Solidago verna - M.A. Curtis
Spring-flowering Goldenrod
Other Common Names: springflowering goldenrod
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Solidago verna M.A. Curtis ex Torr. & A. Gray (TSN 36319)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.128237
Element Code: PDAST8P250
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Aster Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Asterales Asteraceae Solidago
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Solidago verna
Taxonomic Comments: Distinct species.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 22Dec1997
Global Status Last Changed: 22Jul1993
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Although restricted to a narrow range in northeastern South Carolina and southeastern North Carolina, Solidago verna occurs in a wide variety of habitats. However, this species is moderately threatened by alteration and destruction of habitat for development, plantation pineland and agriculture.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States North Carolina (S3), South Carolina (S2)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Solidago verna is endemic to the Coastal Plain and Sandhills regions of North Carolina and South Carolina (Radford, et al., 1968, Horn 1988). Although it appears from distribution maps that its current and historic ranges are more or less similar, it is likely that a number of historic, undocumented occurrences have been extirpated as a result of human-related disturbances such as land conversion and fire suppression. HISTORIC RANGE: Radford, et al. (1968), reports Solidago verna from Bladen, Brunswick, Columbus, Craven, Cumberland, Harnett, Hoke, Johnston, New Hanover, Onslow, Pender, and Sampson counties, NC, and from Darlington and Marlboro counties, SC. Historic and/or extirpated occurrences are known from (year last seen follows in parentheses): Columbus (1930, 1949), Craven (1951, 1964), Harnett (1938, 1951), Hoke (1951, 1988), Moore (1968), New Hanover (1886), Pender (1953), and Sampson (1951, 1957) counties, NC (NCNHP 1993). No extant occurrences are currently known from Columbus and New Hanover counties, NC (Weakley 1993). CURRENT RANGE: In addition to the counties listed in Radford, et al. (1968), Solidago verna has since been found in Jones, Moore, Pamlico, and Scotland (last seen 1980) counties, NC (Weakley 1993), and in Chesterfield County, SC (Horn 1988). Its current distribution is as follows (number of extant occurrences in each county follows in parentheses): Bladen (1), Brunswick (2), Carteret (1), Craven (23), Cumberland (4), Harnett (1), Hoke (9), Johnston (3), Jones (3), Moore (3), Onslow (4), Pamlico (1), Pender (3), Sampson (1), and Scotland (1) counties, NC (LeBlond 1993, NCNHP 1993), and Chesterfield (2), Darlington (5), and Marlboro (4) counties, SC (Horn 1988).

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: Ninty-eight element occurrences in North Carolina and eleven element occurrences in South Carolina.

Population Size Comments: Many element occurrences are small. The largest one on Fort Bragg has about 600 plants.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threats include expansion of urban and residential construction, conversion of savanna and pocosin to pine plantation, conversion to row crop agriculture, and lack of fires in natural pine/wiregrass communities. In powerline rights-of-way and roadside cuts Horn advocated proper timing of mowing and strongly discouraged the use of herbicide sprays.

Short-term Trend Comments: Kral (1983) suggested that Solidago verna is declining due to expansion of urban and residential construction, conversion of savanna and pocosin to pine plantation, and conversion to row crop agriculture. Horn (1988) suggested that lack of fires in natural pine/wiregrass communities may be linked to declines in some populations.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Solidago verna is endemic to the Coastal Plain and Sandhills regions of North Carolina and South Carolina (Radford, et al., 1968, Horn 1988). Although it appears from distribution maps that its current and historic ranges are more or less similar, it is likely that a number of historic, undocumented occurrences have been extirpated as a result of human-related disturbances such as land conversion and fire suppression. HISTORIC RANGE: Radford, et al. (1968), reports Solidago verna from Bladen, Brunswick, Columbus, Craven, Cumberland, Harnett, Hoke, Johnston, New Hanover, Onslow, Pender, and Sampson counties, NC, and from Darlington and Marlboro counties, SC. Historic and/or extirpated occurrences are known from (year last seen follows in parentheses): Columbus (1930, 1949), Craven (1951, 1964), Harnett (1938, 1951), Hoke (1951, 1988), Moore (1968), New Hanover (1886), Pender (1953), and Sampson (1951, 1957) counties, NC (NCNHP 1993). No extant occurrences are currently known from Columbus and New Hanover counties, NC (Weakley 1993). CURRENT RANGE: In addition to the counties listed in Radford, et al. (1968), Solidago verna has since been found in Jones, Moore, Pamlico, and Scotland (last seen 1980) counties, NC (Weakley 1993), and in Chesterfield County, SC (Horn 1988). Its current distribution is as follows (number of extant occurrences in each county follows in parentheses): Bladen (1), Brunswick (2), Carteret (1), Craven (23), Cumberland (4), Harnett (1), Hoke (9), Johnston (3), Jones (3), Moore (3), Onslow (4), Pamlico (1), Pender (3), Sampson (1), and Scotland (1) counties, NC (LeBlond 1993, NCNHP 1993), and Chesterfield (2), Darlington (5), and Marlboro (4) counties, SC (Horn 1988).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States NC, SC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NC Bladen (37017), Brunswick (37019), Carteret (37031), Columbus (37047), Craven (37049), Cumberland (37051), Duplin (37061), Harnett (37085), Hoke (37093), Johnston (37101), Jones (37103), Moore (37125), New Hanover (37129), Onslow (37133), Pamlico (37137), Pender (37141), Richmond (37153), Sampson (37163), Scotland (37165)
SC Chesterfield (45025), Darlington (45031), Marlboro (45069)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Upper Neuse (03020201)+, Middle Neuse (03020202)+*, Lower Neuse (03020204)+, White Oak River (03020301)+, Upper Cape Fear (03030004)+, Lower Cape Fear (03030005)+, Black (03030006)+, Northeast Cape Fear (03030007)+, Lower Pee Dee (03040201)+, Lynches (03040202)+*, Lumber (03040203)+, Little Pee Dee (03040204)+, Waccamaw (03040206)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Perennial, rosette-forming herb with erect, hairy stems, alternate leaves and yellow ray flowers. In the absence of fire and the development of a shrub understory, only rosettes are produced. Such populations tend to flower profusely after fire (LeBlond, 1993).
Technical Description: Plants 5-12 dm tall from a short, stout rhizome, softly and rather shortly spreading-hairy throughout. Leaves basally disposed, the lower with elliptic to more often broadly ovate (or even subcordate), toothed blade mostly 3-7 x 1.5-4 cm, on a broadly-winged petiole of equal or lesser length. Inflorescence paniculiform, with obscurely to evidently recurved-secund lower branches; heads evidently slender-pedunculate; involucre 4-5 mm high; rays mostly 7-12, 3-6 mm long; disk flowers mostly 14-27. Achenes evidently strigose-puberulent (Cronquist, 1980; LeBlond, 1993).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Solidago verna may be characterized by its densely pubescent stems and by its yellow ray flowers which bloom April or May-early June (Radford et al., 1968).
Duration: PERENNIAL
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest/Woodland, Savanna, Woodland - Conifer
Habitat Comments: Solidago verna occurs in a number of habitats throughout its range, which have roughly been divided into three major types (Schafale and Weakley 1990): (1) Streamhead Pocosin ecotones: In the Sandhills region (Inner Coastal Plain), Solidago verna inhabits ecotones between upland longleaf pine communities and shrub/tree pocosins that line the narrow streams draining the slopes. Soils in these areas are usually sandy loams underlain by clay and include Blaney (Arenic Hapludults), Johnston (Cumulic Humaquepts), and Vaucluse (Typic Hapludults) (Hudson 1984, NCNHP 1993). Ecotones can be quite variable in composition and size, depending on local hydrology and fire-disturbance history. Solidago verna is usually found towards the center of wider, well-burned ecotones that are dominated by a mixture of wiregrass, low shrubs, cane, and a high diversity of herbs. Species counts in these well-burned ecotones are often impressively high; a 1/100 hectare (10 X 10 meters) survey of a Streamhead Pocosin ecotone on Fort Bragg yielded over 100 species, one of the highest counts known for a 1/100 hectare plot in all of North America (Schafale and Weakley 1990). Species co-occurring with Solidago verna along the ecotonal edge include Arundinaria tecta, Chasmanthium laxum, Andropogon glomeratus, Dichanthelium strigosus var. leucoblepharis, Rhexia alifanus, Clethra alnifolia, Oxydendrum arboreum, Rhododendron atlanticum, Vaccinium crassifolium, Aster dumosus, Coreopsis verticillata, Erigeron vernus, Eupatorium leucolepis, E. rotundifolium, and other species typical of Streamhead Pocosin ecotones. The canopy over most ecotones is dominated by a mixture of Pinus palustris and P. serotina. Small- to medium-sized trees such as Magnolia virginiana, Acer rubrum, Symplocos tinctoria, Nyssa biflora, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Pinus serotina can usually be found scattered in wetter portions of the ecotone. (2) Little River terraces: Other NC Sandhills occurrences for Solidago verna can be found along mesic terraces which lie above the Little River, a small blackwater river which flows through Moore, Hoke, and Cumberland counties along the northern boundary of Fort Bragg. These high terraces, which are now rarely, if ever, scoured by river floods, support one of the largest known S. verna populations. The terraces are currently dominated by Pinus elliottii and P. taeda plantations but historically were probably covered with mixed stands of Pinus taeda and P. palustris. Soils along the terraces are loamy sands, with Pactolus loamy sand being the most common (Hudson 1984, NCNHP 1993). Typical Solidago verna associates, especially in well-burned areas, include Aristida stricta, Danthonia sericea, Gaylussacia frondosa, Vaccinium crassifolium, Gelsemium sempervirens, Coreopsis major, Eupatorium rotundifolium, Parthenium integrifolium var. mabryanum, Desmodium nuttallii, D. ciliare, Lespedeza hirta, L. capitata, Eryngium yuccifolium, Andropogon virginicus, and A. gyrans. Small occurrences of S. verna are also found in small openings in Little River bluffs community (mixed hardwood-loblolly pine), which are located downslope from the terraces. These openings are often adjacent to strips of levee forest. (3) Wet Pine Flatwoods: Solidago verna is found in Wet Pine Flatwoods on fine sandy loams underlain by sandy clay loam, usually on Lynchburg (Aeric Paleaquults), Onslow (Spodic Paleudults), and Rains (Typic Paleaquults) soils (LeBlond 1993, NCNHP 1993). Most of the sites still supporting S. verna have undergone long periods of fire suppression resulting in dense woody undergrowth. Nonetheless, fire or clearcuts at these sites can promote large flowering occurrences of S. verna. Individuals appear to be able to survive vegetatively for long periods of fire suppression. During these extended periods, flowering plants are seen only along forest edges (e.g., roadsides), but rosettes can be found within forest stands. Extended vegetative growth may be an adaptation to a longleaf pine community that burns less frequently under natural conditions than those found on sandier soils, such as Leon, Mandarin, Kureb, etc. (LeBlond 1993). Typical plant associates at these Outer Coastal Plain Wet Pine Flatwoods sites include Pinus palustris, P. taeda, Liquidambar styraciflua, Clethra alnifolia, Ilex glabra, Gaylussacia frondosa, Myrica cerifera var. c., Smilax rotundifolia, Osmunda cinnamomea, Gamochaeta purpurea, Arnica acaulis, Senecio anonymus, Lysimachia loomisii, L. quadrifolia, Plantago virginica, Dichanthelium scoparium, D. dichotomum var. d., D. d. var. mattamuskeetense, D. d. var. nitidum, Arundinaria tecta, Agrostis scabra, Sphenopholis obtusata, Saccharum giganteum, Cirsium horridulum, Erigeron vernus, Carex lonchocarpa, C. hirsutella, Juncus effusus, and Sisyrinchium atlanticum (LeBlond 1993). In addition, a number of occurrences in both the Coastal Plain and Sandhills regions of North Carolina and South Carolina are located along moist roadsides, ditches, and powerline rights-of way (Horn 1988, NCNHP 1993).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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Justification: Use the Generic Guidelines for the Application of Occurrence Ranks (2008).
The Key for Ranking Species Occurrences Using the Generic Approach provides a step-wise process for implementing this method.

Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 17Dec1993
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Mary J. Russo, rev. NCHP 2004-2005
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 27Jul1992

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Cronquist, A. 1980. Vascular flora of the southeastern United States. Vol. 1. Asteraceae. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. 261 pp.

  • Fleming, Miranda and Jon Stucky. 2005. Effects and importance of soil wetness and neighboring vetetation on Solidago verna. Dept. of Botany, NC State University, Raleigh, NC.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kral, R. 1983c. A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the South. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service Technical Publication R8-TP2, Athens, GA. 1305 pp.

  • LeBlond, R. 1993. Letter of May 28 to Christa Russell.

  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.

  • TNC [The Nature Conservancy] and NCNHP [North Carolina Natural Heritage Program]. 1993. Rare and endangered plant survey and natural area inventory for Fort Bragg and Camp MacKall military reservations, North Carolina. Unpublished report by M. J. Russo, B. A. Sorrie, B. van Eerden, and T. Hippensteel. Contract #M67004-91-D-0010. The Nature Conservancy and North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation, Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Raleigh, NC.

  • The Nature Conservancy. 1993. Rare and endangered plant survey and natural area inventory of Fort Bragg and Camp MacKall military reservations, North Carolina. Final report by The Nature Conservancy, Sandhills Field Office, December 1993.

  • Weakley, A. S., compiler. 1993. Natural Heritage Program list of the rare plant species of North Carolina. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program. Raleigh. 79 pp.

  • Weakley, A.S. 1993. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program list of the rare plant species of North Carolina. Draft North Carolina Natural Heritage Program list of the watch list plant species. Natural Heritage Program, North Carolina Dept. Environment, Health and Natural Resources, Raleigh.

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