Spiranthes parksii - Correll
Navasota Ladies'-tresses
Other Common Names: Navasota ladies'-tresses
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Spiranthes parksii Correll (TSN 43472)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.146077
Element Code: PMORC2B0R0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Orchid Family
Image 10444

© Alfred R. Schotz

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Orchidales Orchidaceae Spiranthes
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Spiranthes parksii
Taxonomic Comments: A member of the Spiranthes cernua complex (FNA 2002a).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 10Aug2014
Global Status Last Changed: 14Nov1989
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Primarily known from 2 river drainages in east-central Texas, with 1 location in east Texas. Although about 100 populations with a total of about 10,000 plants are currently known, many of the sites are threatened by strip mining. Rapid urban expansion has also encroached on some of the species' habitat.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Texas (S3)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (06May1982)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R2 - Southwest

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Texas endemic found in eastern Texas along the Navasota River, primarily in Grimes and Brazos counties. Also been found in Burleson, Washington, Madison, Leon, Robertson, Limestone, Freestone, Bastrop, Lee and Jasper Counties in Texas (Walters 2005). 

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments:  97 EOs reported but it is unclear which are extant. Pine (2003) reported 75 to 80 distinct populations occurring historically at 138 sites in Texas, although noting that many of these sites no longer have orchids. Multiple sites and the plants within them were destroyed as a result of development and mining projects since the species gained federal and state protection in the early 1980s (Pine 2003, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2009).

Population Size Comments: Roughly 2,000 individuals.

Overall Threat Impact: Unknown
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Primary threats are habitat disturbance or destruction related to development, mining, agriculture, and other human activities (Pine 2003, Walters 2005). Foraging by feral hogs and wildlife are also threats (Pine 2003). Threats by site are not known.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: A number of sites have been completely destroyed as a result of such activities, subsequent to federal and state protection (Pine 2003).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Texas endemic found in eastern Texas along the Navasota River, primarily in Grimes and Brazos counties. Also been found in Burleson, Washington, Madison, Leon, Robertson, Limestone, Freestone, Bastrop, Lee and Jasper Counties in Texas (Walters 2005). 

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States TX

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
TX Bastrop (48021), Brazos (48041), Burleson (48051), Fayette (48149), Freestone (48161), Grimes (48185), Jasper (48241), Leon (48289), Limestone (48293), Madison (48313), Milam (48331), Robertson (48395), Washington (48477)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
12 Lower Neches (12020003)+, Lower Angelina (12020005)+, Lower Trinity-Tehuacana (12030201)+, Lower Trinity-Kickapoo (12030202)+, Lower Brazos-Little Brazos (12070101)+, Yegua (12070102)+, Navasota (12070103)+, Little (12070204)+, Lower Colorado-Cummins (12090301)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial herb, up to 3 dm tall. Produces a solitary spike of bracts and white flowers in a loose, braid-like spiral up the stem. The small, fragrant flowers bloom from late October-early November.
Ecology Comments: Species does not readily recover from significant disturbance to its habitat or colonize areas with extensive disturbance (Pine 2003). Although, it has been found along trails used by wild and domestic animals, near fencerows and in right-of-way areas for power lines (Wonkka et al. 2012).

¿The species requires mycorrhizal fungi (Epulorhiza, specifically) for successful reproduction and germination (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2009, Walters 2005, and Wonkka et al. 2012).

Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest/Woodland, Woodland - Hardwood
Habitat Comments: Margins of post oak (Quercus stellata) woodlands in sandy loams along intermittent tributaries of rivers. Often in areas where edaphic or hydrologic factors (such as high levels of aluminum in the soil or a perched water table) limit competing vegetation in the herbaceous layer. Besides post oak, associated species include water oak (Q. nigra), blackjack oak (Q. marilandica), and yaupon (Ilex vomitoria).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 10Aug2014
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Ogle, Y., rev. C. Russell, rev. Poole/Maybury (1996), Rev. Treher)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002a. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 26. Magnoliophyta: Liliidae: Liliales and Orchidales. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxvi + 723 pp.

  • Hammons, R., F. E. Smeins, W. E. Rogers, J. A. Thomas, and M. Oden. 2009. Progress report on habitat management and life history research for Navasota ladies'-tresses (Spiranthes parksii Correll) in support of the adaptive management plan. Prepared for Brazos Valley Solid Waste Management Agency. 46pp. May 2009.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Poole, J.M., and D.H. Riskind. 1987. Endangered, threatened, or protected native plants of Texas. Texas Parks Wildlife Dept., Austin, TX.

  • Poole, Jackie M., W. R. Carr, D. M. Price, and J. R. Singhurst. 2007. Rare plants of Texas. Texas A&M University Press, College Station. 640 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2009. Navasota ladies'-tresses (Spiranthes parksii) 5-year review: summary and evaluation. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Austin Ecological Services Field Office, Austin, TX. 65 pp.

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