Speyeria zerene myrtleae sensu lato - dos Passos and Grey, 1945
Myrtle's Silverspot
Synonym(s): Speyeria zerene myrtleae dos Passos and Grey, 1945
Taxonomic Status: Not accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Speyeria zerene myrtleae dos Passos and Grey, 1945 (TSN 779150)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.117327
Element Code: IILEPJ608C
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Butterflies and Moths - Butterflies and Skippers
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Lepidoptera Nymphalidae Speyeria
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1992. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; six plants and Myrtle's Silverspot butterfly from coastal dunes in northern and central California determined to be Endangered (Final Rule). Federal Register 57(120):27848-58.
Concept Reference Code: N92FWS02EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Speyeria zerene myrtleae sensu lato
Taxonomic Comments: This is S. z. myrtleae as the name was usually applied before Emmel and Emmel (1998) split off S. z. puntareyes, including the 1992 listing under the US Endangered Species Act. If one accepts Emmel and Emmel's taxonomy, the extant portion of the listed entity would be called S. z. puntareyes and the name S. z. myrtleae would be restricted to an extinct population.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5T1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 22Sep2000
Global Status Last Changed: 22Sep2000
Rounded Global Status: T1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Of the two compnents of this name
Nation: United States
National Status: N1 (22Sep2000)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (22Jun1992)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R8 - California-Nevada

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Formerly widespread on the San Francisco and Marin peninsulas, Myrtle?s silverspot is now only known from four populations in northwestern Marin County and southwestern Sonoma County (Black and Vaughan 2005a).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Habitat loss due to residential and commercial land development has extirpated this butterfly from parts of its range and may threaten some of the remaining populations. Changes in natural fire patterns, introduction of exotic plants, successional changes in the plant community, and grazing have reduced the availability of host plants. silverspot butterfly larvae are also extremely sensitive to pesticides (Black and Vaughan 2005a).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: On going surveys to establish the distribution and population status are needed (Black and Vaughan 2005a).

Protection Needs: This butterfly is in serious need of action on its behalf by the public, including working with private landowners on whose land most of the populations survive. It is likely that given the specific habitat requirements of this subspecies and the history of environmental change brought on by human activities, that simply setting aside land for this butterfly will not ensure its future. Active management, whether by selective grazing or some other method, of Myrtle?s silverspot habitat will be necessary (Black and Vaughan 2005a).

Distribution
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Global Range: Formerly widespread on the San Francisco and Marin peninsulas, Myrtle?s silverspot is now only known from four populations in northwestern Marin County and southwestern Sonoma County (Black and Vaughan 2005a).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single state or province

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA Marin (06041), San Mateo (06081)*, Sonoma (06097)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
18 Gualala-Salmon (18010109)+, Russian (18010110)+*, San Francisco Bay (18050004)+*, Tomales-Drake Bays (18050005)+, San Francisco Coastal South (18050006)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Cliff, Grassland/herbaceous, Sand/dune, Shrubland/chaparral
Habitat Comments: Myrtle?s silverspot is found in coastal dune or prairie habitat. Populations were formerly found in dunes and bluffs from San Mateo County north to the mouth of the Russian River in Sonoma County. The populations south of the Golden Gate apparently have been extirpated by urban development. Four populations are known to inhabit coastal terrace prairie, coastal bluff scrub, and associated non-native grassland habitats in western Marin and southwestern Sonoma counties, including the Point Reyes National Seashore. Adult butterflies are typically found in areas that are sheltered from the wind, below 810 feet (250 m) elevation, and within 3 miles of the coast (Black and Vaughan 2005a).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: Studies into the impacts of land management activities and the most appropriate way to manage sites would be valuable (Black and Vaughan 2005a).
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Black, S. H., and D. M. Vaughan. 2005a. Species Profile: Speyeria zerene myrtleae. In Shepherd, M. D., D. M. Vaughan, and S. H. Black (Eds). Red List of Pollinator Insects of North America. CD-ROM Version 1 (May 2005). Portland, OR: The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation. https://xerces.org/myrtles-silverspot/

  • Opler, P. A., and A. D. Warren. 2002. Butterflies of North America. 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, north of Mexico. C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 79 pp.

  • Pelham, J. P. 2008. A catalogue of the butterflies of the United States and Canada with a complete bibliography of the descriptive and systematic literature. The Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera. Volume 40. 658 pp. Revised 14 February, 2012.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1992. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; six plants and Myrtle's Silverspot butterfly from coastal dunes in northern and central California determined to be Endangered (Final Rule). Federal Register 57(120):27848-58.

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