Stenogyne kealiae - Wawra
Keal's Stenogyne
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.157054
Element Code: PDLAM1Y110
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Mint Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Lamiales Lamiaceae Stenogyne
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.
Concept Reference Code: B99KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Stenogyne kealiae
Taxonomic Comments: The supplement to the revised Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii (Wagner et al. 1999) resurrects this species from synonymy of S. purpurea. Kartesz lists it in synonymy of S. purpurea in his 1994 checklist, but recognizes it as distinct in the 1999 Synthesis.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 05Sep2007
Global Status Last Changed: 30Sep1998
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Stenogyne kealiae is endemic to the northern portion of the island of Kauai in the Hawaiian Islands. This species is currently known from 7 locations, with 100-200 plants in total. Typical habitat is diverse mesic forest to wet forest and mesic to wet shrubland. Threats include habitat degradation and trampling of plants by feral goats, pigs, and mule deer, predation by rats, and competition with a number of alien plant species.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Hawaii (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (13Apr2010)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R1 - Pacific

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Endemic to the northern portion of the island of Kauai, Hawaiian islands (USFWS 2006).

Area of Occupancy: 3-500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: Total number of occurrences are 8, of those 7 are extant occurrences found only on Kauai. Observation records dated from 1993-2001.

Population Size Comments: The total population is estimated to be 100 - 200 individuals (USFWS 2006).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: None to very few (0-3)

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Feral ungulates (goats, pigs, and mule deer) pose a major threat to this species (USFWS 2004). In addition to the general habitat degradation and destruction brought about by these animals, feral goats in particular are known to cause direct damage to plants, such as trampling of plants and seedlings and erosion of substrate (USFWS 2004). In addition, predation by ungulates are possible threats to this species, although there is no specific evidence that this is occurring (USFWS 2004). Also, rats were noted as a threat to the species (HBMP 2007). This species is also threatened by competition from several alien plant species. The most significant threat appears to be posed by Rubus argutus and Erigeron karvinskianus; other species that appear problematic include Lantana camara, Passiflora mollisima, Clidemia hirta, and Psidium cattleianum. Finally, with so few individuals, reduced reproductive vigor and extinction due to naturally occurring events, such as hurricanes and landslides, are also threats (USFWS 2004). Threats to this species' habitat occur throughout its range (USFWS 2004).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Known declining due to numerous threats, exact percentage is unknown (HBMP 2007).

Long-term Trend: Unknown

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Endemic to the northern portion of the island of Kauai, Hawaiian islands (USFWS 2006).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States HI

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
HI Kauai (15007)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
20 Kauai (20070000)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A trailing vine. Leaves thinly to moderately coriaceous, broadly lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate, 8-15 cm long. Flowers 3-5 per verticillaster. Corollas deep pinkish purple.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Hardwood, Forest/Woodland, Shrubland/chaparral
Habitat Comments: Mesic to wet shrublands and forests.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 05Sep2007
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: JQCL (HIHP, 1998), rev. L. Morse (1998), rev. A. Olivero (2003), rev. K. Gravuer (2006)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Caraway, V., L. Perry, G. Kawakami, B. Liesemeyer, B. Stevens, J. Hatayama, N. Agorastos, G. Mansker, P. Moriyasu, N. Sugii, M. LeGrande, A. Palomino, and A. Yoshinag. 2005. Rare Plant Conservation in Hawai`i: Summary of Endangered Plant Projects (Section 6 of the Endangered Species Act plus Candidate Conservation Agreements), Fiscal Year 2005 (FY 05). Information taken from Annual reports for the: Statewide Endangered Plant Program, Endangered Species Act - Section 6. Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Forestry and Wildlife. Online. Available: http://www.state.hi.us/dlnr/dofaw/Plants/Hawaii/Hawaii.htm (Accessed 2006).

  • Hawai'i Biodiversity and Mapping Program (HBMP). 2004, January 2006 last update. Databook. Online. Available: http://hbmp.hawaii.edu/databook.html (Accessed 2006).

  • Hawaii Biodiverity and Mapping Program. 2007. Natural Diversity Database. Unpublished.

  • Kartesz, J. T., and C. Meacham. 1998d. Unpublished review draft of Floristic Synthesis, 30 Sept 1998. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, NC.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Russell, C. 2002. February-last update. Candidate and Listing Priority Assignment Form: Stenogyne kealiae. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Program. Online. Available: http://ecos.fws.gov/tess/candforms_pdf/r1/stekea.pdf. Accessed 2003, March 10.

  • Sherff, E.E. 1935. Revision of Haplostachys, Phyllostegia, and Stenogyne. Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 136: 1-101.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2004, June last update. Species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Stenogyne kealiae. United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Endangered Species Program. Online. Available: http://ecos.fws.gov/species_profile/servlet/gov.doi.species_profile.servlets.SpeciesProfile?spcode=Q3H8 (Accessed May 2006).

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2006. Pacific Regional Office Hawaii. Rare Plant Tracking Database. Unpublished.

  • Wagner, W.L. and S.G. Weller. 1991. Resurrection of a Kauai Stenogyne: S. kealiae. Pacific Sci. 45: 50-54.

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