Sphyrapicus varius - (Linnaeus, 1766)
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker
Other English Common Names: yellow-bellied sapsucker
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Sphyrapicus varius (Linnaeus, 1766) (TSN 178202)
French Common Names: pic maculé
Spanish Common Names: Chupasavia Maculado
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102671
Element Code: ABNYF05010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Other Birds
Image 11181

© Jeff Nadler

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Piciformes Picidae Sphyrapicus
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Sphyrapicus varius
Taxonomic Comments: S. nuchalis formerly was included in this species (Johnson and Zink 1983, Johnson and Johnson 1985). Constitutes a superspecies with S. nuchali and S. ruber (AOU 1998). See Cicero and Johnson (1995) for information on phylogenetic relationships among sapsuckers, based on mtDNA data.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 09Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 02Dec1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5B,N5N (05Jan1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,N5M (26Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5N), Arizona (S1N), Arkansas (S4N), Colorado (SNA), Connecticut (S5B), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (S2N), Florida (SNRN), Georgia (S5), Illinois (S1S2), Indiana (S2B), Iowa (S1B,S3N), Kansas (S3N), Kentucky (S3S4N), Louisiana (S5N), Maine (S5B), Maryland (SHB,S3N), Massachusetts (S4B,S4N), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (SNRB), Mississippi (S5N), Missouri (SNRN), Navajo Nation (S2N), Nebraska (SNRN), New Hampshire (S5B), New Jersey (S4N), New Mexico (S4N), New York (S5B), North Carolina (S3B,S5N), North Dakota (SNRB), Ohio (S1), Oklahoma (S3N), Pennsylvania (S4B,S3N), Rhode Island (SNA), South Carolina (SNRN), South Dakota (S3B), Tennessee (S1B,S4N), Texas (S4N), Vermont (S5B), Virginia (S1B,S4N), West Virginia (S1B,S3N), Wisconsin (S4B)
Canada Alberta (S5B), British Columbia (S5B), Labrador (S1S2B,SUM), Manitoba (S5B), New Brunswick (S5B,S5M), Newfoundland Island (S2B,SUM), Northwest Territories (S5B), Nova Scotia (S4S5B), Ontario (S5B), Prince Edward Island (S5B), Quebec (S5B), Saskatchewan (S5B,S5M), Yukon Territory (S4B)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: BREEDS: extreme eastern Alaska, southwestern Yukon, southwestern Mackenzie, northwestern and central Saskatchewan, central Manitoba, north-central Ontario, southern Quebec (including Anticosti Island), southern Labrador, and central Newfoundland south to northeastern British Columbia, central Alberta, central and southeastern Saskatchewan, eastern North Dakota, eastern South Dakota, Iowa, northeastern Missouri, central Illinois, northwestern Indiana, northern Ohio, western Pennsylvania, northwestern Connecticut, western Massachusetts, and New Hampshire; locally in Appalachian Mountains south to eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina (AOU 1983). WINTERS: Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio Valley, and New Jersey (rarely farther north) south through Texas, southeastern U.S., Middle America (except northwestern Mexico north of Sinaloa and west of Coahuila), Bahamas, and Antilles (south to Dominica, but rare east of Hispaniola and Netherlands Antilles). Casual or accidental in south-coastal Alaska, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, Bermuda, and Greenland.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Breeding Bird Survey data indicate a significant population decrease averaging 3.4% per year in North America between 1966 and 1989 (Droege and Sauer 1990) and a nonsignificant decline averaging 1.0% per year, 1966-1993 (Peterjohn et al. 1994).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: BREEDS: extreme eastern Alaska, southwestern Yukon, southwestern Mackenzie, northwestern and central Saskatchewan, central Manitoba, north-central Ontario, southern Quebec (including Anticosti Island), southern Labrador, and central Newfoundland south to northeastern British Columbia, central Alberta, central and southeastern Saskatchewan, eastern North Dakota, eastern South Dakota, Iowa, northeastern Missouri, central Illinois, northwestern Indiana, northern Ohio, western Pennsylvania, northwestern Connecticut, western Massachusetts, and New Hampshire; locally in Appalachian Mountains south to eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina (AOU 1983). WINTERS: Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio Valley, and New Jersey (rarely farther north) south through Texas, southeastern U.S., Middle America (except northwestern Mexico north of Sinaloa and west of Coahuila), Bahamas, and Antilles (south to Dominica, but rare east of Hispaniola and Netherlands Antilles). Casual or accidental in south-coastal Alaska, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, Bermuda, and Greenland.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, AZ, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NN, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe 2008


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Fremont (16043)
NC Graham (37075)*, Haywood (37087)*, Jackson (37099)*, Macon (37113)*, Swain (37173)*
OH Ashtabula (39007), Geauga (39055), Portage (39133)
PA Luzerne (42079)*, Monroe (42089)*, Sullivan (42113)*, Wayne (42127)*
TN Blount (47009)*, Johnson (47091), Monroe (47123), Sevier (47155)*
VA Bath (51017)*, Grayson (51077), Highland (51091), Smyth (51173), Washington (51191)*
WV Randolph (54083)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Lackawaxen (02040103)+*, Lehigh (02040106)+*, Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna (02050107)+*, Lower West Branch Susquehanna (02050206)+*, South Branch Potomac (02070001)+, Upper James (02080201)+*
04 Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003)+, Grand (04110004)+
05 Cheat (05020004)+, Shenango (05030102)+, Mahoning (05030103)+, Upper New (05050001)+, Greenbrier (05050003)+*
06 South Fork Holston (06010102)+, Pigeon (06010106)+*, Lower French Broad (06010107)+*, Watts Bar Lake (06010201)+*, Upper Little Tennessee (06010202)+*, Tuckasegee (06010203)+*, Lower Little Tennessee (06010204)+
17 Upper Henrys (17040202)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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General Description: See Devillers (1970) and Dunn (1978) for detailed information on identification.
Reproduction Comments: Clutch size usually is 5-6, sometimes 4-7. Incubation, by both sexes, lasts 12-13 days. Nestlings are altricial. Young birds leave the nest-hole 25-29 days after hatching (Terres 1980).
Ecology Comments: Primarily a solitary species, but loose groups may be seen during migration (Oberholser 1974).

Presence of sapsuckers influences the structure of local bird communities (e.g., through cavity excavation), and sapwells made by these birds enhance local insect abundance and diversity (Rissler et al. 1995, Wilson Bull. 107:746-752).

Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Withdraws southward from most of breeding range in winter. Females tend to winter farther south than do males.
Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Conifer, Forest - Hardwood, Forest - Mixed, Suburban/orchard, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Special Habitat Factors: Standing snag/hollow tree
Habitat Comments: Deciduous or mixed deciduous-coniferous forest; in migration and winter also in a variety of forest and open woodland habitats, parks, orchards (AOU 1983). Nest hole is bored by both sexes; usually located 3-14 m above ground. Generally excavates a new hole each year. See Mitchell (1988) for specifications for the construction and placement of nest boxes.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Drills holes in coniferous and deciduous trees and laps up sap and insects with tongue. Eats ants, wasps, mayflies, moths, spruce budworms, and beetles, etc. (Terres 1980). Also feeds on fruit, aspen buds, and suet.
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Length: 22 centimeters
Weight: 50 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Woodpeckers

Use Class: Breeding
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding, or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: The high potential for gene flow among populations of birds separated by fairly large distances makes it difficult to circumscribe occurrences on the basis of meaningful population units without occurrences becoming too large. Hence, a moderate, standardized separation distance has been adopted for woodpeckers; it should yield occurrences that are not too spatially expansive while also accounting for the likelihood of gene flow among populations within a few kilometers of each other.

Be careful not to separate a population's nesting areas and foraging areas as different occurrences; include them in the same occurrence even if they are more than 5 km apart.

Territories generally smaller than non-breeding home ranges. Territories/home ranges: Red-headed Woodpecker, summer territories 3.1-8.5 hectares (Venables and Collopy 1989), winter territories smaller (0.17 hectare to 1 hectare (Williams and Batzli 1979, Venables and Collopy 1989, Moskovits 1978); Lewis's Woodpecker, 1.0-6.0 hectares (Thomas et al. 1979); Golden-fronted Woodpecker, summer ranges larger than breeding territories, ranging from 15.4 to 41.7 hectares (average 24.9, Husak 1997); Gila Woodpecker, pair territories ranged from 4.45 to 10.0 hectares (n = 5) (Edwards and Schnell 2000); Nuttall's Woodpecker, about 65 hectares (0.8 kilometers diameter; Miller and Bock 1972); Hairy Woodpecker: breeding territories averaged 2.8 hectares, range 2.4 to 3.2 hectares (Lawrence 1967); Black-backed Woodpecker, home ranges 61-328 hectares (Goggans et al. 1988, Lisi 1988, Dixon and Saab 2000); White-headed Woodpecker, mean home ranges 104 and 212 hectares on old-growth sites and 321 and 342 hectares on fragmented sites (Dixon 1995a,b); Williamson's Sapsucker, home ranges 4-9 hectares (Crockett 1975).

Fidelity to breeding site: high in Red-headed Woodpeckers--15 of 45 banded adults returned to vicinity following year (Ingold 1991); one adult moved 1.04 kilometers between breeding seasons (Belson 1998).

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .2 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Based on a conservatively small home range of 3 hectares.
Date: 10Sep2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 16May1996
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

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Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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