Stereochilus marginatus - (Hallowell, 1856)
Many-lined Salamander
Other English Common Names: many-lined salamander
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Stereochilus marginatus (Hallowell, 1856) (TSN 173647)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.104528
Element Code: AAAAD14010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Amphibians - Salamanders
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Amphibia Caudata Plethodontidae Stereochilus
Genus Size: A - Monotypic genus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Frost, D. R. 1985. Amphibian species of the world. A taxonomic and geographical reference. Allen Press, Inc., and The Association of Systematics Collections, Lawrence, Kansas. v + 732 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B85FRO01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Stereochilus marginatus
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 19Feb2014
Global Status Last Changed: 03Dec2001
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Nov1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (S1), Georgia (S3), North Carolina (S4), South Carolina (SNR), Virginia (S3)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Coastal Plain from southeastern Virginia to Georgia and extreme northeastern Florida (Conant and Collins 1991). Occurs in scattered populations throughout the historical range (Petranka 1998).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Local populations likely have been eliminated or reduced as a result of drainage of wetlands (Petranka 1998).

Long-term Trend:  
Long-term Trend Comments: Not much is known about the conservation status of this species (Petranka 1998), but it appears to be secure throughout most of the range.

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Coastal Plain from southeastern Virginia to Georgia and extreme northeastern Florida (Conant and Collins 1991). Occurs in scattered populations throughout the historical range (Petranka 1998).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL, GA, NC, SC, VA

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: IUCN, Conservation International, NatureServe, and collaborators, 2004


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Baker (12003), Columbia (12023)*, Nassau (12089), Union (12125)
GA Atkinson (13003), Brantley (13025)*, Bryan (13029), Bulloch (13031)*, Chatham (13051)*, Clinch (13065)*, Effingham (13103)*, Evans (13109)*, Glynn (13127)*, Jenkins (13165), Liberty (13179), Long (13183), Mcintosh (13191)*, Screven (13251), Tattnall (13267)*, Ware (13299)*, Wayne (13305)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Lower Savannah (03060109)+*, Lower Ogeechee (03060202)+, Canoochee (03060203)+, Ogeechee Coastal (03060204)+*, Altamaha (03070106)+, Satilla (03070201)+, Cumberland-St. Simons (03070203)+*, St. Marys (03070204)+, Nassau (03070205)+, Upper Suwannee (03110201)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Courtship and mating occur in fall. Lays clutch of up to 100 eggs in winter (in south) or early spring (in north). Aquatic larvae hatch in spring, metamorphose in 13-28 months. Female may stay with eggs until hatching. Sexually mature in 3-4 years.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, Riparian
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic, Fallen log/debris
Habitat Comments: Cypress and gum swamps, small ponds in pine forests, large drainage ditches, sluggish streams. Adults occur in moss or under leaf debris in water, or under objects at water's edge. Primarily aquatic. Eggs are laid in or under logs or attached to plants in or near water.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: In Georgia, adults fed mostly on crustaceans, especially aquatic isopods and amphipods; larvae fed on smaller isopods, chironomids, ostracods, and amphipods; also ate submerged terrestrial invertebrates; benthic feeder (Foard and Auth 1990).
Length: 11 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Aquatic/Wetland Plethodontid Salamanders

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including larvae or eggs) in or near appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Busy highway, especially with high traffic volume at night; other totally inappropriate habitat that the salamanders cannot traverse.
Alternate Separation Procedure: Separation distance for stream-dwelling species along riverine corridors: 10 stream km. Separation distance for other freshwater aquatic and wetland habitats: 3 km. Separation distance for upland habitat: 1 km.
Separation Justification: These salamanders rarely successfully cross roadways that have heavy traffic volume at night, when most movements occur. Salamanders in this Specs Group, except strictly subterranean species, tend to be able to traverse upland habitat when conditions are wet, and generally they can pass through atypical wetland and aquatic habitats to reach another patch of suitable habitat. However, Grover and Wilbur (2002) created replicated seeps at distances of 3, 15, and more than 30 m from streams or natural seeps and found that Desmognathus fuscus and Gyrinophilus porphyriticus colonized the new seeps at 3 m and 15 m but were rare or absent at new seeps more than 30 m from the nearest stream or natural seep.

Although these specifications do not include rivers as barriers, Adams and Beachy (2001) documented morphological variation among populations of Gyrinophilus porphyriticus in the southern Appalachian Mountains and found patterns "consistent with the hypothesis that large rivers restrict sizable gene flow." Large rivers probably function at least as unsuitable habitat for many species in this Specs Group.

Compared to larger ambystomatid salamanders, the movements of plethodontids are poorly documented, but home ranges likely tend to be very small, on the order of a few meters to a few dozen meters in length or diameter. Yet, on occasion, dispersing individuals likely travel at least several hundred meters, and stream-dwelling species likely disperse much farther along riverine corridors. Over a number of years, it is likely that these salamanders can spread multiple kilometers through suitable habitat.

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .1 km
Date: 28Oct2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 27Mar2002
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 28Oct1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Behler, J. L., and F. W. King. 1979. The Audubon Society field guide to North American reptiles and amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. 719 pp.

  • Blackburn, L., P. Nanjappa, and M. J. Lannoo. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Copyright, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana, USA.

  • CHRISTMAN, S.P., AND H.I. KOCHMAN. 1975. THE SOUTHERN DISTRIBUTION OF THE MANY-LINED SALAMANDER, STEREOCHILUS MARGINATUS. FLORIDA SCI. 38(3): 139-141.

  • CONANT, R., AND J.T. COLLINS. 1991. A FIELD GUIDE TO REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS, EASTERN AND CENTRAL NORTH AMERICA, THIRD ED. HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS. 450 PP.

  • Conant, R. and J. T. Collins. 1991. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians: eastern and central North America. Third edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Massachusetts. 450 pp.

  • Foard, T., and D. L. Auth. 1990. Food habits and gut parasites of the salamander, STEREOCHILUS MARGINATUS. J. Herpetol. 24:428-431.

  • Frost, D. R. 1985. Amphibian species of the world. A taxonomic and geographical reference. Allen Press, Inc., and The Association of Systematics Collections, Lawrence, Kansas. v + 732 pp.

  • Krysko, K. L., K. M. Enge, and P. E. Moler. 2011. Atlas of amphibians and reptiles in Florida. Final report to Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Tallahassee, Florida. Submitted 15 December 2011.

  • MOLER, P.E. 1990. LETTER TO JOHN PALIS CONCERNING OCCURRENCE OF STEREOCHILUS MARGINATUS FROM UNION CO, FLORIDA. DATED 11 FEBRUARY 1990.

  • Martof, B. S., W. M. Palmer, J. R. Bailey, and J. R. Harrison, III. 1980. Amphibians and reptiles of the Carolinas and Virginia. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. 264 pp.

  • Moler, P. E., editor. 1992. Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida. Volume III. Amphibians and Reptiles. University Presses of Florida, Gainesville. xviii + 291 pp.

  • Petranka, J. W. 1998. Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D. C.

  • Petranka, J. W. 1998. Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

  • Rabb, G.B. 1966. Stereochilus marginatus. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. 25:1-2.

  • SEYLE, W., AND G. K. WILLIAMSON. 1988 (IN PREP). REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS OF GEORGIA: RANGE MAPS

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