Streptanthus howellii - S. Wats.
Howell's Jewelflower
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Streptanthus howellii S. Wats. (TSN 23360)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.152527
Element Code: PDBRA2G0N0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Mustard Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Capparales Brassicaceae Streptanthus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Streptanthus howellii
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 07Jun2013
Global Status Last Changed: 07Jun2013
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Endemic to southwestern Oregon and adjacent northwestern California and restricted to serpentine soils. Only known from about 40, mostly small (< 200 individuals) populations. With natural fires, this species would probably be locally abundant, but lack of fire has caused declines in populations.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (S2), Oregon (S2)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: A strict endemic to serpentine in the Klamath Mountains (Safford 2005) of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon. The total range extent including historic records was 2300 km sq, not including historic records it was 1400 km sq. It occurs in Del Norte County, CA and Curry and Josephine Counties, OR (EO data in the NatureServe central database as of June 2013). It is also reported for Siskiyou County, CA (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 2010).

Area of Occupancy: 26-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Strictly endemic to serpentine (Safford 2005).

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: Only known from about 40, mostly small (< 200 individuals) populations. The status of 18 occurrences is unknown, mostly historic (EO data in the NatureServe central database as of June 2013).

Population Size Comments: The occurrence with the largest reported population was estimated to be 3000 individuals, but not very many populations were estimated to be more than 100 plants (EO data in the NatureServe central database as of June 2013).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Few (4-12)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Eleven occurrences were reported to have excellent or good viability (EO data in the NatureServe central database as of June 2013).

Overall Threat Impact: High - low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threats include lack of fire, mining and roads (EO data in the NatureServe central database as of June 2013).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Lack of fire has contributed to declines.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 30-70%
Long-term Trend Comments: Lack of fire has contributed to declines.

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements scarce.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Restricted to serpentine habitats, a strict endemic to serpentine (Safford et al. 2005).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: A strict endemic to serpentine in the Klamath Mountains (Safford 2005) of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon. The total range extent including historic records was 2300 km sq, not including historic records it was 1400 km sq. It occurs in Del Norte County, CA and Curry and Josephine Counties, OR (EO data in the NatureServe central database as of June 2013). It is also reported for Siskiyou County, CA (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 2010).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA, OR

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA Del Norte (06015)
OR Curry (41015), Josephine (41033)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 Illinois (17100311)+, Chetco (17100312)+
18 Smith (18010101)+, Lower Klamath (18010209)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A slender, erect perennial herb, 3-7 dm tall that produces purple or maroon flowers on the upper portion of the stem. Blooms in June and July.
General Description: Perennial plant, usually with unbranched glaucous (whitish and pale purple) stems. The leaves are somewhat fleshy, and are rounded at the tips with petioles. The flowers are maroon to purple, the fruits are long and narrow, 3 mm wide and 6-12 cm long (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 2010).
Technical Description: Perennials; (caudex simple or branched); (glaucous), glabrous. Stems usually unbranched, rarely branched distally, 3-8 dm. Basal leaves (soon withered); not rosulate; petiolate; blade (somewhat fleshy), similar to cauline. Cauline leaves (petiolate); blade broadly spatulate-obovate to suborbicular, or (distally) narrowly oblong-oblanceolate to linear, 1.5-10 cm × 5-45 mm, base (distally) cuneate to attenuate, not auriculate, margins entire, repand, or obtusely dentate, (entire distally). Racemes ebracteate, (lax). Fruiting pedicels divaricate to ascending, (straight), 7-17 mm. Flowers: calyx subcampanulate; sepals purplish, oblong, 5-8 mm, not keeled; petals maroon to purple, 8-12 mm, blade 3-5 × 0.5-1 mm, margins not crisped, claw 5-7 mm, wider than blade; stamens in 3 unequal pairs; filaments (distinct): abaxial pair 5-6 mm, lateral pair 4-5 mm, adaxial pair 6-7 mm; anthers (all) fertile, 3-3.5 mm; gynophore 0.5-5 mm. Fruits divaricate-ascending, smooth, straight to slightly curved inwards, flattened, 5.5-12 cm × 2.5-3.2(-3.5) mm; valves each with prominent midvein; replum straight; ovules 24-44 per ovary; style 0.3-3 mm; stigma subentire. Seeds broadly oblong to suborbicular, 3-4 × 2-3 mm; wing 0.5-1.1 mm wide, continuous. 2n = 28 (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 2010).
Duration: PERENNIAL
Reproduction Comments: Flowers from June to July (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 2010).
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Barrens, Forest Edge, Forest/Woodland, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Serpentine chapparal. From low elevation, rocky flats to montane ridges and summits. Always in open, exposed, serpentine clay, but will persist in brushy woodlands and brushfields for years. Found on roadsides.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: In some serpentine areas populations have declined while the formerly open habitat has become closed in and dominated by trees and shrubs. In these areas, fire or perhaps other methods could be used to reduce the tree and shrub cover and provide the more open serpentine habitat these rare plants need.
Restoration Potential: Restoration potential may be good. Some populations occur in areas which may have been mined or otherwise disturbed in the past (EO data in the NatureServe central database as of June 2013).
Management Requirements: Promote or maintain open serpentine habitat.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 07Jun2013
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Kagan, J., S. Vrlikas, & K. Maybury (1996), rev. C. Nordman (2013)
Management Information Edition Date: 07Jun2013
Management Information Edition Author: Nordman, C.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 07Jun2013
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Nordman, C.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2010. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 7. Magnoliophyta: Salicaceae to Brassicaceae. Oxford University Press, New York. xxii + 797 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Meinke, R.J. 1982. Threatened and Endangered Vascular Plants of Oregon: An Illustrated Guide. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 1, Portland, Oregon. 326 pp.

  • Peck, M.E. 1961. A manual of the higher plants of Oregon. 2nd edition. Binsford & Mort, Portland, Oregon. 936 pp.

  • Rollins, R.C. 1993a. The Cruciferae of continental North America: Systematics of the mustard family from the Arctic to Panama. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, California. 976 pp.

  • Safford, H. D., J. H. Viers, and S. P. Harrison. 2005. Serpentine endemism in the California flora: A database of serpentine affinity. Madroņo 52(4): 222-257.

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