Stachydeoma graveolens - (Chapman ex Gray) Small
Mock Pennyroyal
Other Common Names: mock pennyroyal
Synonym(s): Hedeoma graveolens Chapman ex Gray
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Stachydeoma graveolens (Chapman ex Gray) Small (TSN 32761)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.158417
Element Code: PDLAM1W010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Mint Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Lamiales Lamiaceae Stachydeoma
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Stachydeoma graveolens
Taxonomic Comments: USFWS tracks as synonym HEDEOMA GRAVEOLENS (9/93).
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 25Jun2015
Global Status Last Changed: 30Jul2010
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: A Florida panhandle endemic with scattered occurrences in seven counties. Approximately 30-40 occurrences are believed extant, over half of which are in the Apalachicola National Forest. Threats include lack of fire management in accordance with natural cycles, intensive silvicultural practices, and, particularly outside the National Forest, conversion of habitat to other uses such as cattle pasture.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (S2S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Endemic to the central Florida panhandle; known from Bay, Calhoun, Gulf, Liberty, Leon, Wakulla, and Franklin Counties.

Area of Occupancy: 126-2,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Using a 2 x 2 km grid, approximately 39 grid cells are occupied.

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: 56 occurrences have been mapped, although 6 of these are ranked historical and/or were last observed in the 1950s-60s. Some of the occurrences are in close proximity; the total may be closer to 40 if closely adjacent sites were considered the same occurrence. The total in The Apalachicola National Forest using a 1 km separation distance would be 18: 14 in the Apalachicola District and 4 in the Wakulla District - merging of these occurrences has not yet been done (as of August 2013).

Viability/Integrity Comments: At least 7 occurrences are believed to have excellent or good viability.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Lack of fire management in accordance with natural cycles is a threat throughout this species' range; it appears to require open sites for establishment. Certain silvicultulral practices also pose a threat, such as activities causing significant ground disturbance; the species has shown some ability to persist at sites where tree cutting has occurred. Occurrences within the Apalachicola National Forest are considered relatively secure in comparison to those outside of it; occurrences on private land face additional threats such as more intensive silviculture, conversion to cattle pasture, and development.

Short-term Trend Comments: No populations outside the Apalachicola National Forest (about half the total) are on publicly managed land - most are on private timber lands; a few are on the Bear Creek Forest FF project.

Long-term Trend:  
Long-term Trend Comments: Many occurrences are in longleaf pine-wiregrass flatwoods. Ecosystems in which wiregrass (Aristida) is an important component have been greatly reduced throughout the Southeast and continue to be threatened by conversion to other uses and inappropriate fire management (Hardin and White 1989).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: Endemic to the central Florida panhandle; known from Bay, Calhoun, Gulf, Liberty, Leon, Wakulla, and Franklin Counties.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Bay (12005), Calhoun (12013), Franklin (12037), Gulf (12045), Leon (12073), Liberty (12077), Washington (12133)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Apalachee Bay-St. Marks (03120001)+, Lower Ochlockonee (03120003)+, Apalachicola (03130011)+, Chipola (03130012)+, New (03130013)+, St. Andrew-St. Joseph Bays (03140101)+, Lower Choctawhatchee (03140203)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: An aromatic, perennial herb or sub-shrub, growing to about 3-4 dm in height. Stems are numerous, somewhat woody on the lower portions. Flowers are borne in dense spikes. The flower petals are bright pink, 2-lipped, with a darker pink- or purple-spotted lower lip. Flowers May-September.
Technical Description: "An aromatic, suffruticose, low plant, sometimes with few, slender, often straggly, stiffish branches from the base, often with very numerous, slender, stiffly ascending branches forming a compact, more or less rotund crown, the leaves and bracts usually dull purplish-tinted distally on the branches giving an overall pleasing hue. Older woody stem brown, younger herbaceous ones pale or greenish brown, both pubescent with relatively long, shaggy hairs and short, flat, scalelike hairs intermixed with minute gland-tipped hairs. Leaves numerous, opposite, sessile, the pairs not overlapping on the leafy proximal portions of the stems, but usually overlapping on the floriferous, distal portions, with few, evident pinnate veins, these impressed above, raised beneath; blades ovate, oblong-ovate, or oblong, 1 cm long or less, to 5-6 mm broad, thickish-textured, bases subcordate, rounded, or shortly tapered, largest leaves sometimes obscurely and bluntly few-toothed, others untoothed, sides of the blades rolled downward, margins (of fresh leaves) not revolute; surfaces with amber (becoming dark brown with age) atomiferous glands and minute, translucent, stalked glands upwardly on the stem, the upper surfaces both of leaves and foliose floral bracts with numerous, long, translucent hairs as well, particularly near and at the margins. Flowers usually borne singly from the leaf axils, their stalks stoutish, short, each bearing basally a pair of bracts essentially like, but smaller than, the subtending leaves, the leaves and bracts hiding the flower stalks; flower stalks and calyces pubescent like the leaves and bracts although the atomiferous glands fewer. Calyx tube cylindric-campanulate, 2-2.5 mm long, strongly 10-ribbed, limb 2-lipped, upper lip short-oblong basally and with 3 short-deltoid, erect lobes, the lower lip consisting of 2 slightly arching, subulate lobes, their length about equal to that of the whole upper lip, a ring of inwardly spreading hairs within the orifice. Corolla about 1 cm long, tube cylindrical, nearly white, expanding at about the tips of the calyx lobes to a short throat and a markedly 2-lipped limb, the upper lip roseate, arching forward, oblongish, the sides declined, tip rounded, lower lip spreading outward or bent slightly downward, medially with a yellowish white band mottled with purple, 3-lobed, medial lobe largest, itself 2-lobed, lobes rose-purple. Fertile stamens 2, attached to the corolla tube just below the sinuses of the 2 corolla lips, arching beneath the upper lip of the corolla and extending just beyond it. Pistil 1, deeply 4-lobed above a broad disc, style slender, arching beneath the upper corolla lip, unequally bifid at the tip. Fruit splitting in 4 subrotund, dull brown nutlets about 1 mm in diameter" (Godfrey, 1988).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Leaves ovate, apically dentate, mostly 6-10 mm long; stems pilose with erect hairs nearly as long as the width of the stem (Clewell, 1985). Distinguished from species drummondii which has much narrower, often petiolate, leaves (Kral in Robinson, 1980). Toothed savory (Calamintha dentata) is another pink-flowering mint found in Florida panhandle sandhills; its lower leaves have small teeth, and flowers have 4 fertile stamens (Chafin 2000).
Duration: PERENNIAL
Reproduction Comments: The family is primarily bee pollinated.
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest Edge, Forest/Woodland, Savanna, Woodland - Conifer
Habitat Comments: Open sunny areas in mesic pine-palmetto-wiregrass flatwoods, including open sandy margins of bay swamps and anthropogenic openings such as roadsides. Also sandhills and low areas of longleaf pine-scrub oak ridges. Natural communities where found are adapted to frequent fire.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary
Help
Stewardship Overview: Fire management (burning every 2-5 years) necessary to maintain habitat and reduce competition from other plants; avoid clearcutting, soil disruption during logging, and mechanical site preparation (Chafin 2000).
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 16Aug2013
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Cooper, S.T., E.D. Hardin, rev. C. Russell; rev. D.L.White, rev. K. Gravuer (2009), A.F. Johnson (2013)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 17Mar1992

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • CLEWELL, ANDRE F. 1985. GUIDE TO THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE FLORIDA PANHANDLE. UNIV. PRESSES OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE, FL. 605 PP.

  • Chafin, L. G. 2000. Field guide to the rare plants of Florida. Florida Natural Areas Inventory, Tallahassee. [http://www.fnai.org/FieldGuide/]

  • Clewell, A.F. 1985. Guide to vascular plants of the Florida panhandle. Florida State Univ. Press, Tallahassee, Florida. 605 pp.

  • Godfrey, R.K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens. 734 pp.

  • Hardin, E. D., and D. L. White. 1989. Rare vascular plant taxa associated with wiregrass (Aristida stricta) in the southeastern United States. Natural Areas Journal 9(4): 234-245.

  • KRAL, R. 1983.A REPORT ON SOME RARE,THREATENED,OR ENDANGEREDFOREST-RELATED VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE SOUTH.VOL I ISOETACEAETHROUGH EUPHORBIACEAE;VOL II AQUIFOLIACEA THROUGH ASTERACEAE& GLOSSARY.USDA FOREST SERV,SE REG.,ATL,GA. TECH PUBL R8-TP2

  • Kartesz, J. T. 1991. Synonym names from 1991 checklist, as extracted by Larry Morse, TNC, June 1991.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kral, R. 1983c. A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the South. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service Technical Publication R8-TP2, Athens, GA. 1305 pp.

  • RADFORD, A., H. AHLES AND C. BELL. 1968 MANUAL OF THE VASCULAR FLORA OF THE CAROLINAS. THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA PRESS CHAPEL HILL. 1183 PP + LXI.

  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.

  • Robinson, A.F., Jr., ed. 1980b. Endangered and threatened species of the southeastern United States including Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. U.S. Forest Service General Rept. SA-GA 7.

  • Small, J.K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora. Two volumes. Hafner Publishing Company, New York.

  • WARD, D.B. (ED). 1979. RARE AND ENDANGERED BIOTA OF FLORIDA, VOLUME 5: PLANTS. UNIVERSITY PRESSES OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE.

  • WUNDERLIN, RICHARD P. 1982. GUIDE TO THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF CENTRAL FLORIDA. UNIV. PRESSES OF FLA., TAMPA, ST. PETERSBURG, FT. MEYERS, SARASOTA

  • Ward, D.B., ed. 1979. Rare and endangered biota of Florida. Vol. 5: Plants. Univ. Presses of Florida, Gainesville.

  • Wunderlin, R.P. 1982. Guide to the vascular plants of central Florida. Univ. Presses Florida, Gainesville. 472 pp.

  • Wunderlin, R.P. 1998. Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida. University Press of Florida: Gainesville, Florida. 806 pp.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2019 NatureServe, 2511 Richmond (Jefferson Davis) Highway, Suite 930, Arlington, VA 22202, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.