the United States. Modification of Bailey Ecoregions. Online . Accessed May 2003.

  • Weber, E. 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds. CABI Publishing, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 548 pp.

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