Synaptomys borealis - (Richardson, 1828)
Northern Bog Lemming
Other English Common Names: northern bog lemming
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Synaptomys borealis (Richardson, 1828) (TSN 180323)
French Common Names: campagnol-lemming boréal
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.105448
Element Code: AMAFF17020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Rodents
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Rodentia Cricetidae Synaptomys
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.
Concept Reference Code: B93WIL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Synaptomys borealis
Taxonomic Comments: Included in the genus Mictomys by some paleontologists (e.g., Koenigswald and Martin 1984), but most authors have treated Mictomys as a subgenus of Synaptomys (Hall 1981; Jones et al. 1986, 1992; Musser and Carleton, in Wilson and Reeder 1993, 2005).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 05Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 02Jan2012
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Widespread distribution extending from Alaska to Labrador and south to portions of the northern U.S., but populations are localized; population sizes are not known for any location, although nowhere does this mammal appear to be common.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4 (15Jan1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (02Jan2012)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alaska (S4), Idaho (S1), Maine (S1), Minnesota (S3), Montana (S2), New Hampshire (SNA), Washington (S3)
Canada Alberta (S4), British Columbia (S5), Labrador (S4), Manitoba (S5), New Brunswick (S1), Northwest Territories (S5), Nunavut (SNR), Ontario (S4), Quebec (S4), Saskatchewan (S4), Yukon Territory (S4)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 20,000-2,500,000 square km (about 8000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Labrador west to central Alaska, south to Washington, Montana, southeastern Manitoba and northern New England (see Clough and Albright 1987 for recent records from Baxter State Park, Maine, and from Mt. Moosilauke, Grafton County, New Hampshire). Distribution is apparently spotty even in the center of range in central Canada.

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Hundreds of known locations.

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals

Short-term Trend: Unknown
Short-term Trend Comments: Unknown.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: The majority of lower 48 state occurrences have been found in the past 15 years and more are likely to be located. In eastern Canada more work is needed and the extent of occupied habitat even within the center of its range in western Canada is currently unclear.

Protection Needs: Unknown

Distribution
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Global Range: (20,000-2,500,000 square km (about 8000-1,000,000 square miles)) Labrador west to central Alaska, south to Washington, Montana, southeastern Manitoba and northern New England (see Clough and Albright 1987 for recent records from Baxter State Park, Maine, and from Mt. Moosilauke, Grafton County, New Hampshire). Distribution is apparently spotty even in the center of range in central Canada.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, ID, ME, MN, MT, NH, WA
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NT, NU, ON, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: Sechrest, 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Bonner (16017), Boundary (16021)
ME Aroostook (23003), Franklin (23007), Piscataquis (23021)
MN Beltrami (27007), Clearwater (27029), Itasca (27061), Koochiching (27071), Lake of the Woods (27077), Roseau (27135), St. Louis (27137)
MT Beaverhead (30001), Flathead (30029), Lewis and Clark (30049), Lincoln (30053), Missoula (30063), Ravalli (30081)
NH Coos (33007), Grafton (33009)*
WA Chelan (53007)+, Okanogan (53047)+
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Allagash (01010002)+, Fish (01010003)+, West Branch Penobscot (01020001)+, East Branch Penobscot (01020002)+, Dead (01030002)+, Lower Androscoggin (01040002)+
09 Red Lakes (09020302)+, Red Lake (09020303)+, Roseau (09020314)+, Rainy Headwaters (09030001)+, Big Fork (09030006)+, Rapid (09030007)+, Lake of the Woods (09030009)+
10 Big Hole (10020004)+, Sun (10030104)+
17 Upper Kootenai (17010101)+, Fisher (17010102)+, Lower Kootenai (17010104)+, Moyie (17010105)+, Blackfoot (17010203)+, Middle Clark Fork (17010204)+, Bitterroot (17010205)+, North Fork Flathead (17010206)+, Middle Fork Flathead (17010207)+, Stillwater (17010210)+, Priest (17010215)+, Methow (17020008), Lake Chelan (17020009)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A small, short-tailed lemming.
Reproduction Comments: Breeds May-August. Gestation lasts probably 3 weeks. Litter size is 2-8 (average 4). Several litters per year. At least some breed during the summer of their birth.
Ecology Comments: Maintains a home range of probably less than 1 acre. Population densities may range up to 3 dozen per acre. Very sociable; may be found in small colonies.
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Alpine, Forest - Conifer, Forest - Mixed, Grassland/herbaceous
Special Habitat Factors: Burrowing in or using soil, Fallen log/debris
Habitat Comments: Sphagnum bogs, wet meadows, moist mixed and coniferous forests; alpine sedge meadows, krummholz spruce-fir forest with dense herbaceous and mossy understory, mossy streamsides (Clough and Albright 1987). Occupies burrow systems up to 1 foot deep and surface runways. Young are born in nests that may be underground or on the surface in concealing vegetation.
Adult Food Habits: Herbivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore
Food Comments: Feeds on grasses, sedges, and other herbaceous vegetation.
Adult Phenology: Circadian
Immature Phenology: Circadian
Phenology Comments: Active day/night throughout the year.
Length: 14 centimeters
Weight: 34 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Management Requirements: Based on an evaluation of the limited available information, Reichel made the following management recommendations, intended specifically for Montana but perhaps generally applicable to other areas as well: maintain a 100-m buffer for management activities around riparian areas/corridors where sphagnum mats occur; minimize domestic livestock grazing in drainages with sphagnum mats present (range conditions in these riparian areas should be maintained in good to excellent categories; if current range condition is fair to poor, stocking rates should be reduced to a point where rapid recovery occurs); avoid human activities that alter streamflow in drainages with spagnum mats present.
Management Research Needs: More information is needed on responses of populations to various land management procedures.
Biological Research Needs: Little is known of the ecology of the species. Essentially all publications deal only with distribution or taxonomy. Much additional information is needed on population parameters, movements, and habitat requirements.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Small Murid Rodents

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals in appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Mapping Guidance: Separate sites separated by less than 1000 meters should be mapped as separate polygons.
Separation Barriers: Barriers include: wide highways with heavy traffic (subjective determination) and highways with continuous solid barriers that prevent rodent passage; major water bodies, arbitrarily set at those greater than 50 meters across in ice-free areas and those greater than 200 meters wide if frozen regularly.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Home ranges may be quite small, but at least some species exhibit good dispersal ability that may take them several kilometers from their natal area (Maier 2002). Peromyscus that have been displaced up to 3 km may return home within a few days (see Maier 2002). Displaced Neotoma fuscipes dispersed up to at least 1.6 km from their release point in five nights (Smith 1965). A male Dicrostonyx richardsoni moved more than 3 kilometers per day several times (Engstrom, in Wilson and Ruff 1999). Some species can traverse significant distances of unsuitable habitat. For example, Peromyscus leucopus may move between wooded areas separated by a deforested agricultural gap of up to at least 2 km (Krohne and Hoch 1999). In New Brunswick, a tagged subadult male Peromyscus maniculatus was captured at locations 1.77 km apart after a period of 2 weeks in September, suggesting that dispersal may extend at least this far (Bowman et al. 1999). In Kansas, individual Peromyscus maniculatus were captured at trap sites up to 1.32 km apart (Rehmeier et al. 2004). Dispersal can play a key role in the population dynamics of murid rodents.

Patterns of genetic (DNA) variation indicate that gene flow can be low among subpopulations of Neotoma magister and that effective dispersal is limited among subpopulations separated by as little as 3 km (Castleberry et al. 2002).

Separation distance for suitable habitat is a compromise between the typical small home range sizes of these mammals and their sometimes considerable dispersal ability and the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of suitable habitat would represent independent populations.

Roads, especially divided highways, are major barriers to dispersal in small mammals (Oxley et al. 1974, Wilkins 1982, Garland and Bradley 1984).

Date: 08Mar2005
Author: Hammerson, G., and S. Cannings
Notes: Group contains most members of the family Muridae: mice, voles, lemmings, woodrats, etc.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 07Mar1995
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Reichel, J. D. Partially revised by G. Hammerson.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 07Mar1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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