Stylocline citroleum - Morefield
Oil Neststraw
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Stylocline citroleum Morefield (TSN 507191)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.152579
Element Code: PDAST8Y070
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Aster Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Asterales Asteraceae Stylocline
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.
Concept Reference Code: B99KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Stylocline citroleum
Taxonomic Comments: Described as a distinct species in 1992. Believed to have possibly originated as a hybrid of everlasting neststraw (Stylocline gnaphaloides) and California filago (Filago californica); considered a good species because it now appears to be fertile, morphologically uniform, and reproductively isolated from sympatric taxa (Morefield 1992).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 04Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 04Aug2015
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Currently known only from western Kern County in the southern San Joaquin Valley, California; extant occurrences are found in or near the Elk Hills. There is also one record for the species from San Diego County (1883), but that population is likely extirpated. Within its small known range, the species is not considered particularly rare locally, with perhaps 50,000-150,000 individuals and 63-77 occurrences believed extant. However, the majority of known occurrences are on land owned by Occidental Petroleum and have the potential to be affected by oil field development, petroleum production, and/or related activities.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Currently known only from western Kern County in the southern San Joaquin Valley, California; extant occurrences are found in or near the Elk Hills. There is also one record for the species from San Diego County (1883), but that population is likely extirpated (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 2006). 

Area of Occupancy: 26-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: There are 84 mapped occurrences, but 14 are considered low quality, and 7 others have not been seen in over 20 years (CNDDB 2015).  All of these occurrences are within a relatively small area, however, so may represent a much smaller number of distinct biological populations; for example, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (1998) stated that "the known occurrences at Elk Hills represent a single metapopulation."

Population Size Comments: As of the most recent counts, total population size appears to be between 50,000 and 150,000 individuals. At least at some sites, numbers of plants appears to fluctuate greatly between years. In the Elk Hills vicinity, Hinshaw (1999) reported that this species' distribution "was typically patchy, but fairly predictable based on microhabitat characteristics. Plants were dense in some areas but widely dispersed in others. Abundance estimates ranged from five to more than 100,000 individuals in the colonies examined." Hinshaw (1999) believes that the species occurs in "a significant portion of the Elk Hills at all elevations, and is not locally rare" in that area; the Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2006) also reports the species as "fairly widespread" within the Elk Hills.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Many (41-125)

Overall Threat Impact: High
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threats include oil energy development, roads, and urbanization (CNDDB 2015).  The majority of known occurrences have the potential to be affected by oil field development, petroleum production, and/or related activities in the Elk Hills Oil Field; in a few cases, the situation was described as "low density oil development." Hinshaw (1999) points out that the Elk Hills Oil Field "largely consists of intact natural habitats. About half of the Elk Hills Oil Field is considered undeveloped and has been only minimally impacted by past oil field activities." Nevertheless, there is concern about potential future impacts on these habitats. Other threats include flooding and burning.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Likely extirpated in the southern part of its range. 14 occurrences are ranked C or D (CNDDB 2015).

Long-term Trend: Unknown
Long-term Trend Comments: Since the taxon was first reported in 1883, a significant portion of its range has disappeared because of urbanization and oil extraction. Urban development has almost certainly eliminated historical populations in the vicinities of San Diego and Bakersfield (USFWS 1998).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Currently known only from western Kern County in the southern San Joaquin Valley, California; extant occurrences are found in or near the Elk Hills. There is also one record for the species from San Diego County (1883), but that population is likely extirpated (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 2006). 

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA Kern (06029), San Diego (06073)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
18 Middle Kern-Upper Tehachapi- (18030003)+, Tulare-Buena Vista Lakes (18030012)+, San Diego (18070304)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Inconspicuous; grows low to the ground and does not have showy flowers. Has trailing, woolly stems less than 13 cm long and small, woolly leaves. Round flower heads are 5 mm or less in diameter. Each flower head contains many individual florets, which consist of reproductive parts and papery scales covered with woolly hairs. Flowering and fruiting March-April (USFWS 1998).
General Description: A small, gray, woolly, annual composite. Plants range from about 1.5 to 13 cm tall. Leaves are oval to lanceolate or linear, and the leaves and stems are covered with fine gray hairs. The spherical flower heads are arranged in terminal clusters of two to eight. Flowering usually occurs during March and April. The achenes are capped by an oval, membranous, winged palea (scale or bract). The front and back surfaces of the paleae are covered with dense wool-like fibers that likely facilitate seed dispersal (Hinshaw 1999).
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Desert, Shrubland/chaparral
Habitat Comments: In both sandy and clay soils, mostly in areas with high levels of surface petroleum; petroleum naturally welling to the surface has been observed near some localities. On flats and slopes in saltbush (Atriplex sp.) or mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa var. torreyana) scrub communities. Seems to prefer dry, sparsely-vegetated areas that have a well-developed cryptogamic crust. These areas can apparently occur within both early- and late-successional plant communities; plants have been documented on ridges or flood plains and low terraces where erosion or periodic flooding help maintain vegetation in a low seral state; in anthropogenically-disturbed areas such as abandoned roadways; and in open microhabitats found in the shrub interspaces of late successional communities. Associated species include Stylocline gnaphaloides, Filago californica, Eriastrum hooveri, E. pluriflorum, Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens, Atriplex polycarpa, Hymenoclea salsola, Lasthenia californica, and Crassula connata. 50 - 400 m. Though all known extant localities are in Kern County, CA, there is also a disjunct historical collection from San Diego, CA; these plants were presumably located within a Coastal Sage Scrub community.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 04Aug2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: D. Gries, rev. M. Fellows (7/03), rev. K. Gravuer (2009), rev. R. Bittman (2015)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • CalFlora. 2005. Information on California plants for education, research and conservation. Berkeley, California: The CalFlora Database [web application]. Available: http://www.calflora.org/. (Accessed 2005)

  • California Native Plant Society (CNPS). 2009. Inventory of Rare and Endangered Plants. California Native Plant Society. Sacramento, CA. Online. Available: http://www.cnps.org/inventory (accessed 2009).

  • California Natural Diversity Database (CNDDB). 2015. RareFind Version 5.1.1. California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2006a. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 19. Magnoliophyta: Asteridae, part 6: Asteraceae, part 1. Oxford University Press, New York. xxiv + 579 pp.

  • Hickman, J. C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 1400 pp.

  • Hinshaw, J. 1999. Oil nest straw in the Elk Hills vicinity. Fremontia 27(1): 12-15.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Morefield, J.D. 1992. Three new species of Stylocline (Asteraceae:Inuleae) from California and the Mojave Desert. Madrono 39(2):114-130.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1998. Recovery plan for upland species of the San Joaquin Valley, California. Region 1, Portland, OR. 319 pp.

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