Tadarida brasiliensis - (I. Geoffroy, 1824)
Brazilian Free-tailed Bat
Other English Common Names: Mexican Free-tailed Bat
Other Common Names: Morcego
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Tadarida brasiliensis (I. Geoffroy, 1824) (TSN 180088)
Spanish Common Names: Murciélago de Cola Libre de Brasil
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102529
Element Code: AMACD01010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Bats
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Chiroptera Molossidae Tadarida
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.
Concept Reference Code: B93WIL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Tadarida brasiliensis
Taxonomic Comments: The specific relationships of Antillean populations of Tadarida remain obscure; it has been suggested that Caribbean populations represent a distinct species or that they are related to T. b. cynocephala (of the southeastern U.S.) but not to other populations of the brasiliensis complex (Jones 1989). Two of the nine subspecies (T. b. mexicana and T. b. cynocephala) occur in the U.S. Though morphological data suggest intergradation (Schmidly 1977), these two subspecies differ widely in behavior (migratory vs. nonmigratory) and roost preference, and gene flow between them has been reported to be minimal and unidirectional at most (Owen et al. 1990). However, McCracken and Gassel (1997) found high genetic similarity and evidence of gene flow between these nominal subspecies, such as typically seen between geographic populations of the same subspecies.

The generic name Rhizomops was proposed in 1984 for Tadarida brasiliensis (and presumably all subspecies), but this was rejected by Owen et al. (1990) because the genus was based entirely on plesiomorphic characters.

McCracken et al. (1994) examined allozyme data from several maternity and winter colonies within the range of subspecies mexicana and determined that populations are not structured genetically into distinct geographic units.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 01Apr2015
Global Status Last Changed: 05Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Large range (southern North America to South America); very large population; many roost sites but bulk of known population uses only a couple dozen sites; trend poorly known due to questionably reliable historical data; vulnerable to disturbance to roosts; mortality from turbines at wind energy facilities may be an increasingly significant threat.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Sep1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (S3), Arizona (S3S4), Arkansas (S4), California (SNR), Colorado (S1), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S4), Kansas (SNA), Louisiana (S4), Mississippi (S5), Navajo Nation (S3S4), Nebraska (SNRN), Nevada (S3S4B), New Mexico (S3S4), North Carolina (S4), Oklahoma (S3), Oregon (S4), South Carolina (SNR), Texas (S5), Utah (S4B)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range extends from Oregon, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Nebraska, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, and North Carolina (some records farther north) southward through most of Mexico, Central America, and the Antilles to central Argentina, southern Brazil, and central Chile, excluding Amazonia (Wilkins 1989; Simmons, in Wilson and Reeder 2005). Elevational range extends to at least 3,000 meters in some mountain ranges in the Western United states.

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: The number of distinct occurrences has not been determined using standardized critertia. This species is represented by a very large number of roosts, though the bulk of the known population occurs in about 20 caves in the southwestern United States.

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown (and likely overestimated historically; Hristov et al. 2010) but greatly exceeds 1,000,000.

Overall Threat Impact: Medium - low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: The species' tendency to roost in large numbers in relatively few locations makes it vulnerable to human disturbance and habitat destruction. Human disturbance and vandalism of key roosting sites in caves are likely the single most serious causes of decline (Texas Parks and Wildlife). Human rabies deaths attributed to this species have led to eradication efforts in some areas. In Mexico, efforts to eliminate vampire bats have led to indiscriminate killing of bats and destruction of roosting sites. Alteration of caves in conjunction with commercialization, guano mining, vandalism, and other human activities has contributed to declines in some locations.

These bats may accumulate heavy loads of potentially lethal pesticides, and broadcast applications of pesticides may result in reductions in bat food resources. Lethal effects of DDT-derived compounds may have played a major role in the reported major population decline observed at Carlsbad Caverns between the 1930s and 1950s (Clark 2001). However, subsequent data cast doubt on the degree (if any) to which the population has declined (Hristov et al. 2010) and thus call into question the importance of pesticides as a major threat.

This species is vulnerable to significant mortality from turbines at wind energy facilities (Arnett et al. 2008). Arnett and Baerwald (2013) estimated that wind turbines killed roughly 21,300-44,100 individuals in the United States and Canada during the period 2000-2011. High rates of mortality can occur during the reproductive period when females are pregnant or lactating, thus compounding the impact (Piorkowski and O?Connell 2010). As wind energy development continues to expand in the southwestern United States and Mexico, further information is needed to better understand the impact of wind turbines on T. brasiliensis, and how best to avoid or minimize this threat (Kunz et al. 2007).

Drought may depress insect populations and bat food supply, but the extent to which this is a significant threat is uncertain.

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is unknown, but the number of occupied roosts and abundance probably have been relatively stable or slowly declining.

Long-term Trend: Unknown
Long-term Trend Comments: Long-term trend is unknown due to questionable accuracy of historical population estimates.

Historical counts at several major colonies in the United States were much higher than recent counts based on thermal infrared technology (McCracken 2003, Betke et al. 2008), but the degree to which this reflects historical overestimation versus population decline is unknown.

Data from 4 caves and 2 bridges in Texas from 1995 to 2005 indicated a relatively stable population, though a large decline may or may not have occurred prior to 1995 (Horn and Kunz 2008, Ammerman et al. 2012).

A population at Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, supposedly decreased from an estimated 8.7 million individuals in 1936 to an average of 37,900 in 1957; subsequently, population estimates varied from 218,000 to nearly 800,000 in the 1970s, 1990s, and 2005 (Altenbach et al. 1979, Route et al. 1998, Hristov et al. 2010). However, trend determination from available data is highly uncertain given that (1) population exhibits extreme daily and seasonal variations, (2) historical population estimates likely were inaccurate, and (3) changes in abundance may reflect shifts of the bats to other locations (Hristov et al. 2010).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Best occurrences known; more information is needed on wintering areas and aggregations.

Protection Needs: Protect largest colonies. Protect tropical winter areas. Protect natural habitats within agricultural landscapes (Davidai et al. 2015).

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Range extends from Oregon, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Nebraska, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, and North Carolina (some records farther north) southward through most of Mexico, Central America, and the Antilles to central Argentina, southern Brazil, and central Chile, excluding Amazonia (Wilkins 1989; Simmons, in Wilson and Reeder 2005). Elevational range extends to at least 3,000 meters in some mountain ranges in the Western United states.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, FL, GA, KS, LA, MS, NC, NE, NM, NN, NV, OK, OR, SC, TX, UT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: Ceballos, 2001; NatureServe, 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Bullock (01011), Lee (01081)
AZ Cochise (04003), Coconino (04005), Graham (04009), Greenlee (04011), La Paz (04012), Maricopa (04013), Mohave (04015), Navajo (04017), Pima (04019), Pinal (04021), Santa Cruz (04023), Yavapai (04025), Yuma (04027)
MS Claiborne (28021)
NM Catron (35003), Grant (35017), Hidalgo (35023), Socorro (35053)
NV Churchill (32001), Clark (32003), Elko (32007), Esmeralda (32009), Humboldt (32013)*, Lincoln (32017), Lyon (32019)*, Nye (32023), Washoe (32031), White Pine (32033)
OK Greer (40055), Harmon (40057), Major (40093), McCurtain (40089), Woods (40151), Woodward (40153)
OR Jackson (41029), Josephine (41033)
UT Beaver (49001), Carbon (49007)*, Duchesne (49013)*, Garfield (49017), Grand (49019), Iron (49021), Juab (49023)*, Kane (49025), Millard (49027), Piute (49031)*, Salt Lake (49035), San Juan (49037), Sevier (49041), Tooele (49045), Uintah (49047), Utah (49049), Washington (49053), Wayne (49055), Weber (49057)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Upper Conecuh (03140301)+, Lower Tallapoosa (03150110)+
08 Bayou Pierre (08060203)+
11 Lower Cimarron-Eagle Chief (11050001)+, Upper Salt Fork Arkansas (11060002)+, Lower Salt Fork Red (11120202)+, Elm Fork Red (11120304)+, Mountain Fork (11140108)+
13 Rio Grande-Albuquerque (13020203)+, Jornada Del Muerto (13020210)+*, Elephant Butte Reservoir (13020211)+
14 Upper Colorado-Kane Springs (14030005)+, Lower White (14050007)+*, Lower Green-Diamond (14060001)+*, Duchesne (14060003)+*, Lower Green-Desolation Canyon (14060005)+*, Willow (14060006)+, Price (14060007)+*, Upper Lake Powell (14070001)+, Muddy (14070002)+, Fremont (14070003)+, Dirty Devil (14070004)+, Escalante (14070005)+, Lower Lake Powell (14070006)+, Paria (14070007)+, Lower San Juan (14080205)+
15 Lower Colorado-Marble Canyon (15010001)+, Grand Canyon (15010002)+, Kanab (15010003)+, Lake Mead (15010005)+*, Upper Virgin (15010008)+, Fort Pierce Wash (15010009)+, Lower Virgin (15010010)+, White (15010011)+, Muddy (15010012)+, Meadow Valley Wash (15010013)+, Las Vegas Wash (15010015)+, Leroux Wash (15020009)+, Canyon Diablo (15020015)+, Havasu-Mohave Lakes (15030101)+, Sacramento Wash (15030103)+*, Imperial Reservoir (15030104)+, Big Sandy (15030201)+, Burro (15030202)+, Bill Williams (15030204)+, Upper Gila (15040001)+, Upper Gila-Mangas (15040002)+, Animas Valley (15040003)+, San Francisco (15040004)+, Upper Gila-San Carlos Reservoir (15040005)+, San Simon (15040006)+, Middle Gila (15050100)+, Willcox Playa (15050201)+, Upper San Pedro (15050202)+, Lower San Pedro (15050203)+, Upper Santa Cruz (15050301)+, Rillito (15050302)+, Brawley Wash (15050304)+*, Lower Salt (15060106)+, Upper Verde (15060202)+, Lower Verde (15060203)+, Agua Fria (15070102)+, Hassayampa (15070103)+, Centennial Wash (15070104)+, Lower Gila (15070201)+, San Bernardino Valley (15080302)+
16 Lower Weber (16020102)+, Utah Lake (16020201)+, Spanish Fork (16020202)+, Provo (16020203)+, Jordan (16020204)+, Hamlin-Snake Valleys (16020301)+, Southern Great Salt Lake Desert (16020306)+, Upper Sevier (16030001)+, East Fork Sevier (16030002)+*, Middle Sevier (16030003)+, Lower Sevier (16030005)+, Escalante Desert (16030006)+, Beaver Bottoms-Upper Beaver (16030007)+, Upper Humboldt (16040101)+, Smoke Creek Desert (16040203)+*, Truckee (16050102)+, Middle Carson (16050202)+*, Carson Desert (16050203)+, Spring-Steptoe Valleys (16060008)+, Dry Lake Valley (16060009)+, Fish Lake-Soda Spring Valleys (16060010)+, Ralston-Stone Cabin Valleys (16060011)+, Hot Creek-Railroad Valleys (16060012)+*, Cactus-Sarcobatus Flats (16060013)+, Sand Spring-Tikaboo Valleys (16060014)+, Ivanpah-Pahrump Valleys (16060015)+
17 Middle Rogue (17100308)+, Applegate (17100309)+
18 Upper Amargosa (18090202)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A free-tailed bat.
Reproduction Comments: Breeds late February-March or early April in North America. None of 8 females collected in late December in Jamaica was pregnant (Goodwin 1970). Gestation lasts 2.5-3.5 months. Births mainly June-July in North America (early to mid-June in Texas). Litter size: 1 (females occasionally carry 2 embryos). Despite the huge numbers of young that may be present in a colony, females recognize and nurse their own offspring. Young nurse for about 45 days, first fly at 6-7 weeks. Females may become pregnant as yearlings; males become sexually mature at 18-22 months. Maternity colonies initially consist of almost only of pregnant females. Some colonies include more than 1 million individuals (20 million adult females give birth in Bracken Cave near San Antonio, Texas); 10,000s in eastern North America. If a nursery falls below about 20,000 females, usually it is abandoned (Caire et al. 1989).
Ecology Comments: Roosting occurs in tightly packed groups. Winter congregations typically are much smaller than summer colonies. Sexes generally segregate during summer. Males may form small colonies at higher elevations than those used by females, but sometimes they roost in groups of up to 100,000 individuals.
Habitat Type: Terrestrial
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: In the eastern United States (to eastern Texas) and along the U.S. West Coast, these bats hibernate but do not migrate. Antillean subspecies antillarum does not migrate (Jones 1989).

In most of Texas, the Great Plains, and areas in the southwestern United States, most individuals migrate to Mexico or to the southwestern United States, usually toward the end of October, returning in March (see Wilkins 1989 for more detail). The migratory colony at Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico, is present from March through November (Hristov et al. 2010). Beginning in late August, individuals in the southern Great Plains migrate to winter range that extends from the southern edge of the Edwards Plateau in Texas southward nearly to the latitude of Mexico City (Caire et al. 1989). Migrations of up to at least 1,840 kilometers (Great Plains-Mexico) have been recorded (Glass 1982).

Daily movements in the breeding range can be extensive. Feeding often occurs within a 50-mile radius of the day roost but may extend up to 150 miles away (Whitaker 1980). Individuals may range as far as 80 kilometers from their roosting caves to feed (Caire et al. 1989). Bats that roost in Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico, forage up to at least 56 kilometers from the cavern (Best and Geluso 2003).

Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Cliff, Desert, Grassland/herbaceous, Old field, Savanna, Shrubland/chaparral, Suburban/orchard, Urban/edificarian, Woodland - Conifer
Subterranean Habitat(s): Subterrestrial
Habitat Comments: Habitat ranges from lowland deserts, shrublands, woodlands, and forests to high mountains. Major roosts are primarily in caves in the southwestern United States; generally buildings (generally old ones) in the southeastern United States (sometimes in hollow trees), along the U.S. West Coast, and in Jamaica; in both buildings and caves in Puerto Rico. Individuals may roost in cliff faces and other rock crevices, under bridges, on signs, or in cliff swallow nests during migration. Generally these bats roost high (at least 3 meters) above the ground to allow the amount of free fall required to attain flight. Large maternity colonies inhabit buildings and caves (rarely used in Florida); culverts and bridges may also serve as maternity sites. Individuals tend to return to their natal cave to breed (Caire et al. 1989). Foraging bats make use of agricultural landscapes and natural habitats; in Texas, the latter were most important in late summer (Davidai et al. 2015).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: These bts feed opportunistically on moths, flying ants, beetles, bugs, and other insects, often those in relatively dense swarms. They may fly considerable distances to favorable feeding areas.
Adult Phenology: Crepuscular, Hibernates/aestivates, Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Crepuscular, Hibernates/aestivates, Nocturnal
Phenology Comments: Hibernating individuals have been found in some areas in the eastern United States and on U.S. West Coast (Barbour and Davis 1969).

On overcast days, these bats may forage in the early evening. In a predominantly male colony in Colorado, the bats began to leave a mine shaft at about #### h; a few began returning by 2300, continuing until 0430; none returned after 0515 (Freeman and Wunder 1988). In some areas some groups do not return to cave until after daylight (Caire et al. 1989); in other areas may forage for a few hours, return to cave roost for a few hours, then go out on another foraging trip, returning after dawn. 

Colonial Breeder: Y
Length: 11 centimeters
Weight: 14 grams
Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: Large colonies produce voluminous guano in roost caves; guano has been (and still is) mined for use as a fertilizer in some areas.
Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: A relatively well-studied species. Needs some resolution of subspecies.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Use Class: Bachelor colony
Subtype(s): Colony Site, Foraging Area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: An area occupied either historically or at present by a persisting or recurring population of males during the breeding season. Includes collections or mist net captures of males away from roost sites even if the actual roost site(s) are not known. Identification evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and detailed documentation of one or more males.
Mapping Guidance: Foraging areas should be mapped as separate polygons if they are separated from roost by commuting zone.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Extensive foraging movements (see Maternity Colony). Separation Distance set arbitrarily low to create EOs that are manageable for conservation purposes.
Date: 01Apr2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson

Use Class: Maternity colony
Subtype(s): Colony Site, Foraging Area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: An area occupied either historically or at present by a persisting or recurring population that includes pregnant or nursing females. Includes collections or mist net captures of pregnant or nursing females away from roost sites even if the actual roost site(s) are not known. Identification evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and detailed documentation of one or more pregnant or nursing females.
Mapping Guidance: Foraging areas should be mapped as separate polygons if they are separated from roost by commuting zone.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Forages up to 50 km or more from the roost (McCracken, in Wilson and Ruff 1999; Best and Geluso 2003), up to 240 km (Whitaker 1980).

Movement characteristics of these highly mobile bats might suggest separation distance of many tens of kilometers. However, this would result in occurrences of unwieldy spatial scope. It is impractical to attempt to delineate occurrences on the basis of discrete populations. Instead, the assigned separation distance is intended to generate occurrences that consist of spatially proximate roost sites and capture locations. However, include in the same occurrence (1) any roost sites between which individuals are known to move, regardless of how far apart they are, and (2) known significant foraging areas of occurrences that are based on roost sites.

Date: 19Apr2005
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Roost site, Foraging area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: An area occupied either historically or at present by a persisting or recurring population during the breeding season. Includes collections or mist net captures of bats away from roost sites even if the actual roost site(s) are not known. Identification evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and detailed documentation of one or more individuals.
Mapping Guidance: Foraging areas should be mapped as separate polygons if they are separated from roost by commuting zone.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Extensive foraging movements (see Maternity Colony). Separation Distance set arbitrarily low to create EOs that are manageable for conservation purposes.
Date: 01Apr2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 02Jul2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 02Jul2015
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Altenbach, J. S., K. N. Geluso, and D. E. Wilson. 1979. Population size of Tadarida brasiliensis at Carlsbad Caverns in 1973. Pages 341-348 in H. H. Genoways and R. J. Baker, editors. Biological investigations in the Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Texas. Proceedings and Transactions Series 4, National Park Service, Washington, D.C.

  • Ammerman, L. K., C. L. Hice, and D. J. Schmidly. 2012. Bats of Texas. Texas A & M University Press, College Station, Texas. xvi + 305 pp.

  • Anthony, H. E. 1925. Mammals of Porto Rico, living and extinct--Chiroptera and Insectivora. Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Vol. IX, Part 1, pp. 1-96. New York Acad. Sci.

  • Arita, H. T. 1993. Conservation biology of the cave bats in Mexico. Journal of Mammalogy 74:693-702.

  • Arnett, E. B., W. K. Brown, W. P. Erickson, J. K. Fiedler, B. L. Hamilton, T. H. Henry, A. Jain, G. D. Johnson, J. Kerns, R. R. Koford, C. P. Nicholson, T. J. Connell, M. D. Piorkowski and R. D. Tankersley. 2008. Patterns of bat fatalities at wind energy facilities in North America. Journal of Wildlife Management 72(1): 61-78.

  • Arnett, E. B., and E. F. Baerwald. 2013. Impacts of wind energy development on bats: implications for conservation. Pages 435-456 in R. A. Adams and S. C. Pedersen (editors). Bat evolution, ecology, and conservation. Springer Science+Business Media, New York.

  • Baker, R. J., L. C. Bradley, R. D. Bradley, J. W. Dragoo, M. D. Engstrom, R. S. Hoffman, C. A. Jones, F. Reid, D. W. Rice, and C. Jones. 2003. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 2003. Museum of Texas Tech University Occasional Papers 229:1-23. [Available online at http://www.nsrl.ttu.edu/publications/opapers/ops/op229.pdf ]

  • Barbour, R. W., and W. H. Davis. 1969. Bats of America. The University of Kentucky Press, Lexington, Kentucky. 286 pp.

  • Best, T. L., and K. N. Geluso. 2003. Summer foraging range of Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) from Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist 48:590-596.

  • Betke, M., D.E. Hirsh, N.C. Makris, G.F. McCracken, M. Procopio, N.I. Hristov, S. Tang, A. Bagchi, J.D. Reichard, J.W. Horn, S. Crampton, C.J. Cleveland, and T.H. Kunz. 2008. Thermal imaging reveals significantly smaller Brazilian free-tailed bat colonies than previously estimated. Journal of Mammalogy 89(1):18-24.

  • Bradley, R.D., L.K. Ammerman, R.J. Baker, L.C. Bradley, J.A. Cook. R.C. Dowler, C. Jones, D.J. Schmidly, F.B. Stangl Jr., R.A. Van den Bussche and B. Würsig. 2014. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 2014. Museum of Texas Tech University Occasional Papers 327:1-28. Available at: <http://www.nsrl.ttu.edu/publications/opapers/ops/OP327.pdf> (Accessed April 1, 2015)

  • Caire, W., J. D. Tyler, B. P. Glass, and M. A. Mares. 1989. Mammals of Oklahoma. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. Oklahoma. 567 pp.

  • Clark, D. R., Jr. 2001. DDT and the decline of free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) at Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 40: 537-543.

  • Davidai, N., J. K. Westbrook, J.-P. Lessard, T. G. Hallam, and G. F. McCracken. 2015. The importance of natural habitats to Brazilian free-tailed bats in intensive agricultural landscapes in the Winter Garden region of Texas, United States. Biological Conservation 190:107-114.

  • Freeman, J., and L. Wunder. 1988. Observations at a colony of the Brazilian free-tailed bat (TADARIDA BRASILIENSIS) in southern Colorado. Southwest. Nat. 33:102-104.

  • Glass, B. P. 1982. Seasonal movements of Mexican freetail bats Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana banded in the great Plains. Southwestern Naturalist 27:127-133.

  • Goodwin, R. E. 1970. The ecology of Jamaican bats. J. Mamm. 51:571-579.

  • Hall, E. R. 1981a. The Mammals of North America, second edition. Vols. I & II. John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York. 1181 pp.

  • Hamilton, W. J., Jr., and J. O. Whitaker, Jr. 1979. Mammals of the eastern United States. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, New York. 346 pp.

  • Honacki, J. H., K. E. Kinman, and J. W. Koepf (eds.). 1982. Mammal species of the world. Allen Press, Inc. and Assoc. Syst. Coll., Lawrence, Kansas. 694 pp.

  • Horn, J. W., and T. H. Kunz. 2008. Analyzing NEXRAD Doppler radar images to assess nightly dispersal patterns and population trends in Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis). Integrative and Comparative Biology 48:24-39.

  • Hristov, N. I., M. Betke, D.E.H. Theriault, A. Bagchi, and T. H. Kunz. 2010. Seasonal variation in colony size of Brazilian free-tailed bats at Carlsbad Cavern based on thermal imaging. Journal of Mammalogy 91:183-192.

  • Jones, J. K., Jr. 1989. Distribution and systematics of bats in the Lesser Antilles. Pages 645-660 in C. A. Woods, ed. Biogeography of the West Indies. Sandhill Crane Press, Gainesville, Florida.

  • Jones, J. K., Jr., R. S. Hoffman, D. W. Rice, C. Jones, R. J. Baker, and M. D. Engstrom. 1992a. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 1991. Occasional Papers, The Museum, Texas Tech University, 146:1-23.

  • Kunz, T. H., E. B. Arnett, W. P. Erickson, A.R . Hoar, G. D. Johnson, R. P. Larkin, M. D. Strickland, R. W. Thresher, and M. D. Tuttle. 2007. Ecological impacts of wind energy development on bats: questions, research needs, and hypotheses. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5:315-324.

  • LaVal, R.K. 1973a. Observations on the biology of Tadarida brasiliensis cynocgshala in southeastern Louisiana. Am. Midl. Nat. 89:112-20.

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  • Matthews, A.K., S.A. Neiswenter and L.K. Ammerman. 2010. Trophic ecology of the free-tailed bats Nyctinomops femorosaccus and Tadarida brasiliensis (Chiroptera: Molossidae) in Big Bend National Park, Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist 55(3):340-346.

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