Sus scrofa - Linnaeus, 1758
Wild Boar
Other English Common Names: Eurasian Wild Boar, Feral Hog, wild boar
Other Common Names: Porco
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 (TSN 180722)
French Common Names: sanglier, sanglier d'Europe
Spanish Common Names: Chancho, Puerco, Jabalí
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.105520
Element Code: AMALA01010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Other Mammals
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Artiodactyla Suidae Sus
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.
Concept Reference Code: B93WIL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Sus scrofa
Taxonomic Comments: Feral hog populations generally are mixture of European wild hogs, recent domestic hogs, and feral hogs (Sweeney and Sweeney 1982); few if any pure European wild boar populations. Corbet & Hill (1992) listed the domestic pig as a separate species, Sus domesticus from Sus scrofa, on grounds of utility.
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 05Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 19Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA (05Sep1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (02Jan2012)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (SNA), Arizona (SNA), Florida (SNA), Georgia (SNA), Kentucky (SNA), Mississippi (SNA), New Mexico (SNA), North Carolina (SNA), Tennessee (SNA), Texas (SNA), Virginia (SNA), West Virginia (SNA)
Canada Alberta (SNA), Saskatchewan (SNA)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Eurasian-N. African species. Escaped or introduced in U.S. Many populations deliberately extirminated but still extant in parts of the southeastern U.S., U.S. West Coast, Hawaii (Niihau, Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, Hawaii), Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, and elsewhere (Wood and Barret 1979).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Protection Needs: Woodward and Sponenberg (1992) identified Ossabaw Island pigs as important stores of genetic variation.

Distribution
Help
Global Range: Eurasian-N. African species. Escaped or introduced in U.S. Many populations deliberately extirminated but still extant in parts of the southeastern U.S., U.S. West Coast, Hawaii (Niihau, Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, Hawaii), Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, and elsewhere (Wood and Barret 1979).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States ALexotic, AZexotic, FLexotic, GAexotic, KYexotic, MSexotic, NCexotic, NMexotic, TNexotic, TXexotic, VAexotic, WVexotic
Canada ABexotic, SKexotic

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2005

Ecology & Life History
Help
Reproduction Comments: May breed year-round; usually there are seasonal peaks. Gestation 108-123 days. Litter size ranges up to 12 (average 4-6 in California, 5-8 in the southeastern U.S.). Average of 2 litters/year in California. Sexually mature usually in less than 1 year (male may not breed until more than 1 year old).
Ecology Comments: Usually in groups (females and one or more generations of young) or solitary (adult male, nonbreeding season). At Welder Wildlife Refuge, Texas, crude density was 9.5 per sq km; mean annual home range size (95% minimum convex polygon) was 3.36 sq km (Ilse and Hellgren 1995). Home range averages 200-300 ha in the southeastern U.S., up to several thousand ha in the western U.S. In California, high mortality occurs in the young during the first 6 months (many starve).
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Cropland/hedgerow, Forest - Conifer, Forest - Hardwood, Forest - Mixed, Grassland/herbaceous, Old field, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Densely forested mountainous terrain, brushlands, dry ridges, swamps; sometimes in fields, marshes. Often in mixed hardwood forest with permanent water source. Seasonal changes in habitat use are linked to food availability. In southern Texas, prime habitat is open brush-savanna with free water (Ilse and Hellgren 1995). Young are born in a secluded spot in dense thicket or shaded area on high dry ground.
Adult Food Habits: Carnivore, Frugivore, Granivore, Herbivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Carnivore, Frugivore, Granivore, Herbivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Feeds opportunistically on various plant/animal foods--nuts, roots, tubers, grasses, fruit, berries, also invertebrates, small vertebrates, and carrion. Tears up vegetation and soil surface while foraging.
Adult Phenology: Circadian, Crepuscular, Diurnal, Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Circadian, Crepuscular, Diurnal, Nocturnal
Phenology Comments: Active anytime; often crepuscular; nocturnal activity tends to be more common in summer, diurnal activty more common in cooler months.
Length: 182 centimeters
Weight: 150000 grams
Economic Attributes
Help
Economic Comments: Detrimental to crops and native vegetation in some areas. Rooting reduces ground cover and leaf litter (Singer et al. 1984). Factor in spread of exotic plants. Disease reservoir (Wood and Barret 1979).

Commonly hunted for food and sport; largest legal harvests in Florida (average of 56,000/year in 1970s), California (about 32,000/year in mid-1970s), and Hawaii (about 10,000/year) (Sweeney and Sweeney 1982, Wood and Barret 1979).

Management Summary
Help
Species Impacts: Destructive to native fauna on islands (Wiewandt 1977, Wiley 1985, Johnson 1988). At Welder Wildlife Refuge, Texas, feral hogs may have been involved in reducing herd and group size of peccaries (Ilse and Hellgren 1995).
Management Requirements: Management usually is aimed at reducing population size (and thus environmental damage) through hunting or live-trapping/relocation, but in Florida efforts have been made to prevent depletion of hog populations in areas with heavy hunting pressure. See Sweeney and Sweeney (1982), Wood and Barret (1979).

See Choquenot et al. (1990) for information on the use of the anticoagulant warfarin for feral pig control. Hone and Stone (1989) compared pig management in Australia (used warfarin) and in Hawaii (used exclusion fencing, hunting, snaring, trapping); in Hawaii, eradiacation was achieved in some areas.

Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 05Sep1996
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Baber, D. W., and B. E. Coblentz. 1986. Density, home range, habitat use, and reproduction in feral pigs on Santa Catalina Island. J. Mamm. 67:512-525.

  • Baber, D. W., and B. E. Coblentz. 1987. Diet, nutrition, and conception in feral pigs on Santa Catalina Island. J. Wildl. Manage. 51:306-317.

  • Baker, R. J., L. C. Bradley, R. D. Bradley, J. W. Dragoo, M. D. Engstrom, R. S. Hoffman, C. A. Jones, F. Reid, D. W. Rice, and C. Jones. 2003a. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 2003. Museum of Texas Tech University Occasional Papers 229:1-23.

  • Barrett, R. H. 1978. The feral hog on Dye Creek Ranch, California. Hilgardia 46:283-355.

  • Barrett, R. H., and D. S. Pine. 1980. History and status of wild pigs, SUS SCROFA, in San Benito County, California. Calif. Fish & Game 67:105-117.

  • Bradley, R.D., L.K. Ammerman, R.J. Baker, L.C. Bradley, J.A. Cook. R.C. Dowler, C. Jones, D.J. Schmidly, F.B. Stangl Jr., R.A. Van den Bussche and B. Würsig. 2014. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 2014. Museum of Texas Tech University Occasional Papers 327:1-28. Available at: <http://www.nsrl.ttu.edu/publications/opapers/ops/OP327.pdf> (Accessed April 1, 2015)

  • Ceballos, G., J. Arroyo-Cabrales, and R. A. Medellín. 2002. The mammals of México: Composition, distribution, and conservation status. Occasional Papers, Museum of Texas Tech University 218:1-27.

  • Choquenot, D., B. Kay, and B. Lukins. 1990. An evaluation of warfarin for the control of feral pigs. J. Wildl. Manage. 54:353-359.

  • Corbet, G.B., and J.E. Hill. 1992. The mammals of the Indomalayan Region: a systematic review. Oxford University Press, London. 488 pp.

  • Diong, C. H. 1980. Responses of feral pigs to trap types and food baits. Pages 91-99 in Smith, C. W., ed. Proc. of Third Conf. in Nat. Sci., Hawaii Volc. Nat. Park. Univ. Hawaii Dept. Botany CPSU/UH, Honolulu. 396 pp.

  • Giffin, J. G. 1978. Ecology of the feral pig on the island of Hawaii. Hawaii Div. Fish & Wildlife, Honolulu, Project W-17-3-11, 1968-1972. 122 pp.

  • Godin, A. J. 1977. Wild mammals of New England. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 304 pp.

  • Hanson, R. P., and L. Karstad. 1959. Feral swine in the southeastern United States. J. Wildl. Manage. 23:64-74.

  • Hawaii Ecosystems at Risk Project. 2005. Information index for selected alien vertebrates in Hawaii. Internet resource available at http://www.hear.org/alienspeciesinhawaii/InfoIndexVertebrates.htm. Downloaded 31 March 2005.

  • Hone, J., and C. P. Stone. 1989. A comparison and evaluation of feral pig management in two national parks. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 17:419-425.

  • Ilse, L. M., and E. C. Hellgren. 1995a. Resource partitioning in sympatric populations of collared peccaries and feral hogs in southern Texas. Journal of Mammalogy 76:784-799.

  • Ilse, L. M., and E. C. Hellgren. 1995b. Spatial use and group dynamics of sympatric collared peccaries and feral hogs in southern Texas. Journal of Mammalogy 76:993-1002.

  • Jacobi, J. D. 1976. The influence of feral pigs on native alpine grasslands in Haleakala National Park. Pages 107-112 in Smith, C. W., ed. Proc. of First Conf. in Nat. Sci., Hawaii Vol. Nat. Park. Univ. Hawaii Dept. Botany, Honolulu.

  • Johnson, T. H. 1988. Biodiversity and conservation in the Caribbean. Profiles of selected islands. ICBP Monograph No. 1.

  • Katahira, L. K. 1980. The effects of feral pigs on a montane rain forest in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Pages 173-178 in Smith, C. W., ed. Proc. of Third Conf. in Nat. Sci., Hawaii Vol. Nat. Park. Univ. Hawaii Dept. Botany

  • Kramer, R. J. 1971. Hawaiian land mammals. Charles E. Tuttle Co., Inc., Rutland, Vermont, and Tokyo, Japan. 347 pp.

  • Lever, C. 1985. Naturalized mammals of the world. Longman Group Limited, England.

  • Lewis, J.C. 1966. Observations of pen-reared European hogs released for stocking. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 30(4):832-835.

  • Mayer, J. J. 1991. Wild pigs in the United States, their history, comparative morphology, and current status. Univ. Georgia Press. 336 pp.

  • Merino, M. L. and B. N. Carpinetti. 2003. Feral pig Sus scrofa population estimates in Bahía Samborombón Conservation Aarea, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Mastozoología Neotropical 10:269-275.

  • Singer, F. J., W. T. Swank, and E. E. C. Clebsch. 1984. Effects of wild pig rooting in a deciduous forest. J. Wildl. Manage. 48:464-473.

  • Singer, F. J., et al. 1981. Home ranges, movements, and habitat use of European wild boar in Tennessee. J. Wildl. Manage. 45:343-353.

  • Sweeney, J. M., and J. R. Sweeney. 1982. Feral hog SUS SCROFA. Pages 1099-1113 in Chapman, J. A., and G. A. Feldhamer, eds. Wild mammals of North America. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore.

  • Tirira, D. 1999. Mamíferos del Ecuador. Museo de Zoología, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito.

  • Tomich, P. Q. 1986. Mammals in Hawai'i. A synopsis and notational bibliography. Second edition. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 375 pp.

  • Whitaker, J. O., Jr. 1980. The Audubon Society field guide to North American mammals. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. 745 pp.

  • Whitaker, J. O., Jr. 1996. National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Mammals. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, USA. 937 pp.

  • Whitaker, J. O., and W. J. Hamilton. 1998. Mammals of the eastern United States. Comstock Publishing, Ithaca, New York.

  • Wiewandt, T. A. 1977. Ecology, behavior, and management ofthe Mona Island ground iguana, CYCLURA STEJNEGERI. Ph.D. dissertation, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, New York.

  • Wiley, J. W. 1985c. Bird conservation in the United States Caribbean. Pages 107-159 in Temple, S. A., editor. Bird conservation 2. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison. 181 pp.

  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 2005. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Third edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland. Two volumes. 2,142 pp. [Available online at: http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3/ ]

  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.

  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 2005. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Third edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. Two volumes. 2,142 pp. Available online at: http://vertebrates.si.edu/msw/mswcfapp/msw/index.cfm

  • Wood, G. W., and R. H. Barret. 1979. Status of wild pigs in the United States. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 7:237-246.

  • Woodward, S. L., and D. P. Sponenberg. 1992. Feral livestock in America: identification of populations important for the conservation of genetic diversity. Abstract, 6th Annual Meeting of the Society for Conservation Biology, p. 148.

  • Zeiner, D. C., W. F. Laudenslayer, Jr., K. E. Mayer, and M. White, editors. 1990b. California's wildlife. Volume III. Mammals. State of California, The Resources Agency, Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, CA. 407 pp.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of November 2016.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2017 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.