Spea hammondii - (Baird, 1859)
Western Spadefoot
Other English Common Names: western spadefoot
Synonym(s): Scaphiopus hammondii Baird, 1859 "1857" ;Spea (=Scaphiopus) hammondii Baird, 1859 "1857"
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Spea hammondii (Baird, 1859) (TSN 206990)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.100387
Element Code: AAABF02020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Amphibians - Frogs and Toads
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Amphibia Anura Scaphiopodidae Spea
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Wiens, J. J., and T. A. Titus. 1991. A phylogenetic analysis of Spea (Anura: Pelobatidae). Herpetologica 47:21-28.
Concept Reference Code: A91WIE01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Spea hammondii
Taxonomic Comments: Placed in the genus Scaphiopus by some authors. Hall (1998) argued against the recognition of Spea as a distinct genus, but most authors have accepted the split of Spea from Scaphiopus.

Wiens and Titus (1991) presented a phylogenetic analysis of the genus (or subgenus) Spea based on allozymic and morphological data. Regarded as conspecific with S. multiplicatus until 1976 (Brown 1976); some authors retain multiplicatus within hammondi (Tanner 1989), but various data support the contention that these are distinct species (see Wiens and Titus 1991).

Garcia-Paris et al. (2003) used mtDNA to examine the phylogenetic relationships of Pelobatoidea and found that the family Pelobatidae, as previously defined, is not monophyletic (Pelobates is sister to Megophryidae, not to Spea/Scaphiopus). They split the Pelobatidae into two families: Eurasian spadefoot toads (Pelobates), which retain the name Pelobatidae, and North American spadefoot toads (Scaphiopus, Spea), which make up the revived family Scaphiopodidae.
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 03Jan2019
Global Status Last Changed: 03Jan2019
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Nearly endemic to central and southwestern California, also occurs in northwestern Baja California; extirpated from many sites in the Central Valley and coastal southern California; declining due to impacts of urbanization and agricultural development; some populations may be threatened by habitat fragmentation or exotic species (mosquitofish stocked for mosquito abatement, bullfrogs). Climate change likely to have further impacts.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3 (03Dec2001)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (S3)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: NT - Near threatened

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 20,000-200,000 square km (about 8000-80,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: The range includes the Central Valley and bordering foothills of California and the Coast Ranges (south of San Francisco Bay) and extends southward into northwestern Baja California, Mexico. The species has been extirpated throughout much of lowland southern California. Elevational range extends from near sea level to elevations of up to about 1,363 m (Zeiner et al. 1988, cited by Jennings and Hayes 1994; Ervin et al. 2001), but usually below 910 m (Stebbins 1985).

Area of Occupancy: 126-500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Jennings and Hayes (1994) mapped several dozen localities with extant populations. Recent updates include over 400 occurrences.

Population Size: 10,000 - 1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown; likely at least many thousands.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very many (>125)

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Main threat is development and conversion of habitat to incompatible uses (urbanization, agricultural development) (Davidson et al. 2002). Drought and increasing temperatures associated with climate change are likely to affect the hydrology of vernal pools, which are necessary for breeding and larval development. Invasive species and increasing prevalence of wildfires are also likely to affect at least some areas, but population-level impacts are not currently known.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-50%
Short-term Trend Comments: Since the 1950s, drastic declines have been noted in the Central Valley and southern California. In southern California, more than 80% of the previously occupied habitat has been developed or converted to incompatible uses; more than 30% in northern and central California (Jennings and Hayes 1994).

Long-term Trend: Decline of 10-80%
Long-term Trend Comments: Unknown level of decline in extent of occurrence, population size, area of occurrence, and number/condition of occurrences.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Protection Needs: Protect assemblages of rain-pool habitat throughout the range.

Distribution
Help
Global Range: (20,000-200,000 square km (about 8000-80,000 square miles)) The range includes the Central Valley and bordering foothills of California and the Coast Ranges (south of San Francisco Bay) and extends southward into northwestern Baja California, Mexico. The species has been extirpated throughout much of lowland southern California. Elevational range extends from near sea level to elevations of up to about 1,363 m (Zeiner et al. 1988, cited by Jennings and Hayes 1994; Ervin et al. 2001), but usually below 910 m (Stebbins 1985).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: IUCN, Conservation International, NatureServe, and collaborators, 2004


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA Alameda (06001), Butte (06007), Calaveras (06009), Colusa (06011), Fresno (06019), Glenn (06021), Kern (06029), Kings (06031), Los Angeles (06037), Madera (06039), Mariposa (06043), Merced (06047), Monterey (06053), Orange (06059), Placer (06061), Riverside (06065), Sacramento (06067), San Benito (06069), San Bernardino (06071), San Diego (06073), San Joaquin (06077), San Luis Obispo (06079), Santa Barbara (06083), Shasta (06089), Siskiyou (06093), Stanislaus (06099), Tehama (06103), Tulare (06107), Ventura (06111), Yolo (06113)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
18 Lower Pit (18020003)+, Sacramento-Stone Corral (18020104)+, Lower American (18020111)+, Upper Stony (18020115)+, Cottonwood Creek (18020152)+, Clear Creek-Sacramento River (18020154)+, Paynes Creek-Sacramento River (18020155)+, Thomes Creek-Sacramento River (18020156)+, Big Chico Creek-Sacramento River (18020157)+, Honcut Headwaters-Lower Feather (18020159)+*, Upper Coon-Upper Auburn (18020161)+, Lower Sacramento (18020163)+, Middle Kern-Upper Tehachapi- (18030003)+, Upper Deer-Upper White (18030005)+, Upper Kaweah (18030007)+, Upper Dry (18030009)+, Tulare-Buena Vista Lakes (18030012)+, Middle San Joaquin-Lower (18040001)+, Middle San Joaquin-Lower (18040002)+, San Joaquin Delta (18040003)+, Upper San Joaquin (18040006)+*, Upper Chowchilla-Upper Fresno (18040007)+, Upper Merced (18040008)+, Upper Tuolumne (18040009)+, Upper Stanislaus (18040010)+, Upper Calaveras (18040011)+, Upper Mokelumne (18040012)+, Upper Cosumnes (18040013)+, Rock Creek-French Camp Slough (18040051)+, San Francisco Bay (18050004)+, Pajaro (18060002)+, Carrizo Plain (18060003)+, Estrella (18060004)+, Salinas (18060005)+, Central Coastal (18060006)+, Cuyama (18060007)+, Santa Maria (18060008)+, San Antonio (18060009)+, Santa Ynez (18060010)+, Santa Clara (18070102)+, Calleguas (18070103)+, Los Angeles (18070105)+, San Gabriel (18070106)+, San Jacinto (18070202)+, Santa Ana (18070203)+, Newport Bay (18070204)+, Aliso-San Onofre (18070301)+, Santa Margarita (18070302)+, San Luis Rey-Escondido (18070303)+, San Diego (18070304)+, Cottonwood-Tijuana (18070305)+, Whitewater River (18100201)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: A spadefoot toad.
Reproduction Comments: Breeds January-May. Female lays cylindrical mass of eggs.
Ecology Comments: May dig its own burrow or use those of other animals. Skin secretion smells like peanuts and maybe an irritant to handlers.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: Migrates up to at least several hundred meters between nonbreeding and breeding habitats.
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient, Pool
Palustrine Habitat(s): TEMPORARY POOL
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Cropland/hedgerow, Grassland/herbaceous, Playa/salt flat, Savanna, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic, Burrowing in or using soil
Habitat Comments: This species lives in a wide range of habitats; lowlands to foothills, grasslands, open chaparral, pine-oak woodlands. It prefers shortgrass plains, sandy or gravelly soil (e.g., alkali flats, washes, alluvial fans). It is fossorial and breeds in temporary rain pools and slow-moving streams (e.g., areas flooded by intermittent streams).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Carnivore, Herbivore, Invertivore, Scavenger
Food Comments: Adults invertivorous; larvae eat algae, organic debris, plant tissue, etc., sometimes small animals (e.g., crustaceans, tadpoles).
Adult Phenology: Hibernates/aestivates, Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Hibernates/aestivates, Nocturnal
Phenology Comments: Inactive underground throughout much of the year. Most active during rains of winter-spring breeding period. Remains below ground during dry/cold weather.
Colonial Breeder: Y
Length: 6 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary
Help
Stewardship Overview: Further research is needed to understand population dynamics and habitat use, including connectivity, breeding behavior, juvenile dispersal, and adult migration. Genetic studies throughout the range would help determine the degree of variation within the species. Existing occurrences should be protected from development, and disturbance of breeding habitat should be minimized. Some studies indicate properly managed grazing or introduction of artificial water features may be beneficial to the species, and further research should explore these strategies.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Group Name: Spadefoots

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including larvae or eggs) in or near appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Busy major highway, especially at night, such that toads rarely if ever cross successfully; urban development dominated by buildings and pavement; the largest, widest, fast-flowing rivers.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Spadefoots can cross some fairly wide flowing rivers, so only the biggest rivers with strong current should be treated as barriers.

Detailed information on movements of these toads is not available, but opportunistic field observations of various species indicate that they readily move up to at least several hundred meters from breeding sites (G. Hammerson, pers. obs.). The separation distance for unsuitable habitat reflects the nominal minimum value of 1 km. The separation distance for suitable habitat reflects the good vagility of spadefoots, their ability to utilize ephemeral or newly created breeding sites, and the consequent likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of suitable habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Adults tend to exhibit high fidelity to breeding sites. For example, in Florida, inter-pond exchange of adults was minimal and short-distance (130 m; one was 416 m) (Greenberg and Tanner 2005), but recaptures were rare and some dispersals may have been missed. Additionally metamorphs may disperse large distances and probably sometimes eventually breed in distant non-natal pools. In Florida, Greenberg and Tanner (2005) did not track inter-pond movement by Scaphiopus holbrookii metamorphs, but it appeared likely that metamorphs ''rescue'' local populations by breeding-4 or 5 years later-in non-natal ponds as adults.

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .5 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Inferred extent distance refers to distance from breeding sites and is likely a conservative value.
Date: 15Apr2005
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 03Dec2018
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Clausen, M. K., and G. Hammerson (2005), rev. Misty Nelson (2018)
Management Information Edition Date: 03Dec2018
Management Information Edition Author: Misty Nelson (2018)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 31Dec2002
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Baird, S.F. 1859. Report upon the reptiles of the route, in Explorations and Surveys, R.R. Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, 1853-56. Pp.37-45 in: Vol. 10, Williamson's Route. Zoological Report, Part 6, Number 4, Washington, DC.

  • Balfour, P.S. and J. Ranlett. 2006. Natural history notes: Spea hammondii. Predation. Herpetological Review 37:212.

  • Behler, J. L., and F. W. King. 1979. The Audubon Society field guide to North American reptiles and amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. 719 pp.

  • Bell, J.L., L.C. Sloan, and M.A. Snyder. 2004. Regional changes in extreme climatic events: a future climate scenario. Journal of Climate 17:81-87.

  • Blackburn, L., P. Nanjappa, and M. J. Lannoo. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Copyright, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana, USA.

  • Boorse, G.C., and R.J. Denver. 2003. Endocrine mechanisms underlying plasticity in metamorphic timing in spadefoot toads. Integrative and Comparative Biology 43:646-657.

  • Bragg, A.N. 1965. Gnomes of the night. the spadefoot toads. 127 pp.

  • Brown, H. A. 1976. The status of California and Arizona populations of the western spadefoot toads (genus Scaphiopus). Los Angeles Co. Mus. Nat. Hist. Contr. Sci. 286:1-15.

  • Brown, H.A. 1967. Embryonic temperature adaptations and genetic compatibility of two allopatric populations of the spadefoot toad, Scaphiopus hammondii. Evolution 21:742-761.

  • Burgess, R.C., Jr. 1950. Development of spade-foot toad larvae under laboratory conditions. Copeia 1950:49-51.

  • Davidson, C., H. B. Shaffer, and M. R. Jennings. 2002. Spatial tests of the pesticide drift, habitat destruction, UV-B, and climate-change hypotheses for California amphibian declines. Conservation Biology 16:1588-1601.

  • Denver, R.J. 1997a. Environmental stress as a developmental cue: corticotropin-releasing hormone is a proximate mediator of adaptive phenotypic plasticity in amphibian metamorphosis. Hormones and Behavior 31:169-179.

  • Denver, R.J. 1997b. Proximate mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity in amphibian metamorphosis. Integrative and Comparative Biology 37:172.

  • Denver, R.J., N. Mirhadi, and M. Phillips. 1998. Adaptive plasticity in amphibian metamorphosis: response of Scaphiopus hammondii tadpoles to habitat desiccation. Ecology 79:1859-1872.

  • Ervin, E. L., A. E. Anderson, T. L. Cass, and R. E. Murcia. 2001. Spea hammondii. Elevation record. Herpetological Review 32:36.

  • Ervin, E.L., C.D. Smith, and S.V. Christopher. 2005. Natural history notes: Spea hammondii. Reproduction. Herpetological Review 36:309-310.

  • Ervin, E.L., and R.N. Fisher. 2001. Natural history notes: Thamnophis hammondii. Prey. Herpetological Review 32:265-266.

  • Ervin, E.L., and T.L. Cass. 2007. Natural history notes: Spea hammondii. Reproductive pattern. Herpetological Review 38:196-197.

  • Ervin, E.L., and T.R. Burkhardt. 2006. Natural history notes: Ambystoma tigrinum mavortium. Extralimital populations. Herpetological Review 37:435.

  • Feaver, P.E. 1971. Breeding Pool Selection and Larval Mortality of Three California Ampibians: Ambystoma tigrinum californiense Gray Hyla regilla Baird and Girard and Scaphiopus hammondi hammondi Girard. Master's thesis. Fresno State College, Fresno, CA.

  • Fisher, R.N., and H.B. Shaffer. 1996. The decline of amphibians in California's Great Central Valley. Conservation Biology 10:1387-1397.

  • Frost, D. R. 1985. Amphibian species of the world. A taxonomic and geographical reference. Allen Press, Inc., and The Association of Systematics Collections, Lawrence, Kansas. v + 732 pp.

  • García-París, M., D.R. Buchholtz, and G. Parra-Olea. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships of Pelobatoidea re-examined using mtDNA. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 28:12-23.

  • Hall, J.A. 1998. Scaphiopus intermontanus. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. 650:1-17.

  • Jennings, M. R., and M. P. Hayes. 1994. Amphibian and reptile species of special concern in California. Final Report submitted to the California Department of Fish and Game, Inland Fisheries Division. Contract No. 8023. 255 pp.

  • Kluge, A.G. 1966. A new pelobatine frog from the lower Miocene of South Dakota with a discussion of the evolution of the Scaphiopus-Spea complex. Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History 113:1-26.

  • Lenihan, J.M., D. Bachelet, R.P. Neilson, and R. Drapek. 2008. Response of vegetation distribution, ecosystem productivity, and fire to climate change scenarios for California. Climatic Change 87:S215-S230.

  • Marty, J.T. 2005. Effects of cattle grazing on diversity in ephemeral wetlands. Conservation Biology 19:1626-1632.

  • Morey, S. and D. Reznick. 2004. The relationship between habitat permanence and larval development in California spadefoot toads: field and laboratory comparisons of developmental plasticity. Oikos 104:172-190.

  • Morey, S.R. 1998. Pool duration influences age and body mass at metamorphosis in the western spadefoot toad: implications for vernal pool conservation. Pp.86-91 in: Ecology, Conservation, and Management of Vernal Pool Ecosystems: Proceedings from a 1996 Conference. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento.

  • Morey, S.R. 2005. Spea hammondii. Pp.514-517 in: M.J. Lannoo, editor. Amphibian Declines: The Conservation Status of United States Species. University of California Press, Berkeley.

  • Morey, S.R., and D. Reznick. 2001. Effects of larval density on postmetamorphic spadefoot toads (Spea hammondii). Ecology 82:510-522.

  • Morey, S.R., and D.A. Guinn. 1992. Activity patterns, food habits, and changing abundance in a community of vernal pool amphibians. Pp.149-158 in: D.F. Williams, D.F., S. Byrne, and T.A. Rado, editors. Endangered and Sensitive Species of the San Joaquin Valley, California: Their Biology, Management, and Conservation. California Energy Commission and the Wildlife Society, Western Section, Sacramento.

  • PRBO Conservation Science. 2011. Projected effects of climate change in California: Ecoregional summaries emphasizing consequences for wildlife. Version 1.0. PRBO Conservation Science, Petaluma, CA. [http://data.prbo.org/apps/bssc/climatechange]

  • Pfennig, D. 1990. The adaptive significance of an environmentally-cued developmental switch in an anuran tadpole. Oecologia 85:101-107.

  • Pomeroy, L.V. 1981. Developmental Polymorphism in the Tadpoles of the Spadefoot Toad Scaphiopus multiplicatus. Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Riverside.

  • Pyke, C.R. 2005b. Interactions between habitat loss and climate change: Implications for fairy shrimp in the Central Valley Ecoregion of California, USA. Climate Change 68:199-218.

  • Sattler, P.W. 1980. Genetic relationships among selected species of North American Scaphiopus. Copeia 1980:605-610.

  • Snyder, M.A., and L.C. Sloan. 2005. Transient future climate over the western United States using a regional climate model. Earth Interactions 9:1-21.

  • Stebbins, R. C. 1951. Amphibians of western North America. University of California Press, Berkeley. 539 pp.

  • Stebbins, R. C. 1954a. Amphibians and reptiles of western North America. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.

  • Stebbins, R. C. 1985a. A field guide to western reptiles and amphibians. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. xiv + 336 pp.

  • Stebbins, R. C. 2003. A field guide to western reptiles and amphibians. Third edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

  • Storer, T. I. 1925. A synopsis of the Amphibia of California. University of California Publications in Zoology 27:1-342.

  • Tanner, W. W. 1989. Status of SPEA STAGNALIS Cope (1875), SPEA INTERMONTANUS Cope (1889), and a systematic review of SPEA HAMMONDII Baird (1839) (Amphibia: Anura). Great Basin Nat. 49:503-510.

  • Westerling, A.L., D.R. Cayan, T.J. Brown, B.L. Hall, and L.G. Riddle. 2004. Climate, Santa Ana winds and autumn wildfires in southern California. EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 85:289-296.

  • Westerling, A.L., and B.P. Bryant. 2008. Climate change and wildfire in California. Climatic Change 87:S231-S249.

  • Wiens, J. J., and T. A. Titus. 1991. A phylogenetic analysis of Spea (Anura: Pelobatidae). Herpetologica 47:21-28.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2019 NatureServe, 2511 Richmond (Jefferson Davis) Highway, Suite 930, Arlington, VA 22202, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.