Sylvilagus bachmani - (Waterhouse, 1839)
Brush Rabbit
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Sylvilagus bachmani (Waterhouse, 1839) (TSN 180123)
Spanish Common Names: Un Conejo
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.105860
Element Code: AMAEB01020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Other Mammals
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Lagomorpha Leporidae Sylvilagus
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.
Concept Reference Code: B93WIL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Sylvilagus bachmani
Taxonomic Comments: This is the only species of Sylvilagus known to have retained the putative ancestral karyotype (2n=48) shared by all known Lepus and by Romerolagus (see Hoffmann, in Wilson and Reeder 1993).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 05Nov1996
Global Status Last Changed: 05Nov1996
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Sep1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (SNR), Oregon (S5)

Other Statuses

Implied Status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): PS
Comments on USESA: Subspecies riparius of the San Joaquin Valley, California, is listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act as endangered (USFWS 2000).
IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 20,000-2,500,000 square km (about 8000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Western North America, from western Oregon south to tip of Baja California, Mexico; west to the Sierra-Cascade axis. Sea level to 2070 m (Chapman 1974).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (20,000-2,500,000 square km (about 8000-1,000,000 square miles)) Western North America, from western Oregon south to tip of Baja California, Mexico; west to the Sierra-Cascade axis. Sea level to 2070 m (Chapman 1974).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA, OR

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: Sechrest, 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA San Joaquin (06077), Stanislaus (06099)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
18 Middle San Joaquin-Lower (18040002)+, San Joaquin Delta (18040003)+, Upper Stanislaus (18040010)+, Upper Mokelumne (18040012)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Breeding season lasts approximately 7 months (from December-May or June in California; February-August in Oregon (Chapman 1974). May produce 3 or 4 litters of 1-6 (usually 3) young/litter. Gestation lasts about 27 days.
Ecology Comments: Predators include bobcats, coyotes, minks, weasels, skunks, and great horned owls.
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Shrubland/chaparral
Habitat Comments: Dense scrub and brushy edges of habitats, chaparral, and cactus. Also brushy areas on sand dunes and in bramble thickets. Usually near dense vegetative cover. Seldom uses burrows. May use forms connected by runways. Female constructs nest for young; nest measures about 75 by 150 mm, lined with fur and dried grass.
Adult Food Habits: Herbivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore
Food Comments: In the spring, summer, and fall feeds primarily on grasses and other herbaceous vegetation. In the winter feeds on woody vegetation in addition to whatever herbaceous vegetation is available.
Adult Phenology: Crepuscular
Immature Phenology: Crepuscular
Phenology Comments: Primarily crepuscular. Most active from sunset to 0200 hours and from about 0600 to 1030 (Chapman 1974).
Length: 38 centimeters
Weight: 965 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Cottontail Rabbits

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals in appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Major rivers and medium to large lakes. Rabbits can and do swim, and can cross frozen water bodies, so caution must be used in determining whether a water body is a true barrier; flow patterns, etc. must be taken into account.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Unsuitable habitat: urban/suburban areas, water bodies that are not complete barriers, etc.

Dispersal potential, though poorly documented in most species, is considerable. For example, a female eastern cottontail (S. floridanus) escaped from an enclosure and returned to its original capture site 3.74 km away (Hill 1967). Preliminary data for the pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis) indicate that juveniles regularly disperse a few to several kilometers (up to at least 11.8 km); average natal dispersal distances for males and females were 1.7 km and 4.7 km, respectively (Wendy Estes-Zumpf, University of Idaho, unpublished data).

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .2 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Based on an average home range size of about 3.5 hectares (Fitch 1947, Trent and Rongstad 1974, Althoff and Storm 1989).
Date: 19Oct2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 12Apr1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Althoff, D. P., and G. L. Storm. 1989. Daytime spatial characteristics of cottontial rabbits in central Pennsylvania. Journal of Mammalogy 70:820-824.

  • Bradley, R.D., L.K. Ammerman, R.J. Baker, L.C. Bradley, J.A. Cook. R.C. Dowler, C. Jones, D.J. Schmidly, F.B. Stangl Jr., R.A. Van den Bussche and B. Würsig. 2014. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 2014. Museum of Texas Tech University Occasional Papers 327:1-28. Available at: http://www.nsrl.ttu.edu/publications/opapers/ops/OP327.pdf

  • Chapman, J. A. 1971. Orientation and homing of the brush rabbit (SYLVILAGUS BACHMANI). Journal of Mammalogy 52:686-699.

  • Chapman, J. A., and J. E. C. Flux. 1990. Rabbits, hares, and pikas. Gland, Switzerland, IUCN.

  • Chapman, J.A. 1974. SYLVILAGUS BACHMANI. Mammalian species, 34:1-4.

  • Connell, J. H. 1954. Home range and mobility of brush rabbits in California chaparral. Journal of Mammalogy 35:392-405.

  • Fitch, H. S. 1947. Ecology of a cottontail rabbit (SYLVILAGUS AUDUBONII) population in central California. California Fish and Game 33:159-184.

  • Hall, E. R. 1981a. The Mammals of North America, second edition. Vols. I & II. John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York. 1181 pp.

  • Hill, E. P. 1967. Homing by a cottontail rabbit. Journal of Mammalogy 48:648.

  • Ingles, L. G. 1965. Mammals of the Pacific States. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.

  • Jones, J. K., Jr., R. S. Hoffman, D. W. Rice, C. Jones, R. J. Baker, and M. D. Engstrom. 1992a. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 1991. Occasional Papers, The Museum, Texas Tech University, 146:1-23.

  • Mammalian Species, nos. 1-604. Published by the American Society of Mammalogists.

  • Maser, C., B. R. Mate, J. F. Franklin, and C. T. Dyrness. 1981. Natural history of Oregon coast mammals. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Expt. Sta., USDA, Forest Service, Gen Tech. Rep. PNW-133:1-496.

  • Nowak, R. M. 1991. Walker's mammals of the world. Fifth edition. Vols. I and II. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore. 1629 pp.

  • Shields, P. W. 1960. Movement patterns of brush rabbits in northwestern California. Journal of Wildlife Management 24:381-386.

  • Trent, T.T. and O.S. Rongstad. 1974. Home range and survival of cottontail rabbits in southwestern Wisconsin. Journal of Wildlife Management 38:459-472.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 21 November 1997. Proposed endangered status for the riparian brush rabbit and riparian woodrat. Federal Register 62(225):62276-62282.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 23 February 2000. Final rule to list the riparian brush rabbit and the riparian, or San Joaquin Valley, woodrat as endangered. Federal Register 65(36):8881-8890.

  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.

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Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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