Sullivantia hapemanii - (Coult. & Fisher) Coult.
Purpus' Sullivantia
Other English Common Names: Hapeman's Coolwort
Other Common Names: Hapeman's coolwort
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Sullivantia hapemanii (Coult. & Fisher) Coult. (TSN 24519)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.155276
Element Code: PDSAX0X010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Saxifrage Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Rosales Saxifragaceae Sullivantia
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Sullivantia hapemanii
Taxonomic Comments: Distinct species including two varieties (vars. hapemanii and purpusii).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 23Dec1997
Global Status Last Changed: 16Jun1993
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: This species has a narrow ecological range and a limited global distribution. Sullivantia hapemanii (including vars. hapemanii and purpusii) is known from at least 62 occurrences in Wyoming, Montana, Idaho, and Colorado. Most occur in inaccessible areas and would probably be affected by changes in the water quality and flow.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Colorado (S3), Idaho (S2), Montana (S2), Wyoming (S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Globally this species is restricted to a few areas in the mountains of Wyoming, Montana, Idaho and Colorado; within this area the two varieties have distinctly different ranges.

Sullivantia hapemanii var. hapemanii occurs in the Bighorn Mountains, and Bighorn Canyon area of North-Central Wyoming and South-Central Montana; and disjunct sites in Wind River Canyon and on Casper Mountain in Wyoming. Additionally, a disjunct population of var. hapemanii occurs in the Middle Fork Salmon River drainage, in Central Idaho.

Sullivantia hapemanii var. purpusii occurs in Western Colorado in Garfield, Rio Blanco, Gunnison, Pitkin and Montrose counties. Most of the occurrences in Gunnison and Montrose counties are in the Black Canyon of the Gunnison.

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: As of 1994, 22 populations of Sullivantia hapemanii var. hapemanii had been documented in Wyoming, and one in Montana. Reported 40 element occurrences of S. hapemanii var. purpusii (Susan Spackman, Colorado Natural Heritage Program, personal communication, December 1995).

Population Size Comments: A guess. Trapper Canyon contains at least 350 individuals--probably on the order of 500-1000 over 8 air miles of drainage.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: No threats are known to be significant at this time. The species is well protected by its largely inaccessible habitat. Occurrences would probably be threatened by changes in water quality and flow; for example elevated water levels could flood occurrences, or conversely, upstream flow reductions or changes in ground water hydrology could make existing sites too dry. Removal of nearby trees could reduce needed shade, and increase soil erosion (Fertig 1993). Human trampling from hiking or rock climbing poses a threat to the few accessible occurrences. Destruction of the cliffs it grows on could destroy occurrences, but this type of disturbance appears unlikely (Nyborg 1979).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend is stable. Recent surveys have found the species to be more widespread and numerous than previously known.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Requires moist to wet conditions in calcareous habitat.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Globally this species is restricted to a few areas in the mountains of Wyoming, Montana, Idaho and Colorado; within this area the two varieties have distinctly different ranges.

Sullivantia hapemanii var. hapemanii occurs in the Bighorn Mountains, and Bighorn Canyon area of North-Central Wyoming and South-Central Montana; and disjunct sites in Wind River Canyon and on Casper Mountain in Wyoming. Additionally, a disjunct population of var. hapemanii occurs in the Middle Fork Salmon River drainage, in Central Idaho.

Sullivantia hapemanii var. purpusii occurs in Western Colorado in Garfield, Rio Blanco, Gunnison, Pitkin and Montrose counties. Most of the occurrences in Gunnison and Montrose counties are in the Black Canyon of the Gunnison.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CO, ID, MT, WY

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CO Garfield (08045), Gunnison (08051), Montrose (08085), Pitkin (08097), Rio Blanco (08103)
ID Idaho (16049), Lemhi (16059), Valley (16085)
MT Big Horn (30003), Carbon (30009)
WY Big Horn (56003), Fremont (56013), Hot Springs (56017), Johnson (56019), Natrona (56025), Sheridan (56033), Washakie (56043)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
10 Lower Wind (10080005)+, Upper Bighorn (10080007)+, Nowood (10080008)+, Big Horn Lake (10080010)+, Lower Bighorn (10080015)+, Little Bighorn (10080016)+, Upper Tongue (10090101)+, Crazy Woman (10090205)+, Clear (10090206)+, Middle North Platte-Casper (10180007)+
14 Colorado headwaters (14010001)+, Roaring Fork (14010004)+, Colorado headwaters-Plateau (14010005)+, East-Taylor (14020001)+, Upper Gunnison (14020002)+, North Fork Gunnison (14020004)+*, Upper White (14050005)+, Piceance-Yellow (14050006)+*, Lower White (14050007)+
17 Lower Middle Fork Salmon (17060206)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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General Description: Sullivantia hapemanii is a perennial herb with erect, glandular to hairy stems which stand 5-60 cm high. The basal leaves have petioles (stalks) which are usually much longer than the blades; the blades are 1-11 cm wide and kidney to circular shaped with 5-13 palmate lobes and sharply toothed margins. The few stem leaves are alternate, smaller than the basal leaves, and have short petioles. The flowers are borne in a glandular inflorescence with long spreading branches. The calyx is green, 1.5-3 mm long, and is bell-shaped with 5 triangular lobes. There are 5 separate white petals which are 1.2-5 mm long and are broad spatula-shaped and narrowed at the base. There are 5 short stamens and a single pistil which is about 1/2 buried in the hypanthium. The fruit is a dry, 2-celled, multi-seeded capsule, with axil placentation.

The two varieties can be distinguished by measurable differences in the appearance of the ovary at anthesis and mature fruiting capsules. In var. hapemanii the ovary is about as long as it is wide; while in var. purpusii the ovary is usually about twice as long as it is wide. The fruit of var. hapemanii is an ovate cylindrical capsule less than 2.5 times (usually ca 2 times)longer than broad at maturity.; in contrast the fruit of var. purpusii is long and cylindrical, and is very narrow in relation to its width, at least 2.5 times longer than broad at maturity (Soltis 1991).

Diagnostic Characteristics: This is the only species of its genus in Montana. It is distinguished from other members of the Saxifrage family by having flowers with 5 stamens, a 2-celled ovary with axil placentation, and the calyx and petal dimensions of 1.5-3 mm and 1.2-5 mm, respectively. White flowers, five stamens, an open and erect inflorescence usually with branches perpendicular to stem, and lobed basal leaves with entire or erose margins distinguish var. hapemanii from other similar species in its range (Fertig 1993).
Ecology Comments: Population/occurrence size is highly variable; in some areas in Wyoming var. hapemanii occurs as isolated patches (subpopulations) of several to several thousand; (Marriot & Jones 1989).

Reproduction is by seed; the species is not stoloniferous (Soltis 1991). Var. hapemanii plants flower and fruit from June to August, with fruiting sometimes continuing to mid-September (Fertig 1993). Var. purpusii flowers from mid June to late July, and fruits from July to August.

Habitat Comments: This species is found in moist-wet locations, such as moist cliffs near water, usually in association with calcareous rock outcrops.

Var. hapemanii is found scattered throughout mesic limestone/dolomite canyons from 3,700 to 7,400 feet in elevation, on various aspects and slopes ranging from 0 - 90 degrees, in association with ferns and mosses. In Wyoming, it is restricted to moist - wet calcareous outcrops and boulders along streams and, generally, in well-shaded places, and sites appear to be dependent on high moisture or humidity (Fertig 1993). On the Bighorn National Forest, many, but not all, of the populations are found on mossy substrate (Michele Girard, personal communication, November 1995). However several occurrences have recently been recently observed in dry canyons and canyons with intermittent streams (personal observation). In Idaho, Bob Moseley reports that var. hapemanii has been found on wet granite outcrops associated with waterfalls or dripping water (Fertig 1993).

Var. purpusii is found "in very specialized habitat" such as wet dripping cliffs, moist canyon walls and in close proximity to waterfalls, (Soltis 1991), and on overhangs, permanently wet cracks and crevices, and on Northeast to Northwest slopes or microsites at elevations ranging from 6,500 to 10,000 feet, sometimes associated with a rare columbine (aquilegia barnebyi)(Nyborg 1979). It is found growing on limestone, shale, and quartzite cliffs (Susan Spackman, Colorado Natural Heritage Program, personal communication, December 1995).

Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: This species has a very narrow ecological range, and is generally protected from threats as its habitat is usually in inaccessible locations. The species occurs in locations with high moisture or humidity; it appears important to maintain water quantity and quality, and shading, although none of these ideas have been tested.
Preserve Selection & Design Considerations: Upstream and downstream water uses should be examined, as changes in water quantity and quality could influence occurrences.
Management Requirements: Most occurrences are very inaccessible and are subject to few management affected disturbances. Occurrences could be influenced by downstream or upstream water use, e.g. a dam that flooded habitat or reduced flows, or mining activity that could influence water quality. Management should maintain water quality and flow, and shade trees. At sites where access is possible, care should be taken that plants are not disturbed by people.
Monitoring Requirements: Low intensity monitoring - presence/absence, rank abundance, and/or photo points - appears adequate for known occurrences, due to low threats. If more intensive monitoring is needed flowering stems could be counted or occupied area could be measured; it is very difficult to identify and count individuals.
Monitoring Programs: Occurrences in Wyoming are tracked by Walter Fertig, Wyoming Natural Diversity Database (WYNDD). Low intensity monitoring is being conducted at The Nature Conservancy's Tensleep Preserve, and the Bighorn National Forest (Wyoming). Contacts: Walt Fertig, WYNDD, 3165 University Station, Laramie Wyoming 82071; Ann Humphrey, Tensleep Preserve, Ten Sleep Wyoming 82442; Michele Girard,Bighorn National Forest, 1969 S. Sheridan Ave. Sheridan Wyoming, 82801.
Management Research Needs: It is thought that changes in water quantity and quality, and shade may influence the abundance and vigor of individuals; these hypotheses need to be tested.
Additional topics: This species is comprised of two varieties, var. hapemanii and var. purpusii, each formerly recognized as distinct species (Soltis 1991).
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 25Feb1988
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: MARRIOTT, H. (1988), rev. D. Gries (1997)
Management Information Edition Date: 01Dec1995
Management Information Edition Author: ANN HUMPHREY
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 10Dec1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): JM

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Fertig, W. 1993. Field survey for Cleome mulitcaulis, Cymopterus williamsii, and Sullivantia hapemanii in north-central Wyoming. Unpublished report prepared for the Bur. of Land Management, Casper District by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2009. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 8. Magnoliophyta: Paeoniaceae to Ericaceae. Oxford University Press, New York. xxiv + 585 pp.

  • Idaho Native Plant Society. 1993. Federal candidate (C1 and C2) and listed rare plants of Idaho. unpaginated.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Nyborg, Gerald W. 1979. Grand Mesa, Uncompahgre, and Gunnison National Forests management plan for proposed endangered species.

  • Rocky Mountain Society of Botanical Artists. 2009. RARE Imperiled Plants of Colorado, a traveling art exhibition. Exhibition catalogue developed by the Denver Botanic Gardens and Steamboat Art Museum.

  • Soltis, D. E. 1980. Flavonoids of SULLIVANTIA: Taxonomic implications at the generic level with the Saxifraginae. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 8:149-151.

  • Soltis, D. E. 1981. Variation in hybrid fertility among the disjunct populations and species of SULLIVANTIA (Saxifragaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 59:1174-1180.

  • Soltis, D. E. 1982. Heterochromatin banding in BOYKINIA, HEUCHERA, MITELLA, SULLIVANTIA, TIARELLA, and TOLMIEA (Saxifragaceae). American Journal of Botany 69(1):108-115.

  • Soltis, D.E. 1991. A revision of Sullivantia (Saxifragaceae). Brittonia 43(1): 27-53.

  • Weber, W.A., and R.C. Wittmann. 1996b. Colorado flora: Western slope. Univ. Press of Colorado, Niwot, Colorado. 496 pp.

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