Sorex preblei - Jackson,1922
Preble's Shrew
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Sorex preblei Jackson, 1922 (TSN 179954)
French Common Names: musaraigne de Preble
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.106475
Element Code: AMABA01030
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Other Mammals
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Soricomorpha Soricidae Sorex
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.
Concept Reference Code: B93WIL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Sorex preblei
Taxonomic Comments: Demboski and Cook (2003) used DNA sequence data to examine phylogenetic relationships among 8 members of the Sorex cinereus group (S. camtschatica, S. cinereus, S. haydeni, S. jacksoni, S. portenkoi, S. preblei, S. pribilofensis, and S. ugyunak) and S. longirostris. Phylogenetic analyses recovered 2 major clades within the species group: a northern clade that includes the Beringian species (S. camtschatica, S. jacksoni, S. portenkoi, S. pribilofensis, and S. ugyunak), S. haydeni, and S. preblei and a southern clade that includes S. cinereus and S. longirostris. Mitochondrial DNA clades generally corresponded to previously identified morphological groups with 2 exceptions: inclusion of S. longirostris with S. cinereus in the southern clade and inclusion of S. preblei within the northern clade.

See George (1988) for electrophoretic study of systematic relationships among Sorex species.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 10Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 22Jan2016
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Range extends from extreme southern British Columbia to eastern Montana south to Oregon; records are sparse, but this may be the result of difficulty in capturing the species; recent pitfall trapping has substantially increased the number of known sites; no known threats.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4 (05Sep1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N1N2 (22Jan2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States California (SNR), Colorado (S1), Idaho (SNA), Montana (S3), Nevada (S1S2), New Mexico (S1), Oregon (S3?), Utah (S2), Washington (S1), Wyoming (S1)
Canada British Columbia (S1S2)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: This species occurs in western North America, from the Columbia Plateau to the northern Great Plains (Junge and Hoffman 1981, Cornely et al. 1992, Long and Hoffman 1992) and southward to at least northern New Mexico. Recorded occurrences include northeastern California, northwestern and northeastern Nevada (Ports and George 1990), central and eastern Oregon, southeastern Washington, southcentral British Columbia (D. Nagorsen, pers. comm.), west-central Idaho, Montana (east to the North Dakota border), western Wyoming (e.g., Kirkland et al. 1997), west-central Colorado (Long and Hoffman 1992; but questionable identification for this record and also for a record from San Juan County--see Armstrong et al. 2011), south shore of the Great Salt Lake; northern New Mexico (Kirkland and Findley 1996); no records for Snake River Plain of southern Idaho or from the bulk of the Great Basin in Nevada or Utah south of the 40th meridian. Elevational range is approximately 1,280-2,550 meters.

Number of Occurrences: 21 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: The number of distinct occurrences has not been determined using standardized criteria, but there are at least a couple dozen widely separated collection localities (Corneley et al. 1992). Verts and Carraway (1998) suggested that the apparent rarity of this shrew is primarily an artifact of insufficient sampling effort.

Population Size: Unknown
Population Size Comments: Total population size is unknown.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Unknown

Overall Threat Impact Comments: None known.

Short-term Trend: Unknown
Short-term Trend Comments: Unknown.

Long-term Trend: Unknown

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Not intrinsically vulnerable

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Need more pitfall trapping across western North America to determine status and range. Since habitat needs are poorly known, this is critical to protecting the species.

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) This species occurs in western North America, from the Columbia Plateau to the northern Great Plains (Junge and Hoffman 1981, Cornely et al. 1992, Long and Hoffman 1992) and southward to at least northern New Mexico. Recorded occurrences include northeastern California, northwestern and northeastern Nevada (Ports and George 1990), central and eastern Oregon, southeastern Washington, southcentral British Columbia (D. Nagorsen, pers. comm.), west-central Idaho, Montana (east to the North Dakota border), western Wyoming (e.g., Kirkland et al. 1997), west-central Colorado (Long and Hoffman 1992; but questionable identification for this record and also for a record from San Juan County--see Armstrong et al. 2011), south shore of the Great Salt Lake; northern New Mexico (Kirkland and Findley 1996); no records for Snake River Plain of southern Idaho or from the bulk of the Great Basin in Nevada or Utah south of the 40th meridian. Elevational range is approximately 1,280-2,550 meters.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA, CO, ID, MT, NM, NV, OR, UT, WA, WY
Canada BC

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: Sechrest, 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
MT Beaverhead (30001), Big Horn (30003)*, Dawson (30021)*, Fergus (30027), Gallatin (30031)*, Golden Valley (30037)*, Judith Basin (30045), Madison (30057)*, Missoula (30063), Phillips (30071), Powell (30077), Ravalli (30081), Sheridan (30091), Silver Bow (30093)*, Sweet Grass (30097)*, Teton (30099), Valley (30105), Wheatland (30107)
NM Sandoval (35043)
NV Elko (32007), Washoe (32031)*
OR Harney (41025), Wallowa (41063)*
UT Box Elder (49003), Tooele (49045)
WA Douglas (53017)+
WY Lincoln (56023), Park (56029)*, Uinta (56041)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
10 Red Rock (10020001)+, Beaverhead (10020002)+, Madison (10020007)+*, Teton (10030205)+, Judith (10040103)+, Fort Peck Reservoir (10040104)+, Upper Musselshell (10040201)+, Flatwillow (10040203)+*, Box Elder (10040204)+, Lower Milk (10050012)+, Frenchman (10050013)+, Brush Lake closed basin (10060007)+, Yellowstone Headwaters (10070001)+*, Upper Yellowstone (10070002)+*, Lower Bighorn (10080015)+*, Little Bighorn (10080016)+*, Lower Yellowstone (10100004)+*
13 Rio Grande-Santa Fe (13020201)+, Jemez (13020202)+
14 Blacks Fork (14040107)+*, Muddy (14040108)+
16 Rush-Tooele Valleys (16020304)+, Skull Valley (16020305)+, Upper Humboldt (16040101)+, North Fork Humboldt (16040102)+, Long-Ruby Valleys (16060007)+
17 Upper Clark Fork (17010201)+*, Blackfoot (17010203)+, Bitterroot (17010205)+, Moses Coulee (17020012), Raft (17040210)+, Lower Grande Ronde (17060106)+*, Harney-Malheur Lakes (17120001)+*, Donner Und Blitzen (17120003)+, Guano (17120008)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A shrew.
Diagnostic Characteristics: See Carraway (1995) for a key to western North American soricids based primarily on dentaries.
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Desert, Grassland/herbaceous, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Hardwood
Special Habitat Factors: Burrowing in or using soil, Fallen log/debris
Habitat Comments: Recorded habitats include arid and semiarid shrub-grass associations, openings in montane coniferous forests dominated by sagebrush (Washington), willow-fringed creeks, marshes (Oregon), bunchgrass associations, sagebrush-aspen associations (California), sagebrush-grass associations (Nevada), alkaline shrubland (Utah) (Hoffman et al. 1969, Williams 1984, Cornely et al. 1992).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Probably resembles other shrews, feeding primarily on insects and other small invertebrates (worms, molluscs, centipedes, etc.).
Adult Phenology: Circadian
Immature Phenology: Circadian
Phenology Comments: Active throughout the year. May be active at any time throughout the day or night, but probably most active during morning and evening hours.
Length: 10 centimeters
Weight: 3 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: There are many information gaps for this species. Need information on habitat needs and effects of various land use practices on populations. Verts and Carraway (1998) recommended that all small brown shrews captured within the range and habitat of S. preblei "be preserved in such a manner that competent investigators can assess reproductive status and diet, and deposit the skins and skeletons in permanent repositories."
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Shrews

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: An area of suitable habitat where there is evidence of presence (or historical presence), with potential for continued presence; evidence minimally including a specimen or, in the case of certain species, a determination by a reliable observer of a live specimen in the hand.
Separation Barriers: Arbitrarily set at rivers wider than 50 meters at low water. Some shrews are relatively strong, active swimmers (notably SOREX PALUSTRIS, S. BENDIRII, SOREX ALASKANUS). No data on dispersal or other movement across water barriers.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Dispersal distances of shrews are poorly known, but these mammals are mobile enough to cover fairly large distances. Mature males especially may wander widely (Hawes 1977). Separation distance for suitable habitat attempts to reflect the small home range size of shrews, their secretive habits and consequent apparent absence in areas where they do in fact occur, and the seemingly low probability that two occupied locations separated by a gap of less than several kilometers of suitable habitat would represent independent populations.

Home ranges small: for breeding SOREX VAGRANS in British Columbia, 338 - 5261 square meters (Hawes 1977); in California, mean of about 372 square meters (Ingles 1961); for breeding S. MONTICOLUS (=OBSCURUS) in British Columbia, mean of 4020 square meters (Hawes 1977); for S. ARANEUS in England, a fall and winter home range of about 2800 square meters, with females occupying exclusive ranges (Buckner 1969).

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 10Mar2016
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Reichel, J. D., and G. Hammerson
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 24Nov1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): REICHEL, J., AND G. HAMMERSON

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Buckner, C. H. 1969. Some aspects of the population ecology of the common shrew, Sorex araneus, near Oxford, England. Journal of Mammalogy 50:326-332.

  • Carraway, L. N. 1995. A key to Recent Soricidae of the western United States and Canada based primarily on dentaries. Occasional Papers of the Natural History Museum, University of Kansas (175):1-49.

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  • Hawes, M. L. 1977. Home range, territoriality and ecological separation in sympatric shrews, Sorex vagrans and Sorex obscurus. Journal of Mammalogy. 58:354-367.

  • Hoffman, R.S., D.L. Pattie, and J.F. Bell. 1969. The distribution of some mammals in Montana, I. mammals other than bats. J. Mamm. 50:737-741.

  • Hoffmann, R. S. and R. D. Fisher. 1978. Additional distributional records of Preble's shrew (SOREX PREBLEI). J. Mammal. 59:883-884.

  • Ingles, L. G. 1961. Home range and habitats of the wandering shrew. Journal of Mammalogy 42:455-462.

  • Ingles, L. G. 1965. Mammals of the Pacific States. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.

  • JUNGE, J.A. and R.S. Hoffmann. 1981. An annotated ket to the long-tailed shrews (genus SOREX) of the United States and Canada with notes on Middle American SOREX. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History, Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence KS. 94:1-48.

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