Callospermophilus lateralis - (Say, 1823)
Golden-mantled Ground Squirrel
Other English Common Names: golden-mantled ground squirrel
Synonym(s): Spermophilus lateralis (Say, 1823)
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Spermophilus lateralis (Say, 1823) (TSN 180154)
French Common Names: spermophile à mante dorée
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102855
Element Code: AMAFB05170
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Rodents
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Rodentia Sciuridae Callospermophilus
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.
Concept Reference Code: B93WIL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Spermophilus lateralis
Taxonomic Comments: Recent molecular phylogenetic studies suggest that the traditionally recognized genera Marmota (marmots), Cynomys (prairie dogs), and Ammospermophilus (antelope ground squirrels) render Spermophilus paraphyletic, potentially suggesting that multiple generic-level lineages should be credited within Spermophilus (Helgen et al. 2009). As a result, ground squirrels formerly allocated to the genus Spermophilus (sensu Thorington and Hoffman, in Wilson and Reeder 2005) are now classified in 8 genera (Notocitellus, Otospermophilus, Callospermophilus, Ictidomys, Poliocitellus, Xerospermophilus, and Urocitellus). Spermophilus sensu stricto is restricted to Eurasia.

Callospermophilus saturatus formerly was included in this species.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 04Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 06Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Sep1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (01Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arizona (S5), California (SNR), Colorado (S5), Idaho (S5), Montana (S4), Navajo Nation (S4), Nevada (S5), New Mexico (S4), Oregon (S4), Utah (S5), Washington (S5), Wyoming (S5)
Canada Alberta (S4), British Columbia (S5?)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Western North America. Eastern British Columbia and western Alberta south through the western U.S. to California, Arizona, and New Mexico. Elevations of 1220-3965 m (Bartels and Thompson 1993).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Western North America. Eastern British Columbia and western Alberta south through the western U.S. to California, Arizona, and New Mexico. Elevations of 1220-3965 m (Bartels and Thompson 1993).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZ, CA, CO, ID, MT, NM, NN, NV, OR, UT, WA, WY
Canada AB, BC

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: Sechrest, 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Adams (16003)*, Bannock (16005)*, Bear Lake (16007), Benewah (16009)*, Blaine (16013), Boise (16015)*, Bonner (16017)*, Bonneville (16019)*, Boundary (16021)*, Butte (16023)*, Caribou (16029)*, Cassia (16031), Clark (16033)*, Clearwater (16035), Custer (16037), Elmore (16039), Fremont (16043), Idaho (16049), Lemhi (16059)*, Owyhee (16073), Shoshone (16079)*, Twin Falls (16083)*, Valley (16085)*
WY Albany (56001)*, Carbon (56007)*, Fremont (56013)*, Sweetwater (56037)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
10 Little Wind (10080002)+*, Popo Agie (10080003)+*, Upper North Platte (10180002)+*, Sweetwater (10180006)+*, Upper Laramie (10180010)+*
14 Upper Green-Slate (14040103)+*, Big Sandy (14040104)+, Bitter (14040105)+, Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir (14040106)+, Blacks Fork (14040107)+*, Vermilion (14040109)+*, Great Divide closed basin (14040200)+, Little Snake (14050003)+*
16 Bear Lake (16010201)+, Middle Bear (16010202)+*
17 Moyie (17010105)+*, Lower Clark Fork (17010213)+*, Pend Oreille Lake (17010214)+*, South Fork Coeur D'alene (17010302)+*, St. Joe (17010304)+*, Palisades (17040104)+*, Salt (17040105)+*, Upper Henrys (17040202)+, Willow (17040205)+*, Blackfoot (17040207)+*, Portneuf (17040208)+*, Lake Walcott (17040209)+*, Raft (17040210)+, Goose (17040211)+, Upper Snake-Rock (17040212)+*, Birch (17040216)+*, Big Lost (17040218)+*, Big Wood (17040219)+, Bruneau (17050102)+*, Middle Snake-Succor (17050103)+, Upper Owyhee (17050104)+*, Jordan (17050108)+*, North and Middle Forks Boise (17050111)+*, South Fork Boise (17050113)+, North Fork Payette (17050123)+*, Brownlee Reservoir (17050201)+*, Upper Salmon (17060201)+, Pahsimeroi (17060202)+*, Middle Salmon-Panther (17060203)+*, Lemhi (17060204)+*, Upper Middle Fork Salmon (17060205)+, Lower Middle Fork Salmon (17060206)+*, Middle Salmon-Chamberlain (17060207)+, South Fork Salmon (17060208)+*, Little Salmon (17060210)+, Upper Selway (17060301)+*, Lower Selway (17060302)+*, Lochsa (17060303)+, Upper North Fork Clearwater (17060307)+*, Lower North Fork Clearwater (17060308)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Breeding occurs in the spring soon after females emerge from hibernation. Females are monoestrous. Gestation lasts 26-33 days. Litter size is 2-8, usually 4-6. Young emerge from burrow typically in July (to early August at highest elevations). Weaning occurs at minimum age of 4 weeks. Males do not take part in family life. A few may live up to 7 years.
Ecology Comments: Populations usually are distributed evenly over good habitat. Predators include snakes, foxes, weasels, and bears. This species may be an intermediate host for the Rocky Mountain spotted fever tick, DERMACENTOR ANDERSONI.
Habitat Type: Terrestrial
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Alpine, Bare rock/talus/scree, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Mixed
Special Habitat Factors: Burrowing in or using soil
Habitat Comments: Inhabits mountain slopes and foothills, alpine tundra, chaparral, open areas in pine, spruce, and fir forests, rocky outcroppings and slides, margins of mountain meadows, and rocky sagebrush country; campgrounds. Often in areas with abundant stumps, rocks, of fallen logs. When inactive or tending young, occupies burrows under rocks, stumps, logs, trees, bushes, or cabins, in rock crevices, or in banks or along washes.
Adult Food Habits: Frugivore, Granivore, Herbivore
Immature Food Habits: Frugivore, Granivore, Herbivore
Food Comments: Omnivorous. Feeds on seeds, fungus, leaves, flowers, fruits and roots. Also feeds on arthropods and meat, including carrion. In one study underground fungus comprised 65% of summer food and 90% of fall food. May store food in burrow in summer.
Adult Phenology: Diurnal, Hibernates/aestivates
Immature Phenology: Diurnal, Hibernates/aestivates
Phenology Comments: Active mainly March-November at low elevations; season is shorter in high mountains and in areas with abundant snowfall.
Length: 31 centimeters
Weight: 276 grams
Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: Sciurid mycophagy may play important role in forest ecology (Maser and Maser 1988). Sometimes may inhibit reforestation by eating conifer seeds and seedlings.
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Ground Squirrels

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals in appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Major water barriers; greater than 300 meters wide, or narrower if evidence or professional judgement indicates little or no dispersal across.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Recorded home ranges for most species are very small, 0.1 to 0.6 hectares (Evans and Holdenried 1943, Owings et al. 1977, Morton et al. 1974, Drabek 1973, Murie and Harris 1978, Recht 1977, Johnson 1981), occasionally up to 4 hectares (in S. parryii, Banfield 1974). However, most studies have not used radiotelemetry and likely have underestimated movements. For example, radio-tagged male Spermophilus mohavensis, a species thought to be characterized by very low vagility (Hafner 1992), have mating-season home ranges of up to 40 ha (mean 6.7 ha) and sometimes make movements of at least 1.5 km in a single day (Harris and Leitner 2004). Also, dispersing individuals travel much farther than available home range data might suggest. For example, juvenile S. townsendii dispersed a maximum of 1076 meters, with a mean of 515 meters (Olson and Van Horne 1998). Since actual dispersal surely exceeds documented dispersal, and other small sciurids readily return home after displacements of 1.6 km (see specs for antelope squirrels), it seems unlikely that ground squirrels observed less than 5 km apart and separated by suitable habitat would represent distinct occurrences.
Date: 12Mar2004
Author: Hammerson, G., and S. Cannings
Notes: Covers species of the genus SPERMOPHILUS.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 14Dec1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Armstrong, D.M. 1972. Distribution of Mammals in Colorado. Monograph of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas. University of Kansas Printing Service, Lawrence. 415 pp.

  • Banfield, A. W. F. 1974. The mammals of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada. 438 pp.

  • Bartels, M. A., and D. P. Thompson. 1993. Spermophilus lateralis. Am. Soc. Mamm., Mammalian Species No. 440:1-8.

  • Carey, A. B., R. G. Mclean, and G. O. Maupin. 1980. The structure of a Colorado tick fever ecosystem. Ecol. Monogr., 50:131-151.

  • Clark, T. W. and M. Stromberg. 1987. Mammals in Wyoming. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence. 314 pp.

  • Coombs, E. M. [no date-1977?]. Wildlife observations of the hot desert region, Washington County, Utah, with emphasis on reptilian species and their habitat in relation to livestock grazing. A report to the Cedar City District, BLM by the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources.

  • Drabek, C. M. 1973. Home range and daily activity of the round-tailed ground squirrel, Spermophilus tereticaudus neglectus. American Midland Naturalist 89:287-93.

  • Evans, F. C., and R. Holdenried. 1943. A population study of the Beechey ground squirrel in central California. Journal of Mammalogy 24:231-260.

  • Hafner, D. J. 1992. Speciation and persistence of a contact zone in Mojave Desert ground squirrels, subgenus Xerospermophilus. Journal of Mammalogy 73:770-778.

  • Hall, E. R. 1946. Mammals of Nevada. The University of California Press, Berkeley, California.

  • Harris, J. H., and P. Leitner. 2004. Home-range size and use of space by adult Mohave ground squirrels, Spermophilus mohavensis. Journal of Mammalogy 85:517-523.

  • Helgen, K. M., F. R. Cole, L. E. Helgen, and D. E. Wilson. 2009. Generic Revision in the Holarctic Ground Squirrel Genus Spermophilus. Journal of Mammalogy 90(2):270-305.

  • Helgen, K. M., F. R. Cole, L. E. Helgen, and D. E. Wilson. 2009. Generic revision in the holarctic ground squirrel genus Spermophilus. Journal of Mammalogy 90(2):270-305.

  • Helgen, K.M., F.R. Cole, L.E., Helgen, and D.E. Wilson. 2009. Generic Revision in the Holarctic Ground Squirrel Genus Spermophilus. Journal of Mammalogy, 90(2):270-305.

  • Johnson, K. 1981. Social organization in a colony of rock squirrels (Spermophilus variegatus). Southwestern Naturalist 26:237-242.

  • Larrison, E.J. and D.R. Johnson. 1981. Mammals of Idaho. The University of Idaho Press, Moscow.

  • Maser, C., and Z. Maser. 1988. Interactions among squirrels, mycorrhizal fungi, and coniferous forests in Oregon. Great Basin Nat. 48:358-369.

  • Morton, M. L., C. S. Maxwell, and C. E. Wade. 1974. Body size, body composition, and behavior of juvenile Belding ground squirrels. Great Basin Naturalist 34:121-134.

  • Murie, J. O. 1973. Population characteristics and phenology of a Franklin ground squirrel (Spermophilus franklinii) colony in central Alberta. American Midland Naturalist 90:334-40.

  • Murie, J. O., and G. R. Michener, editors. 1984. The biology of ground-dwelling squirrels: annual cycles, behavioral ecology and sociality. Univ. Nebraska Press, Lincoln. xvi + 459 pp.

  • Murie, J. O., and M. A. Harris. 1978. Territoriality and dominance in male Columbian ground squirrels (Spermophilus columbianus). Canadian Journal of Zoology 56:2402-12

  • Olson, G. S., and B. Van Horne. 1998. Dispersal patterns of juvenile Townsend's ground squirrels in southwestern Idaho. Canadian Journal of Zoology 76:2084-2089.

  • Owings, D. H., M. Borchert, and R. A. Virginia. 1977. The behaviour of California ground squirrels. Animal Behaviour 25:221-30.

  • Parks Canada. 2000. Vertebrate Species Database. Ecosystems Branch, 25 Eddy St., Hull, PQ, K1A 0M5.

  • Recht, M. A. 1977. The biology of the Mohave ground squirrel (Spermophilus mohavensis): home range, daily activity, foraging and weight gain, and thermoregulatory behavior. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles. 117 pp.

  • Slade, N. A., and D. F. Balph. 1974. Population ecology of Uinta ground squirrels. Ecology 55:989-1003.

  • Smith, H.C. 1993. Alberta mammals: an atlas and guide. The Provincial Museum of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, 239 pp.

  • Spermophilus lateralis/Golden-mantled Ground Squirrel. Copyright Dave Fraser.

  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.

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