Speyeria callippe callippe - (Boisduval, 1852)
Callippe Fritillary
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Speyeria callippe callippe (Boisduval, 1852) (TSN 779159)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.117008
Element Code: IILEPJ6091
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Butterflies and Moths - Butterflies and Skippers
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Lepidoptera Nymphalidae Speyeria
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Miller, L. D. and F. M. Brown. 1981. A Catalogue/Checklist of the Butterflies of America North of Mexico. The Lepidopterists' Society Memoir No. 2, Sarasota, Florida. 280 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B81MIL01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Speyeria callippe callippe
Taxonomic Comments: Has generally been recognized as a separate subspecies found in San Francisco and San Mateo Counties, California. Intermediate populations between this and subspecies COMSTOCKI are fairly widespread.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5T1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 03Apr2003
Global Status Last Changed: 01Sep1998
Rounded Global Status: T1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Limited range most of it now urbanized; threats to remaining habitat although it is mostly protected from development. Only one apparent metapopulation still exists and an isolated remnant of another.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1 (30Sep1998)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (05Dec1997)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R8 - California-Nevada
IUCN Red List Category: NE - Not evaluated

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: <100 square km (less than about 40 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Historic: San Mateo County (San Bruno Mountain), Alameda County, and Solano County, California. Currently San Bruno mountain and one site in Alameda County.

Area of Occupancy: 1-25 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: As of listing document in December 1997, two remaining occurrences.

Population Size: 50 - 1000 individuals
Population Size Comments: This is a reasonable guess based on a persistent metapopulation at San Bruno Mountain and a "very small" isolated colony. Speyeria demes are often a few dozen to a hundred or two. There seems little chance this species has more than 1000 adults in many, if any, years but since it has not died out during the period of observations from the late 1970s through the 1990s it can be assumed to be at least a few hundred adults most years. Obviously fluctuates but drastic fluctuations have not been reported. Deme fluctuation to extirpation is not uncommon in this genus though.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very few (1-3)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Probably one, possibly zero. The Alameda county site does not appear to be viable in the long term in its present condition. The other is assumed to be but without good population size data there has to be some doubt.

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Since listing, threats have abated somewhat but alien plants altering habitat and the possibility of large wildfires killing most or all larvae in affected areas and perhaps other factors such as drought still apply. The reduced population size and area of occupancy means the species does not have the recovery potential it originally did. Several alien weeds are serious problems.

Formerly loss of habitat to development. Habitat is dependant on occasional fires; excessive fires or complete fire control destroy it. Wildfire or potentially overly zealous prescribed burning are direct threats to remaining individuals.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)

Long-term Trend: Decline of >70%
Long-term Trend Comments: From perhaps 14 distinct occurrences to two. Some uncertainty since there could have been unknown occurrences formerly and quite possibly some known ones were not separate occurrences.

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Available population estimates.

Distribution
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Global Range: (<100 square km (less than about 40 square miles)) Historic: San Mateo County (San Bruno Mountain), Alameda County, and Solano County, California. Currently San Bruno mountain and one site in Alameda County.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA San Francisco (06075), San Mateo (06081), Solano (06095)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
18 Suisun Bay (18050001)+, San Pablo Bay (18050002)+, San Francisco Bay (18050004)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Butterfly, Nymphalidae.
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Grassland/herbaceous
Habitat Comments: It is found in native grassland and adjacent habitats, where females lay their eggs on the larval food plant, Viola tricolor. The vast majority of potential butterfly habitat lies under the cities of San Francisco, Oakland, and Berkeley, and what open areas remain within this butterfly's range are dominated by introduced plant species. Many of these areas are also grazed by cattle, mined, or subject to heavy recreational use (Black and Vaughan 2005c).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: May need more information regarding control of exotic plants. Much is known about this taxon due to extensive work by Richard Arnold primarily.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 07Apr2003
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Schweitzer, D.F.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Black, S. H., and D. M. Vaughan. 2005c. Species Profile: Speyeria callippe callippe. In Shepherd, M. D., D. M. Vaughan, and S. H. Black (Eds). Red List of Pollinator Insects of North America. CD-ROM Version 1 (May 2005). Portland, OR: The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation. https://xerces.org/callippe-silverspot/

  • Miller, L. D. and F. M. Brown. 1981. A Catalogue/Checklist of the Butterflies of America North of Mexico. The Lepidopterists' Society Memoir No. 2, Sarasota, Florida. 280 pp.

  • Pelham, J. P. 2008. A catalogue of the butterflies of the United States and Canada with a complete bibliography of the descriptive and systematic literature. The Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera. Volume 40. 658 pp. Revised 14 February, 2012.

  • Scott, J. A. 1986. The Butterflies of North America: A Natural History and Field Guide. Stanford University Press, Stanford CA. 583 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1997. Determination of Endangered Status for the Callippe Silverspot Butterfly and the Behren's Silverspot Butterfly and Threatend Status for the Alameda Whipsnake. Federal Register 62(234): 64306-20.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1997. Reproposal of critical habitat for one species of butterfly [=Speyeria callippe callipppe]. Federal Register 45(62): 20503-5

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