Solidago arguta var. harrisii - (Steele) Cronq.
Shale Barren Goldenrod
Other English Common Names: Atlantic Goldenrod
Other Common Names: Harris' goldenrod
Synonym(s): Solidago harrisii Steele
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Solidago arguta var. harrisii (Steele) Cronquist (TSN 530439)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.145969
Element Code: PDAST8P034
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Aster Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Asterales Asteraceae Solidago
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Solidago arguta var. harrisii
Taxonomic Comments: Treated as a variety of the widespread species Solidago arguta by Kartesz (1994 checklist); sometimes treated as the separate species Solidago harrisii.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5T4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 28Apr1994
Global Status Last Changed: 28Apr1994
Rounded Global Status: T4 - Apparently Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N4

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Kentucky (S3S4), Maryland (S3), Pennsylvania (S1), Virginia (S4), West Virginia (S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Solidago arguta var. harrisii is currently known from West Virginia, Virginia and Maryland, being restricted to the shale barrens of the Appalachians (Core 1952).

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: Likely over 100 occurrences.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: A significant threat to the insect pollinators of S. arguta var. harrisii is presented by the spraying of Dimilin and BT insecticides for gypsy moth control. Because of the open habitat, shale barren insects are maximally exposed to pesticides (Dix 1990). Dimilin is a broad-spectrum biocide that persists until leaf fall and up to a few years in the duff and would have a long-term impact of shale-barren slopes. All insect occurrences on shale-barrens sprayed with Dimilin should be considered extirpated (Schweitzer in litt). BT is lepidopteran-specific and only persists for roughly one week (Dix 1990). Application during larval development may have devastating impacts on the fauna, however.

Five shale barrens in West Virginia and three in Virginia have been partially destroyed by road construction. Two additional barrens in Virginia were partially destroyed by railroad construction and one was crossed by a hiking trail (USFWS 1989). One barren has been destroyed through inundation caused by the damming of a stream (Dix 1990). Similar concerns have been expressed for barrens along the South Fork Valley of West Virginia where flood control measures are planned (Bartgis in litt.).

Moderately xeric sites may be subject to encroachment of exotic plant species such as Centauria maculata and a host of grass species (Dix 1990).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Declining slightly due to habitat destruction.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Shale barren habitat highly susceptible to erosion.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Solidago arguta var. harrisii is currently known from West Virginia, Virginia and Maryland, being restricted to the shale barrens of the Appalachians (Core 1952).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States KY, MD, PA, VA, WV

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
PA Bedford (42009), Fulton (42057)
WV Berkeley (54003), Grant (54023), Greenbrier (54025), Hampshire (54027), Hardy (54031), Mercer (54055)*, Mineral (54057), Morgan (54065), Pendleton (54071)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 South Branch Potomac (02070001)+, North Branch Potomac (02070002)+, Cacapon-Town (02070003)+, Conococheague-Opequon (02070004)+
05 Middle New (05050002)+*, Greenbrier (05050003)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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General Description: Fernald (1970) described Solidago harrisii (treated here as S. arguta var. harrisii) as follows:

"Resembling [S. arguta], darker green, 0.4-1.2 m. high; leaves coriaceous, scabrous above; the basal broadly ovate, strongly rounded to the winged petiole, 3-10 cm. broad, sharply and closely double serrate; cauline strongly reduced in size upward, narrower; panicle open, its remote branches spreading or arched-recurving, floriferous on the upper side mostly above the middle; involucres cylindric- campanulate, 4-5 mm. high, their firm oblong to lanceolate bluntishphyllaries with broad green midribs; disk flowers 9-15, with corollas 3-3.3 mm. long, rays about 5; pappus 2-2.7 mm. long; achenes strigose, 2.3-2.5 mm. long." Chromosome number n=9 (Beaudry, 1963).

Diagnostic Characteristics: Harris' goldenrod can be segregated from S. arguta by its highly truncate basal leaves and hairy achenes (Cronquist 1980).
Habitat Comments: All occurrences of this plant recorded thus far occur on xeric, open shale slopes most frequently labeled as shale barrens. Shales are of Devonian, Ordovician or Triassic age. Plants generally occur on south or west exposures but others have been recorded (Ludwig pers. comm.).

The term "shale barrens" is a general reference to certain mid-Appalachian slopes that possess the following features: 1) southern exposures, 2) slopes of 20-70 degrees and 3) a covering of lithologically hard and weather-resistant shale or siltstone fragments (Dix 1990). These barrens support a sparse, scrubby growth of Quercus ilicifolia, Q. prinus, Q. rubra, Pinus virginiana, Juniperus virginiana, Prunus alleghaniensis,, Rhus aromatica, Celtis tenuifolia, Kalmia latifolia, Bouteloua curtipendula, Andropogon scoparius, Phlox subulata var. brittonii, Silene caroliniana ssp. pensylvanica, Sedum telephoides, Antennaria spp., Aster spp., and species of Solidago (Dix 1990). Local variations in associated flora may vary considerably.

Although adequate moisture is available for most plants within the substrata of the shale layers, adverse surface conditions act to restrict germination and establishment success of plants (Platt 1951). It is primarily the effect of high surface temperatures that limits reproductive success in these habitats. Surface soil temperatures are often well above the physiological tolerance of most plant species, reaching maximum temperatures of 63 degrees Celsius (Dix 1990). Such temperatures are high enough to cause direct damage to seedlings. For additional detailed information pertaining to the shale-barren community, see Dix (1990).

Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Monitoring should track the status of S. arguta var. harrisii with respect to current management regimes, and should include the tracking of population maintenance (flower production, seed set, pollinator abundance, seed germination, seedling establishment and/or individual survivorship) and habitat maintenance (shrub encroachment, vegetational change, etc.) at representative sites. Research needs includes additional biosystematic work to determine the true taxonomic status of this species. Additional research needs include the identification of pollinators and their response and susceptibility to insecticides used to control gypsy moth infestations, basic life history information of the species, and additional survey work to determine the true status of the species. Management needs are primarily limited to exempting shale barrens from pesticide application for gypsy moth control. In other habitats, canopy thinning or prescribed fire management may be needed.
Restoration Potential: The recovery potential of S. arguta var. harrisii is unknown. At present, little information is available to determine exactly how the taxon would respond to transplantation or re- establishment via seeding. It is, however, abundant in many portions of its range, giving some indication that under appropriate conditions it may establish itself quite easily.
Preserve Selection & Design Considerations: Land protection must encompass the land needed to protect against potential impacts to S. arguta var. harrisii populations and their pollinators. Shale barren habitats must be protected with sufficient buffer of scrub oak woodland or other habitat type to reduce the effects of pesticide application and other factors.
Management Requirements: Management needs are primarily limited to exempting shale barren communities from pesticide application for gypsy moth control. Preventing application of Dimilin and BT is necessary in order to preserve the insect fauna that pollinates the species.

In other habitats, management activities such as canopy thinning or prescribed fire management may be needed.

No active management of shale barrens appears necessary (Dix 1990). The influence of fire on barren formation and maintenance is likely negligible (Dix 1990). Fires do not typically carry through steep barrens where surfaces are bare and tree cover sparse (Platt 1951). These barrens remain open and do not require fire for opening maintenance. On barrens with shallower slopes, herbaceous cover may get relatively thick and fire may play a sole in limiting shrub succession (Thompson in litt.). Periods of severe drought may also act to eliminate shrub encroachment and reestablish the barren character (Bartgis in litt.).

Monitoring Requirements: Monitoring should track the status of S. arguta var. harrisii with respect to current management regimes. Monitoring of representative sites should include the tracking of population maintenance (flower production, seed set, pollinator abundance, seed germination, seedling establishment and/or individual survivorship) and habitat maintenance (shrub encroachment, vegetational change, etc.).

Monitoring should also track the status of occupied habitat. Extant sites should be visited periodically to note population boundaries and observe changes and threats to habitat (Ludwig pers. comm.).

Selected representative occurrences should be tracked in order to provide some indication about the general health of the species under differing management regimes and in different habitats. In small populations, information pertaining to number of individuals, flower production, individual age class, seed germination, seedling establishment and/or survivorship may be gathered, depending on the amount of time warranted for this species. Large populations may be monitored through establishment of permanent quadrant sampling using grids or other methods.

Habitat monitoring may be installed along with population monitoring, particularly if permanent plots have been established. Simple cover estimates of all species and ground surface within each quadrant may suffice. Photo-points may be established to track shrub encroachment.


Management Programs: No known management programs are in place for Solidago arguta var. harrisii.
Monitoring Programs: No known monitoring programs are in place for S. arguta var. harrisii.
Management Research Programs: No known research is being conducted on any aspect of S. arguta var. harrisii.
Additional topics: Sources for this Element Stewardship abstract are needed.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 02Jan1991
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Wayne R. Ostlie
Management Information Edition Date: 15Nov1990
Management Information Edition Author: Wayne R. Ostlie

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Cusic, A.W. 1986. Significant Additions to the Vascular Flora of Western Maryland. Castanea 51:129-136. A86CUS01PAUS

  • Cusick, A.W. 1986. Significant additions to the vascular flora of western Maryland. Castanea 51: 129-136.

  • Cusick, A.W. 1990. Distribution and Current Status of Three State-Listed Goldenrods (Solidago, Asteraceae) in Pennsylvania. Bartonia 56:9-12. A90CUS01PAUS.

  • Cusick, A.W. 1990. Distribution and current status of three state-listed goldenrods (Solidago: Asteraceae) in Pennsylvania. Bartonia 56:9-12.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1949. Gray's Manual of Botany, Eighth edition. American Book Co. New York. B49FER01PAUS

  • Fernald, M.L. 1950 Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th ed. American Book Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Friesner, R.C. 1941. The Genus Solidago in West Virginia. Castanea 6:53-75. A41FRI01PAUS

  • Friesner, R.C. 1941. The genus Solidago in West Virginia. Castanea 6:53-75.

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. New Britton & Brown. Illustrated Flora. Lancaster Press Inc. Lancaster, Pa. B52GLE01PAUS

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 3 volumes. Hafner Press, New York. 1732 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Steele, E.S. 1911. New Plants From the Eastern United States in Contributions From U.S. National Herbarium. 13:359-374. A11STE01PAUS.

  • Steele, E.S. 1911. New Plants From the Eastern United States. Contributions From U.S. National Herbarium 13:359-374.

  • Wherry, E.T. 1937. CASTANEA. JOURNAL OF THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN BOTANICAL CLUB 2:2. A37WHE01PAUS.

  • Wherry, E.T. 1937. Castanea 2:2.

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