Storeria dekayi - (Holbrook, 1842)
Dekay's Brownsnake
Other English Common Names: DeKay's Snake, Dekay's brownsnake
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Storeria dekayi (Holbrook, 1839) (TSN 174129)
French Common Names: couleuvre brune
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.893278
Element Code: ARADB34010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Reptiles - Snakes
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Reptilia Squamata Colubridae Storeria
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Crother, B. I. (editor). 2008. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Sixth edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular 37:1-84. Online with updates at: http://www.ssarherps.org/pages/comm_names/Index.php
Concept Reference Code: B08CRO01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Storeria dekayi
Taxonomic Comments: Crother et al. (2000) and Crother (2008) cited Christman (1980, Bulletin of the Florida State Museum 25:157-256) in listing Storeria victa as a species; generally it has been regarded as a subspecies of S. dekayi. Ernst and Ernst (2003) discussed Christman's conclusions but nevertheless maintained victa as a subspecies.

The Florida Keys population of S. dekayi may warrant recognition as a subspecies distinct from S. d. victa (Lazell 1989).
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 02Feb2016
Global Status Last Changed: 30Oct1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Oct1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (02Feb2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5), Arkansas (S5), Connecticut (S5), Delaware (S3), District of Columbia (S4), Florida (S5), Georgia (S5), Illinois (S5), Indiana (SNR), Iowa (S5), Kansas (S5), Kentucky (S5), Louisiana (S5), Maine (S3), Maryland (S5), Massachusetts (S5), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (S4), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (SNR), Nebraska (S3), New Hampshire (S5), New Jersey (S5), New York (S5), North Carolina (S5), Ohio (SNR), Oklahoma (S5), Pennsylvania (S5), Rhode Island (S4?), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (S1), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S5), Vermont (S4), Virginia (S5), West Virginia (S4), Wisconsin (S5)
Canada Ontario (S5), Quebec (S2)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Not at Risk (01May2002)
Comments on COSEWIC: Reason for Designation: There has been little research done on the biology of this species in Canada. Brownsnakes are small, secretive, and fossorial, and therefore more difficult to study than most other species. It is also difficult to get accurate estimates of population sizes and fluctuations. Despite these problems, and even though habitat has been lost due to expanding urban areas, this species is not believed to be at risk.

Status History: Designated Not at Risk in May 2002. More recently (2015) considered a medium priority candidate for re-assessment.

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: The range extends from southern Maine, southern Quebec, southern Ontario, Michigan, Minnesota, and northeastern South Dakota south to southern Florida (including the Lower Keys, Lazell 1989), the U.S. Gulf Coast, and through eastern and southern Mexico to Veracruz and Oaxaca and from Chiapas to Honduras (Christman 1982). Subspecies victa of peninsular Florida is treated as a species by some authors.

Area of Occupancy: >12,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a very large number (hundreds) of occurrences or subpopulations (see map in Christman 1982).

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but undoubtedly exceeds 100,000. This snake is locally abundant (up to hundreds per hectare) in many areas.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very many (>125)

Overall Threat Impact: Low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known. This snake tolerates a high level of habitat disturbance.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, number of subpopulations, and population size probably are relatively stable.

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) The range extends from southern Maine, southern Quebec, southern Ontario, Michigan, Minnesota, and northeastern South Dakota south to southern Florida (including the Lower Keys, Lazell 1989), the U.S. Gulf Coast, and through eastern and southern Mexico to Veracruz and Oaxaca and from Chiapas to Honduras (Christman 1982). Subspecies victa of peninsular Florida is treated as a species by some authors.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Canada ON, QC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
OK Atoka (40005), Cherokee (40021), Ellis (40045), Le Flore (40079)
SD Brookings (46011), Charles Mix (46023), Gregory (46053)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
10 Fort Randall Reservoir (10140101)+, Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101)+, Upper Big Sioux (10170202)+
11 Lower Canadian-Deer (11090201)+, Illinois (11110103)+, Poteau (11110105)+, Muddy Boggy (11140103)+, Kiamichi (11140105)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Reproduction Comments: Gives birth to 3-31 young (usually about 10-15), generally in summer. Sexually mature in about 2 years. See J. Herpetol. 27:175-185 for information on determinants of offspring size and number.
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: Migrates up to at least a few hundred meters between winter hibernaculum and summer range in some areas (Minton 1972; see also Vogt 1981).
Estuarine Habitat(s): Herbaceous wetland
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen, FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian, SCRUB-SHRUB WETLAND
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Cropland/hedgerow, Forest - Conifer, Forest - Hardwood, Forest - Mixed, Grassland/herbaceous, Old field, Suburban/orchard, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Special Habitat Factors: Burrowing in or using soil, Fallen log/debris
Habitat Comments: This snake occurs in nearly all terrestrial and wetland habitat types in its range, including cities. Habitats in Mexico include cloud forest and tropical deciduous forest. Usually it inhabits moist situations, but it is not an aquatic species. It often occurs under debris or logs; frequently among water hyacinths in Florida. Hibernation sites (often communal) are underground or beneath buildings and other structures.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Important foods are earthworms, slugs, and snails. Sometimes eats insects, small amphibians, and small fishes.
Adult Phenology: Circadian, Hibernates/aestivates
Immature Phenology: Circadian, Hibernates/aestivates
Phenology Comments: Inactive during cold winter weather in north. May be active day or night.
Length: 53 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 15Dec2005
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 15Dec2005
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des reptiles du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 2 pages.

  • BIDER, J.R. ET D. RODRIGUE. 1996. Répartition de la couleuvre brune dans la région de Montréal et sa périphérie : rive nord du lac des Deux-Montagnes et rive est de la rivière des Outaouais jusqu'à Calumet. Société d'histoire naturelle de la vallée du Sai

  • Beaulieu, H. 1992. Liste des espèces de la faune vertébrée susceptibles d'être désignées menacées ou vulnérables. Ministère du Loisir, de la Chasse et de la Pêche. 107 p.

  • Behler, J. L., and F. W. King. 1979. The Audubon Society field guide to North American reptiles and amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. 719 pp.

  • Bider, R. J. et S. Matte. 1994. Atlas des amphibiens et des reptiles du Québec. Société d'histoire naturelle de la vallée du Saint-Laurent, Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune, Direction de la faune et des habitats. 106 p.

  • Bleakney, S. 1958. A zoogeographical study of the amphibians and reptiles of Eastern Canada. Musée national du Canada, Bulletin no 155 119

  • COLLINS, J.T. 1982. AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES IN KANSAS. UNIV.KANS.MUS.NAT.HIST., PUB.EDUCA.SERIES NO.8.

  • COLLINS, J.T. 2000. NEW RECORDS OF AMPHIBIANS, TURTLES AND REPTILES IN KANSAS FOR 1999. KS HERP SOC NEWSLETTER, MARCH 2000.

  • CONANT, R. 1975. A FIELD GUIDE TO REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS OFEASTERN AND CENTRAL NORTH AMERICA.

  • Chambers, R.E. 1983. Integrating timber and wildlife management. State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation.

  • Christman, S. P. 1982. Storeria dekayi. Cat. Am. Amph. Rep. 306.1-306.4.

  • Cimon A. 1986. Les reptiles du Québec, bio-écologie des espèces et problématique de conservation des habitats. Ministère du Loisir, de la Chasse et de la Pêche. 85 p.

  • Cliburn, J.W. 1976. A key to the amphibians and reptiles of Mississippi. Fourth edition. Mississippi Museum of Natural Science, Jackson, Mississippi. 71 pp.

  • Collins, J. T. 1990. Standard common and current scientific names for North American amphibians and reptiles. 3rd ed. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Herpetological Circular No. 19. 41 pp.

  • Conant, R., and J. T. Collins. 1998. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians: eastern and central North America. Third edition, expanded. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Massachusetts. 616 pp.

  • Cook, F. R. 1984. Introduction to Canadian amphibians and reptiles. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museums of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.

  • Cook, F.R. 1984. Introduction aux Amphibiens et Reptiles du Canada. Musée national des sciences naturelles. 211 p.

  • Crother, B. I. (editor). 2008. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Sixth edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular 37:1-84.

  • Crother, B. I. (editor). 2008. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Sixth edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular 37:1-84. Online with updates at: http://www.ssarherps.org/pages/comm_names/Index.php

  • Crother, B. I. (editor). 2012. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. 7th edition. SSAR Herpetological Circular 39:1-92.

  • Crother, B. I., editor. 2000. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular 29. 82 pp.

  • DEGRAFF, R.M. AND D.D.RUDIS. 1983. AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF NEW ENGLAND. HABITATS AND NATURAL HISTORY. UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS PRESS. 83PP.

  • DIXON, JAMES R. 1987. AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF TEXAS, WITH KEYS, TAXONOMIC SYNOPSES, BIBLIOGRAPHY, AND DISTRIBUTION MAPS. TEXAS A& M UNIV. PRESS, COLLEGE STATION. xii + 434 pp.

  • DeGraaf, R. M. and D. R. Rudis. 1986. New England wildlife: habitat, natural history, and distribution. Univ. Mass. Press. Amherst, MA. 491 pp.

  • DeGraaf, R. M., and D. D. Rudis. 1983a. Amphibians and reptiles of New England. Habitats and natural history. Univ. Massachusetts Press. vii + 83 pp.

  • DeGraaf, R.M. and D.D. Rudis. 1981. Forest habitat for reptiles and amphibians of the northeast. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Eastern Region, Milwaukee, WI. 239 pp.

  • Desroches, J.-F. et D. Rodrigue 2004. Amphibiens et reptiles du Québec et des Maritimes. Éditions Michel Quintin. 288 pages.

  • Desrosiers A., F. Caron et R. Ouellet. 1995. Liste de la faune vertébrée du Québec. Les publications du Québec. 122

  • ESHER, ROBERT I. AND DWIGHT K. BRADSHAW. 1988. DIVERSITY AND ABUNDANCE AF VERTEBRATES OF DELISLE FOREST AND ADJACENT MARSH. MS. STATE UNIV. RES. CENTER. 51 pp.

  • FORD, H.B., V.A. COBB, AND W.W. LAMAR. 1990. REPRODUCTIVE DATA ON SNAKES FROM NORTHEASTERN TEXAS. TEXAS J. SCI. 42:355-368.

  • Fitch, H. S. 1999. A Kansas snake community: composition and changes over 50 years. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida. 165 pp.

  • Fitch, H.S. 1999. A Kansas Snake Community: Composition and Changes over 50 Years. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida. 165 pp.

  • Ford, Neil B., V. A. Cobb, and J. Stout. 1991. Species diversity and seasonal abundance of snakes in a mixed pine-hardwood forest of eastern Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist 36(2):171-177.

  • Freedman, B. et P.M. Catling. 1979. Movements of sympatric species of snakes at Amherstburg, Ontario. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 93(4). p. 399-404.

  • GEHLBACH, FREDERICK R. 1991. THE EAST-WEST TRANSITION ZONE OF TERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATES IN CENTRAL TEXAS: A BIOGEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS. TEXAS J. SCI. 43(4):415-427.

  • Gerholdt, J. E. and P. J. Gerholdt. 1991. A guide to the reptiles and amphibians of the state parks southeastern area. Draft final report to the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Unpaged.

  • Gerholdt, James E. and Pamela J. Gerholdt. 1990-1991. A Guide to the Reptiles and Amphibians of the State Parks Southeastern Area. Funded by the MN DNR, Section of Wildlife, Natural Heritage and Nongame Research Program. Results in unpublished report.

  • HOLT, M. S. 2000. COSEWIC Status Report on Dekay's Brownsnake (Storeria dekayi). Committee on the status of endangered wildlife in Canada. 39 p.

  • Hammerson, G. 2001. EO Specs for Small Colubrid Snakes (ELCODE ARADB00001). NatureServe, unpublished. 1 pp.

  • Harding, J. H. 1997. Amphibians and reptiles of the Great Lakes region. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. xvi + 378 pp.

  • Hayes, F.E. 1987. Behavior: Storeria dekayi dekayi. Herpetological Review 18(1): 16-17.

  • Holt, S.M. 1998. Status Report on the Brown Snake, STORERIA DEKAYI, in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 30 pp. + appendix

  • Holt, Sarah M. 2000. Draft COSEWIC Status Report on DeKay's Brownsnake (Storeria dekayi). Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC); (unpublished). 44 pp.

  • Huheey, J.E. and Stupka, A. 1967. Amphibians and Reptiles of Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

  • Judd, W.W. 1954. Observations on the food of the Little Brownsnake, Storeria dekayi, at London, Ontario. Copeia 1954(1): 62-64.

  • KECK, MICHAEL B. 1993. NEW DISTRIBUTIONAL RECORDS OF AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES FROM TITUS COUNTY, TEXAS. TEXAS J. SCI. 45(4):360-362.

  • King, R.B. 1993. Determinants of offspring number and size in the Brown Snake, Storeria dekayi. Journal of Herpetology 27(2): 175-185.

  • Kingsbury, Bruce A., and Spencer Cortwright. 1994. Status and Distribution of Candidate Endangered Herpetofauna in the Fish Creek Watershed. Submitted to the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Nongame and Endangered Wildlife Program. 38 pp.

  • Lamond, W.G. 1994. The Reptiles and Amphibians of the Hamilton Area: An Historical Summary and the results of The Hamilton Herpetofaunal Atlas. Hamilton Naturalists' Club, Hamilton, Ontario. 174 pp.

  • Lazell, J. D., Jr. 1989. Wildlife of the Florida Keys: a natural history. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

  • Lohoefener, R. and R. Altig. 1983. Mississippi herpetology. Mississippi State University Research Center, NSTL Station, Mississippi. 66 pp.

  • MCCOY CJ 1982 AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES IN PENNSYLVANIA: CHECKLIST, BIBLIOGRAPHY, AND ATLAS OF DISTRIBUTION. SP PUB CARNEGIE MUS NAT HIST, NO 6 PG 1-91,74MAPS

  • Minton, S. A., Jr. 1972. Amphibians and reptiles of Indiana. Indiana Academy Science Monographs 3. v + 346 pp.

  • Mirarchi, R.E., editor. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume 1. A checklist of vertebrates and selected invertebrates: aquatic mollusks, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 209 pages.

  • Mount, R. H. 1975. The reptiles and amphibians of Alabama. Auburn University Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn, Alabama. vii + 347 pages.

  • Mount, R. H. 1975. The reptiles and amphibians of Alabama. Auburn University Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn, Alabama. vii + 347 pp.

  • New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. 1985. Checklist of the amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals of New York State, including their protective status. Nongame Unit. Wildlife Resources Center. Delmar, NY.

  • Nobel, G.K. and H.J. Clauser. 1936. The aggregation behavior of Storeria dekayi and other snakes with special reference to the sense organs organs. Ecol. Monogr. 6:269-316.

  • RUDOLPH, D. CRAIG AND JAMES G. DICKSON. 1990. STREAMSIDE ZONE WIDTH AND AMPHIBIAN AND REPTILE ABUNDANCE. SOUTHWEST. NAT. 35(4):472-476.

  • Reilly, E.M. 1955. Snakes of New York. New York State Conservationist: 22-23 and 26.

  • Rossman, D.A. and, P.A. Myer. 1990. Behavioral and morphological adaptations for snail extraction in the North American Brown Snakes (Genus Storeria). Journal of Herpetology 24(4): 434-438.

  • SEYLE, W., AND G. K. WILLIAMSON. 1988 (IN PREP). REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS OF GEORGIA: RANGE MAPS

  • Schlauch, F.C. and J.M. Burnley. 1972. Distributional survey of the indigenous Herpetozoans of Long Island. Revised edition. Engelhardtia 5(3):13-17.

  • Trapido, Harold. 1944. The snakes of the genus Storeria. Am. Midl. Nat. 31:1-84.

  • Vogt, R. C. 1981. Natural history of amphibians and reptiles of Wisconsin. Milwaukee Public Museum. 205 pp.

  • Vogt, R. C. 1981c. Natural history of amphibians and reptiles of Wisconsin. Milwaukee Public Museum. 205 pp.

  • WARD, ROCKY, EARL G. ZIMMERMAN, AND TIM L. KING. 1994. ENVIRONMENTAL CORRELATES TO TERRESTRIAL REPTILIAN DISTRIBUTIONS IN TEXAS. TEXAS J. SCI. 46(1):21-26.

  • WARD, ROCKY, EARL G. ZIMMERMAN, AND TIMOTHY L. KING. 1990. MULTIVARIATE ANALYSES OF TERRESTRIAL REPTILIAN DISTRIBUTION IN TEXAS: AN ALTERNATE VIEW. SOUTHWEST. NAT. 35(4):441-445.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2019 NatureServe, 2511 Richmond (Jefferson Davis) Highway, Suite 930, Arlington, VA 22202, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.