Sternula antillarum athalassos - (Burleigh and Lowery, 1942)
Interior Least Tern
Synonym(s): Sterna antillarum athalassos Burleigh and Lowery, 1942
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.103386
Element Code: ABNNM08102
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Other Birds
Image 12063

Public Domain

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Charadriiformes Laridae Sternula
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1957. The A.O.U. Check-list of North American Birds, 5th ed. Port City Press, Inc., Baltimore, MD. 691 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B57AOU01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Sterna antillarum athalassos
Taxonomic Comments: Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) included in the genus Sterna but separated on the basis of genetic data that correspond to plumage patterns (Bridge et al. 2005).

Thompson et al. (1992) examined morphological and electrophoretic variation and found little evidence of differentiation among populations of the nominal subspecies antillarum, athalassos, and browni; they recommended that the subspecific taxonomy of the S. antillarum complex be reassessed. Johnson et al. (1998) used a quantitative colorimetry analysis to study variation among antillarum, athalassos, and browni and found differences significant enough to warrant the validity of the taxa and their importance as entities for conservation.
Conservation Status

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4T2Q
Global Status Last Reviewed: 27Nov1996
Global Status Last Changed: 27Nov1996
Rounded Global Status: T2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Interior populations of the Least Tern, formerly well distributed in the Mississippi Basin, now survive only in scattered remnants; habitat has been decimated by extensive water management projects and increased use of beaches and sandbars; interior populations generally are not recognized as a distinct taxonomic entity; see files for S. ANTILLARUM.
Nation: United States
National Status: NNR
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNR

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arkansas (S3B), Colorado (S1B), Illinois (SNR), Indiana (S1B), Iowa (S1B,S1N), Kansas (S1B), Kentucky (S2B), Louisiana (S1B), Mississippi (S2B), Missouri (S1), Montana (SNR), Nebraska (S2), New Mexico (S1B,S2N), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (SX), Oklahoma (S2B), South Dakota (S2B), Tennessee (S2S3B), Texas (S1B)

Other Statuses

Implied Status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): PS:LE
Comments on USESA: Listed by USFWS as Endangered with the following caveats: Louisiana, Mississippi River and tributaries north of Baton Rouge; Mississippi, Mississippi River only, and Texas, everywhere except the Texas coast and a 50 mile zone inland from the the coast (May 28, 1985; Federal Register 50:21792).

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R3 - North Central

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: BREEDING: Locally along the Colorado, Red, Arkansas, Missouri, Ohio, and Mississippi river systems; formerly more widespread and common; has been eliminated from much of former habitat; now breeds locally in this region, north to Montana and North Dakota, east to southwestern Indiana, central Kentucky, and western Tennessee, west to eastern Colorado.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) BREEDING: Locally along the Colorado, Red, Arkansas, Missouri, Ohio, and Mississippi river systems; formerly more widespread and common; has been eliminated from much of former habitat; now breeds locally in this region, north to Montana and North Dakota, east to southwestern Indiana, central Kentucky, and western Tennessee, west to eastern Colorado.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations, but breeds in a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AR, CO, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MO, MS, MT, ND, NE, NM, OHextirpated, OK, SD, TN, TX

Range Map
No map available.

U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AR Arkansas (05001), Chicot (05017), Conway (05029), Crawford (05033), Crittenden (05035), Desha (05041), Faulkner (05045), Hempstead (05057), Jefferson (05069), Johnson (05071), Lafayette (05073), Lee (05077), Lincoln (05079), Little River (05081), Logan (05083), Miller (05091), Mississippi (05093), Perry (05105), Phillips (05107), Pope (05115), Pulaski (05119), Sebastian (05131), Yell (05149)
IA Woodbury (19193)
IN Dearborn (18029), Gibson (18051), Greene (18055), Posey (18129), Spencer (18147)
KY Ballard (21007), Carlisle (21039), Fulton (21075), Hancock (21091), Hickman (21105), Jefferson (21111)*, Livingston (21139), Marshall (21157), McCracken (21145), Union (21225)
LA Bossier (22015), Caddo (22017), Concordia (22029), East Carroll (22035), Madison (22065), Natchitoches (22069), Red River (22081), Tensas (22107)
MO Cape Girardeau (29031), Chariton (29041), Mississippi (29133), New Madrid (29143), Pemiscot (29155), Perry (29157), Scott (29201)
MS Adams (28001), Bolivar (28011), Coahoma (28027), DeSoto (28033), Issaquena (28055), Jefferson (28063), Tunica (28143), Warren (28149), Washington (28151)
NE Arthur (31005), Blaine (31009), Boone (31011), Boyd (31015), Brown (31017), Buffalo (31019), Burt (31021), Butler (31023), Cass (31025), Cedar (31027), Colfax (31037), Cuming (31039), Custer (31041), Dawson (31047), Dixon (31051), Dodge (31053), Douglas (31055), Hall (31079), Hamilton (31081), Holt (31089), Howard (31093), Keith (31101), Keya Paha (31103), Knox (31107), Lincoln (31111), Madison (31119), Merrick (31121), Nance (31125), Phelps (31137), Platte (31141), Polk (31143), Rock (31149), Sarpy (31153), Saunders (31155), Sherman (31163), Stanton (31167), Valley (31175)
NM Chaves (35005), Otero (35035)
SD Bon Homme (46009), Campbell (46021), Charles Mix (46023), Clay (46027), Corson (46031), Dewey (46041), Gregory (46053), Haakon (46055), Hughes (46065), Meade (46093), Pennington (46103), Potter (46107), Stanley (46117), Sully (46119), Union (46127), Walworth (46129), Yankton (46135), Ziebach (46137)
TN Dyer (47045), Lake (47095), Lauderdale (47097), Shelby (47157), Tipton (47167)
TX Baylor (48023), Childress (48075), Coke (48081), Dallas (48113), Freestone (48161), Grayson (48181), Hall (48191), Hemphill (48211), Leon (48289), Red River (48387), Roberts (48393), Starr (48427), Tom Green (48451), Val Verde (48465), Webb (48479), Wilbarger (48487), Zapata (48505)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
05 Lower Great Miami (05080002)+, Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203)+, Lower Wabash (05120113)+, Lower White (05120202)+, Patoka (05120209)+, Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101)+*, Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201)+, Highland-Pigeon (05140202)+, Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203)+, Lower Ohio (05140206)+
06 Lower Tennessee (06040006)+
07 Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105)+
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100)+, Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201)+*, Obion (08010202)+, Horn Lake-Nonconnah (08010211)+, Lower Mississippi-Helena (08020100)+, New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201)+, Lower Arkansas (08020401)+, Lower Mississippi-Greenville (08030100)+, Coldwater (08030204)+, Tensas (08050003)+, Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100)+
10 Middle Cheyenne-Elk (10120111)+, Lower Cheyenne (10120112)+, Upper Lake Oahe (10130102)+, Lower Lake Oahe (10130105)+, Fort Randall Reservoir (10140101)+, Middle Niobrara (10150004)+, Lower Niobrara (10150007)+, Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101)+, Lower North Platte (10180014)+, Lower South Platte (10190018)+, Middle Platte-Buffalo (10200101)+, Wood (10200102)+, Middle Platte-Prairie (10200103)+, Lower Platte-Shell (10200201)+, Lower Platte (10200202)+, Salt (10200203)+, Dismal (10210002)+, Lower Middle Loup (10210003)+, Lower North Loup (10210007)+, Loup (10210009)+, Cedar (10210010)+, Upper Elkhorn (10220001)+, Lower Elkhorn (10220003)+, Blackbird-Soldier (10230001)+, Keg-Weeping Water (10240001)+, Lower Grand (10280103)+
11 Middle Canadian-Spring (11090106)+, Frog-Mulberry (11110201)+, Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202)+, Lake Conway-Point Remove (11110203)+, Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207)+, Lower Prairie Dog Town Fork Red (11120105)+, Wichita (11130206)+, Southern Beaver (11130207)+, Lake Texoma (11130210)+, Bois D'arc-Island (11140101)+, Pecan-Waterhole (11140106)+, Mckinney-Posten Bayous (11140201)+, Middle Red-Coushatta (11140202)+, Red Chute (11140204)+, Bayou Pierre (11140206)+, Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207)+
12 Upper Trinity (12030105)+, Lower Trinity-Tehuacana (12030201)+, Navasota (12070103)+, Upper Colorado (12080008)+, North Concho (12090104)+
13 Amistad Reservoir (13040212)+, Lower Devils (13040302)+, Tularosa Valley (13050003)+, Upper Pecos-Long Arroyo (13060007)+, Elm-Sycamore (13080001)+, San Ambrosia-Santa Isabel (13080002)+, International Falcon Reservoir (13080003)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Basic Description: A small, gray, white, and black water bird (interior population of least tern).
Habitat Type: Terrestrial
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, MEDIUM RIVER
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Sand/dune
Habitat Comments: Wide river channels dotted with barren to sparsely vegetated sandbars are preferred habitat for interior least terns (USFWS 2014).  Interior least terns also nest along sand and gravel pits, lake and reservoir shorelines, and occasionally gravel rooftops (USFWS 2014).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Population/Occurrence Viability
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 22Feb1995
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 11Mar1996
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): HAMMERSON, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

  • Akers, J. W. 1975. The least tern in Virginia: breeding biology and population distribution. M.S. thesis, William and Mary College, Williamsburg. 77 pp.

  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1957. The A.O.U. Check-list of North American Birds, 5th ed. Port City Press, Inc., Baltimore, MD. 691 pp.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th edition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 p.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 2006. Forty-seventh supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. The Auk 123(3):1926-936.

  • Andrews, R. R. and R. R. Righter. 1992. Colorado Birds. Denver Museum of Natural History, Denver. 442 pp.

  • Atwood, J. L., and B. W. Massey. 1988. Site fidelity of least terns in California. Condor 90:389-394.

  • Atwood, J.L. 1986. Delayed nocturnal occupation of breed- ing colonies by least terns (Sterna antillarum). AUK 103(1):242-244.

  • Baicich, P. J., and C. J. O. Harrison. 1997. A guide to the nests, eggs and nestlings of North American birds. Second edition. Academic Press, New York.

  • Barbour, R.W. et al. 1973. Kentucky Birds.

  • Bent, A.C. 1921. Life histories of North American gulls and terns. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 113. Washington, D.C.

  • Blodgett, B. 1978. The effects of off-road vehicles on least terns and other shore birds. Univ. Massachusetts - Natl. Park Service Report 26:1-79.

  • Blus, L. J., and R. M. Prouty. 1979. Organochlorine pollutants and population status of least terns in South Carolina. Wilson Bull. 91:62-71.

  • Bridge, E. S., A. W. Jones, and A. J. Baker. 2005. A phylogenetic framework for the terns (Sternini) inferred from mtDNA sequences: implications for taxonomy and plumage evolution. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 35:459-469.

  • Bull, J. 1974. Birds of New York state. Doubleday/Natural History Press, Garden City, New York. Reprint, 1985 (with Supplement, Federation of New York Bird Clubs, 1976), Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, New York.

  • Burger, J. 1984. Colony stability in least terns. Condor 86:61-67.

  • Burger, J., and M. Gochfield. 1985. Nest site selection bylaughing gulls: comparison of tropical colonies (Culebra, Puerto Rico) with temperate colonies (New Jersey). Condor 87:364-373.

  • Burnside, F.L. 1987. Long-distance movements by loggerheadshrikes. Journal of Field Ornithology 58(1):

  • Carter, M. 1990. Status of Least Terns and Piping Plovers in Colorado. C.F.O. Journal 24:115-116 (abstract only).

  • Clapp, R. B., M. K. Klimkiewicz, and J. H. Kennard. 1982. Longevity records of North American birds: Gaviidae through Alcidae. J. Field Ornithol. 53:81-124.

  • Colorado Bird Observatory. 1997. 1996 Reference Guide to the Monitoring and Conservation Status of Colorado's Breeding Birds. Colorado Bird Observatory, Colorado Division of Wildlife, Great Outdoors Colorado Trust Fund, and Partners, March 21, 1997.

  • Cowgill, R. W. 1989. Nesting success of least terns on two South Carolina barrier islands in relation to human disturbance. Chat 53:81-87.

  • Craig, A. M. 1971. Survey of California least tern nesting sites. California Dept. Fish and Game, Project W54R-4. 55 pp.


  • Dorr, D. K. 1976. Least tern, Sterna albifrons, nesting habitat in Maine and its relevance to the Critical Areas Program. Maine Critical Areas Program, Planning Report No. 11.21 pp.

  • Ducey, J. 1982. The 1982 least tern and piping plover breeding season on the lower Platte River, Nebraska. Nebraska Bird Rev. 50:68-72.

  • Ehrlich, P. R., D. S. Dobkin, and D. Wheye. 1992. Birds in Jeopardy: the Imperiled and Extinct Birds of the United States and Canada, Including Hawaii and Puerto Rico. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. 259 pp.

  • Erwin, R. M. 1978a. Population and colony site dynamics in selected Massachusetts seabirds. Proc. 1977 Conf. Colonial Waterbirds Group 1:19-25.

  • Erwin, R. M. 1978b. Coloniality in terns: the role of social feeding. Condor 80:211-5.

  • Estelle, V. and T. Mabee. 1995. Breeding success of Least Terns, Piping Plovers and Snowy Plovers: evaluation of predator exclosures in southeast Colorado, 1994. Report submitted to Colorado Division of Wildlife and Bureau of Land Management.

  • Faanes, C. A. 1983. Aspects of the nesting ecology of least terns and piping plovers in central Nebraska. Prairie Nat. 15(4):145-154.

  • Figg, D. E. 1993. Missouri Department of Conservation wildlife diversity report, July 1992-June 1993. 75 pp.


  • Gochfeld, M. 1983. Colony site selection by least terns: physical attributes of sites. Colonial Waterbirds 6:205-213.

  • Gore, J. A., and M. J. Kinnison. 1991. Hatching success in roof and ground colonies of least terns. Condor 93:759-762.

  • Grover, P. B., and F. L. Knopf. 1982. Habitat requirements and breeding success of charadriiform birds nesting at Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, Oklahoma. J. Field Ornithol. 53:139-148.

  • Hardy, J. W. 1957. The least tern in the Mississippi Valley. Publ. Mus. Michigan State Univ., Biol. Ser. 1:1-60.

  • Hays, M. B. 1980. Breeding biology of the least tern, Sterna albifrons, on the Gulf Coast of Mississippi. M.S. thesis, Mississippi State Univ. 69 pp.

  • Houde, P. 1977. Low productivity of terns on Hicks Island, 1975. Proc. Linn. Soc. 73:49-57.


  • Jernigan, L., et al. 1978. Nesting habitats and breeding populations of the least tern colonies in North Carolina. Univ. North Carolina Sea Grant Publ. 39 pp.

  • Johnson, N.K., J.V. Remsen Jr., and C. Cicero. 1998. Refined Colorimetry Validates Endangered subspecies of the Least Tern. The Condor. 100:18-26

  • Johnson, N.K., J.V. Remsen, Jr., and C. Cicero. 1998. Refined colorimetry validates endangered subspecies of the Least Tern. The Condor 100:18-26.


  • Kress, S. W., E. H. Weinstein, and I. C. T. Nisbet. 1983. The status of tern populations in the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. Colonial Waterbirds 6:84-106.

  • MacLean, D. C., et al. 1991. Nesting biology, habitat use, and inter-colony movements of the least tern (Sterna antillarum) on Long Island, N.Y. The Seatuck Research Program in cooperation with the New York State Dept. of Environ. Conserv. 70 pp.

  • Massey, B. W. 1974. Breeding biology of the California least tern. Proc. Linn. Soc. New York 72:1-24.

  • Massey, B. W. 1976. Vocal differences between American least terns and the European little tern. Auk 93:760-773.

  • Massey, B. W., and J. L. Atwood. 1978. Plumages of the least tern. Bird-banding 49:360-371.

  • Massey, B. W., and J. L. Atwood. 1981. Second-wave nesting of the California least tern: age composition and reproductive success. Auk 98:596-605.

  • Matthews, J.R. and C.J. Moseley (eds.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species of North America. Volume 1. Plants, Mammals. xxiii + pp 1-560 + 33 pp. appendix + 6 pp. glossary + 16 pp. index. Volume 2. Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians, Fishes, Mussels, Crustaceans, Snails, Insects, and Arachnids. xiii + pp. 561-1180. Beacham Publications, Inc., Washington, D.C.

  • McDaniel and McDaniel. 1963. Feeding of Least Terns Over Land. Auk 80:544.

  • Mengel, R.M. 1965. The Birds of Kentucky. Ornithological Monographs No. 3.

  • Mills, Charles E. 1987. Indiana's First Least Tern Nesting Record. 65(2) Ind. Aud. Q. 42-44.

  • Mills, Charles, E. and John S. Castrale. 1996. Survey and Management of Interior Least Terns in Indiana, 1995. Final Report Project No.: E-I-10, Study No.: 11. Submitted to Nongame Section, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Indiana Department of Natural Resources. 7 pp.

  • Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Parks. 2003. Online informational search on Least Tern in Montana. . (Accessed: May 19, 2003).

  • Montana Piping Plover Recovery Committee. 1994. 1993 Surveys for Piping Plover (CHARADRIUS MELODUS) and Least Tern (STERNA ANTILLARUM) in Montana. Unpublished report. 116 pp. plus appendices.

  • Moseley, L. J. 1976. Behavior and communication in the least tern. Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. North Carolina. 164 pp.

  • Natural Resources Commission. 2014. Roster of Indiana Animals, Insects, and Plants That Are Extirpated, Endangered, Threatened or Rare. Information Bulletin #2 (Sixth Amendment. 20pp.

  • Nelson, D. and M. F. Carter. 1990. Nesting of Least Tern and Piping Plover, Southeast Colorado, 1990. Unpublished report to Colorado Division of Wildlife, Denver. 38pp.

  • Nicholson, C.P. 1997. Atlas of the breeding birds of Tennessee. The University of Tennessee Press. 426 pp.

  • Oberholser, Harry C. 1974. The Bird Life of Texas, Volume 1. University of Texas Press. Austin, Texas. 530 pp.


  • Schulenberg, J., and M. Ptacek. 1984. Status of the interior least tern in Kansas. Am. Birds 38:975-981.

  • Stiles, F. G. and A. F. Skutch. 1989. A guide to the birds of Costa Rica. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA. 511 pp.

  • Swickard, D. K. 1974. An evaluation of two least tern nesting sites. California Fish and Game 60:88-90.


  • Thompson, B. C., J. A. Jackson, J. Burger, L. A. Hill, E. M. Kirsch, and J. L. Atwood. 1997. Least Tern (Sterna antillarum). In A. Poole and F. Gill, editors, The Birds of North America, No. 290. Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC. 32 pp.

  • Thompson, B. C., et al. 1992. Subspecific status of least tern populations in Texas: North American implications. Wilson Bull. 104(2):244-262.

  • Thompson, B. C., et al. 1992. Subspecific status of least tern populations in Texas: North American implications. Wilson Bull. 104:244-262.

  • Thompson, B.C. and R.D. Slack. 1982. Physical aspects of colony selection by least terns on the Texas coast. Colonial Waterbirds 5:161-168.

  • Thompson, B.C., J.A. Jackson, J. Burger, L.A. Hill, E.M. Kirsch, and J.L. Atwood. 1997. Least Tern (Sterna antillarum). In A. Poole and F. Gill, editors, The Birds of North America, No. 290. Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC. 32 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1990. Endangered and threatened species recovery program: report to Congress. 406 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1990. Recovery plan for the interior population of the least tern (Sterna antillarum). USFWS, Twin Cities, Minnesota. 90 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2014. March last update. Interior least tern factsheet. Bloomington, Minnesota. Online. Available: (accesssed 2017).

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2015. Federally-Listed Threatened, Endangered and Candidate Species County Distribution. 3 pp.

  • Whitman, P. L. 1988. Biology and conservation of the endangered interior least tern: a literature review. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Biol. Report 88(3), 22 pp.

  • Zickefoose, J. 1985. Least tern/piping plover recovery program. Final report to The Nature Conservancy, Connecticut Chapter. 22 pp.

  • Ziewitz, J. W., J. G. Sidle, and J. J. Dinan. 1992. Habitat conservation for nesting least terns and piping plovers on the Platte River, Nebraska. Prairie Naturalist 24(1):1-20.

  • van Halewyn, R., and R. L. Norton. 1984. The status and conservation of seabirds in the Caribbean. Pages 169-222 in Croxall et al., eds. Status and conservation of the world's seabirds. ICBP Tech. Pub. No. 2

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2018.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2018 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.