Stagnicola caperata - (Say, 1829)
Wrinkled Marshsnail
Synonym(s): Lymnaea caperata
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Stagnicola caperata (Say, 1829) (TSN 76535)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.109446
Element Code: IMGASL5040
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Mollusks - Freshwater Snails
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mollusca Gastropoda Basommatophora Lymnaeidae Stagnicola
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J.D. Williams. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 2nd Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland: 526 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B98TUR01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Stagnicola caperata
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 12Feb2015
Global Status Last Changed: 14Sep1999
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Widespread northern and western distribution in North America.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4N5 (14Sep1999)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4 (14Sep1999)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (SNR), California (SNR), Colorado (S5), District of Columbia (SNR), Idaho (SNR), Illinois (SNR), Indiana (SNR), Iowa (SNR), Maine (SNR), Maryland (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), Missouri (S3), Montana (SNR), Nevada (SNR), New Mexico (S1?), New York (SNR), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (SNR), Oregon (S3S4), Pennsylvania (SNR), South Dakota (SNR), Texas (SNR), Utah (S3S4), Washington (S3S4), Wisconsin (SU), Wyoming (SNR)
Canada Alberta (S4), British Columbia (S4S5), Manitoba (SNR), Saskatchewan (SNR)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: This species has a northern and western distribution across North America. Burch (1989) lists Quebec and Massachusetts west to California; Yukon Territory and James Bay south to Maryland, Indiana, Colorado, and California. It is not known from the Mid-Atlantic region, although there are reports from northern Virginia (Beetle 1973, Dillon 2013).

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

Population Size: Unknown

Long-term Trend:  
Long-term Trend Comments: This widespread species is probably faring well over much of its range, but one may assume that some populations have been subjected to decline or even extirpation--especially where small and localized (Taylor 1985 in BISON-M 2010).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) This species has a northern and western distribution across North America. Burch (1989) lists Quebec and Massachusetts west to California; Yukon Territory and James Bay south to Maryland, Indiana, Colorado, and California. It is not known from the Mid-Atlantic region, although there are reports from northern Virginia (Beetle 1973, Dillon 2013).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, CA, CO, DC, IA, ID, IL, IN, MD, ME, MN, MO, MT, ND, NM, NV, NY, OH, OR, PA, SD, TX, UT, WA, WI, WY
Canada AB, BC, MB, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Blaine (16013), Gooding (16047)
NM Chaves (35005), Sandoval (35043)*
NV Elko (32007)*, Nye (32023)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
13 Jemez (13020202)+*, Upper Pecos-Long Arroyo (13060007)+
16 Upper Humboldt (16040101)+*, South Fork Humboldt (16040103)+*, Diamond-Monitor Valleys (16060005)+*
17 Lake Walcott (17040209)+, Upper Snake-Rock (17040212)+, Little Wood (17040221)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, Low gradient
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): TEMPORARY POOL
Habitat Comments: This species is found in ditches, shallow pools, vernal ponds, or in the spring-flooded margins of permanent-water habitats, and occasionally in large permanent lakes, rivers and swamps (Clarke 1981, O'Neal and Soulliere 2006).
Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: Galba techella, G. modicella, G. parva, and Stagnicola caperata have all been identified as natural hosts for the liver flukes (e.g., Fascioloides magna, Fasciola hepatica), which then infect livestock, resulting in large economic losses due to liver condemnation and decreases in milk, wool and meat production (Flowers 1996, Sanabria et al. 2013, Standley et al. 2013).
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Freshwater Snails

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical or current presence of single or multiple specimens, including live specimens or recently dead shells (i.e., soft tissue still attached without signs of external weathering or staining), at a given location with potentially recurring existence. Weathered shells constitute a historic occurrence. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information.
Mapping Guidance: Unlike most freshwater mussels [possibly excepting Uniomerus tetralasmus (Say, 1831) (see Isley, 1914)], some freshwater pulmonates are able to survive in intermittent streams and ponds by settling into sediment on the bottom and aestivating in otherwise dry or frozen conditions. Some species (e.g. Stagnicola spp.) may form a sheet of mucus just within the aperture called an epiphragm that effectively seals the snail from harsh external conditions (Jokinen, 1978; Brown, 1991). For ephemeral or intermittent water species, it may be particularly difficult to define the limits of an occurrence. Movement out of the water for the purposes of aestivation is on the order of cm (Jokinen, 1978), not m or km, so this behavior should not affect separation distance between occurrences. Species that may be found in intermittent waters include: Aplexa elongata, Fossaria bulimoides, F. dalli, F. modicella, F. obrussa, F. parva, Gyraulus circumstriatus, G. crista, G. parvus, Laevapex fuscus, Physa vernalis, Physella gyrina, Planorbella campestris, Planorbula armigera, Stagnicola caperata, S. elodes, S. exilis.
Separation Barriers: Separation barriers are largely based on permanent hydrological discontinuity between water bodies, with distances of 30 meters or greater between maximum high water marks constituting a separation barrier. Additional barriers are chemical and/or physical and include any connecting water body (regardless of size) with one or more of the following on a permanent basis: no dissolved calcium content, acidity greater than pH 5, lack of dissolved oxygen, extremely high salinity such as that found in saline lakes and brine waters, or temperature greater than 45

An additional physical barrier, particularly for flowing water, is presence of upland habitat between water connections. High waterfalls and anthropogenic barriers to water flow such as dams are barriers as they limit movement in an upstream direction.

Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 2 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: Freshwater cave species (mostly prosobranchs) may occur near entrances to very deep in cave systems with specimens occurring on the undersides of small stones in riffle areas (Hershler et al., 1990). For cave species, separation distance cannot often be determined accurately due to varying degrees of accessibility to occupied cave habitat. In these instances, each cave where an observation or collection was recorded (see Minimum EO Criteria, above) constitutes an element occurrence regardless of separation distance. Multiple caves within a single hydrological cave system are each considered separately. Caves with multiple entrances and passages known to be connected, but with connecting passages too small or unsafe for human entry shall be treated as a single element occurrence when the non-negotiable portion of the cave is thought to be less than approximately 300 m linear length. Species known to occur in caves include: Amnicola cora, Antrobia spp., Antrobis spp., Antroselates spp., Dasyscias spp., Fontigens aldrichi, F. antroecetes, F. bottimeri, F. morrisoni, F. nickliniana, F. orolibas, F. prosperpina, F. tartarea, F. turritella, Holsingeria spp., Phreatodrobia spp., Stygopyrgus spp.
Separation Justification: Freshwater snails have adapted to most North American habitats including permanent standing, intermittent, and flowing waters. As a whole, pulmonates (previously Subclass Pulmonata) are better dispersers than prosobranchs (previously Subclass Prosobranchia). Pulmonates adapt better to changing temperature and oxygen concentration, resist desiccation better (use pulmonary respiration, store excreted nitrogen as urea, aestivate), and have faster crawling rates (including righting response and actual movement rate) than prosobranchs (Brown et al., 1998). Some species are more tolerant to adverse habitat conditions such as high pollution levels (e.g. Physella spp.), high altitude [e.g. Acroloxus coloradensis (Henderson, 1930)], underground cave pools and springs (e.g. Fontigens spp., Phreatodrobia spp.) and hot springs (e.g. Pyrgulopsis spp.).

Precise geographic distribution of many American freshwater snails is not known but presumably reflects past geological, geographic, and climatic change (Smith, 1989). Movements between isolated or inaccessible portions of water bodies is possible but dependent on outside, passive processes (e.g. rafting, periodic flooding, transport by vertebrates, introduction by humans). Long-distance dispersal is generally not considered when assigning separation distances as otherwise impracticably large separation distances would result.

Several factors contribute to limiting freshwater snail distribution but none apply across diverse habitats or taxa. Approximately 95% of all freshwater gastropods are restricted to waters with calcium concentrations greater than 3 mg/liter (Brown, 1991; for exceptions see Jokinen, 1983). Calcium uptake for shell construction requires energy expenditure (active transport) when calcium concentration is low, but is passive at higher concentrations (Greenaway, 1971). Typically, no known biotic or abiotic factors consistently limit the abundance or distribution of freshwater gastropods among sites (DeVries et al., 2003). At specific localities, limiting factors may include hardness, acidity, dissolved oxygen, salinity, high temperature, and food availability as associated with depth (Smith, 1989). Most species and the largest populations occur in hard, alkaline waters with normal range 20-180 ppm (Shoup, 1943; Harman, 1974). Snails are uncommon in habitats with surface acidity greater than pH 5 (see also Jokinen, 1983). Dissolved oxygen limits diversity so severely polluted waters (oxygen consumed by algae blooms) are often devoid of freshwater snails excepting pollution tolerant species. Because pulmonates can utilize atmospheric oxygen, they can exist under anaerobic conditions for longer time periods (Harman and Berg, 1971; Harman, 1974; McMahon, 1983). High salinity is limiting to freshwater gastropods and inland saline lakes generally lack an associated snail fauna. Most species (excepting hot springs species) are intolerant of temperatures greater than 45ºC (McDonald, 1969; van der Schalie and Berry, 1973), a condition rarely occurring naturally. Lower temperatures are less limiting as snails have been found foraging in ice-covered waters (Harman and Berg, 1971; Harman, 1974). Most species live in the shallows, (depths less than 3 m) where food abundance is greatest. As a result, drastic water fluctuations (draw-downs) may cause declines in snail populations (Hunt and Jones, 1972).

Any contiguous, occupied stretch of suitable flowing water habitat 2 km long or greater is considered an element occurrence. Two km was chosen based upon the limited active movement capabilities of most benthic invertebrates and observed home range of freshwater snails (J. Cordeiro, personal observation) as well as the relatively short life span of most species (five years for most stream species and two years for most pond species).

Date: 18Oct2004
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Notes: Prosobranchs: Neritidae: Neritina; Viviparidae: Campeloma, Cipangopaludina, Lioplax, Tulotoma, Viviparus; Ampullariidae: Marisa, Pomacea; Pleuroceridae: Elimia, Goniobasis, Gyrotoma, Io, Juga, Leptoxis, Lithasia, Pleurocera; Thiaridae: Melanoides, Tarebia; Bithyniidae: Bithynia; Hydrobiidae: Amnicola, Antrobia, Antrorbis, Antroselates, Aphaostracon, Balconorbis, Birgella, Cincinnatia, Clappia, Cochliopa, Cochliopina, Colligyrus, Dasyscias, Eremopyrgus, Floridiscrobs, Fluminicola, Fontelicella, Fontigens, Gillia, Heleobops, Holsingeria, Hoyia, Hydrobia, Lepyrium, Littoridina, Littoridinops, Lyogyrus, Notogillia, Onobops, Paludina, Phreatoceras, Phreatodrobia, Potamopyrgus, Pristinicola, Probythinella, Pyrgophorus, Pyrgulopsis, Rhapinema, Somatogyrus, Spilochlamys, Spurwinkia, Stiobia, Stygopyrgus, Taylorconcha, Texadina, Texapyrgu, Tryonia; Assimineidae: Assiminea; Pomatiopsidae: Pomatiopsis, Heterostropha; Valvatidae: Valvata
MORE IN BCD EO SPECS NOTES TAB

Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 12Feb2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Cordeiro, J. (2008); Sears, N. (2015)

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Baker, F.C. 1928a. The freshwater Mollusca of Wisconsin: Part I. Gastropoda. Bulletin of the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, Wisconsin Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters, 70(2): 1-507.

  • Baxter, R. 1987. Mollusks of Alaska: a listing of all mollusks, freshwater, terrestrial, and marine reported from the State of Alaska, with locations of the species types, maximum sizes and marine depths inhabited. Shells and Sea Life, Bayside, California. 163 pp.

  • Beetle, D.E. 1973. A checklist of the land and freshwater mollusks of Virginia. Sterkiana, 49: 21-35.

  • Biota Information System of New Mexico (BISON-M). 2010. Last updated 5/3/2010. Species Lists/Species Accounts. Completed in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Forest Service, and the University of New Mexico. Santa Fe, NM.

  • Burch, J. 2004. Lymnaeidae. Pp 33-36 In: Perez, K.E., S.A. Clark and C. Lydeard (eds.). 2004. FMCS Showing Your Shells: A Primer to Freshwater Gastropod Identification. University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL.

  • Burch, J.B. 1989. North American Freshwater Snails. Malacological Publications: Hamburg, Michigan. 365 pp.

  • Clarke, A.H. 1981a. The freshwater mollusks of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museums of Canada, D. W. Friesen and Sons, Ltd.: Ottawa, Canada. 446 pp.

  • Dillon, R. T., Jr., M. Ashton, M. Kohl, W. Reeves, T. Smith, T. Stewart and B. Watson. 2013. The freshwater gastropods of North America. Online. Available: http://www.fwgna.org.

  • Flowers, J.R. 1996. Notes on the life history of Fascioloides magna (Trematoda) in North Carolina. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 112(3):115-118.

  • Goodrich, C. and H. van der Schalie. 1944. A revision of the Mollusca of Indiana. The American Midland Naturalist, 32: 257-326.

  • Harrold, M.N. and R.P. Guralnick. 2010. A field guide to the freshwater mollusks of Colorado. 2nd edition. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Denver. 73 pp

  • Johnson, C.W. 1915. Fauna of New England. 13. List of the Mollusca. Occasional Papers of the Boston Society of Natural History 7(13):1-231.

  • Lepitzki, D.A.W. 2001. Gastropods: 2000 preliminary status ranks for Alberta. Unpublished report prepared for Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Fish and Wildlife Division, Edmonton, Alberta. 126 pp.

  • Nylander, O.O. 1943. Marl deposits in Bonnaventure, north of Bay Chaleur, Quebec, Canada, and in Houlton, Maine. The Nautilus, 57(2): 45-46.

  • O'Neal, R.P. and Soulliere, G.J. 2006. Conservation guidelines for Michigan lakes and associated natural resources. Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Fisheries Special Report, 38.

  • Pip, E. 2000. The decline of freshwater molluscs in southern Manitoba. Canadian Field Naturalist 114(4):555-560.

  • Pyron, M., J. Beaugly, E. Martin, and M. Spielman. 2008. Conservation of the freshwater gastropods of Indiana: Historic and current distributions. American Malacological Bulletin, 26: 137-151.

  • Sanabria, R., Mouzet, R., Pankrác, J., Djuikwo Teukeng, F. F., Courtioux, et al.  2013. Lymnaea neotropica and Lymnaea viatrix, potential intermediate hosts for Fascioloides magna. Journal of Helminthology, 87(4):494-500.

  • Standley, C. J., Prepelitchi, L., Pietrokovsky, S. M., Issia, L., Stothard, J. R., and Wisnivesky-Colli, C. 2013. Molecular characterization of cryptic and sympatric lymnaeid species from the Galba/Fossaria group in Mendoza Province, Northern Patagonia, Argentina. Parasites & vectors 6(1): 304.

  • Stephen, B.J. and V.B. Winkler. 2007. A survey of the freshwater snails of the major ecoregions of South Dakota. Ellipsaria, 9(1): 14-15.

  • Sterki, V. 1902. Some additions and corrections to the list of land and fresh water Mollusca of Tuscarawas Co., Ohio. The Ohio Naturalist, 2(8): 286-287.

  • Taylor, D.W. 1985. Evolution of freshwater drainages and molluscs in western North America. Pages 265-321 in C.J. Smiley (ed.) Late Cenozoic History of the Pacific Northwest. Pacific Division AAAS and California Academy of Science: San Francisco, California. 417 pp.

  • Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J.D. Williams. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 2nd Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland: 526 pp.

  • Wu, S.-K., R.D. Oesch, and M.E. Gordon. 1997. Missouri Aquatic Snails. Natural History Series, No. 5. Missouri Department of Conservation: Jefferson, Missouri. 97 pp.

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