Smilisca baudinii - (Duméril and Bibron, 1841)
Mexican Treefrog
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Smilisca baudinii (Duméril and Bibron, 1841) (TSN 173536)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.100757
Element Code: AAABC07010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Amphibians - Frogs and Toads
Image 10902

© Piotr Naskrecki

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Amphibia Anura Hylidae Smilisca
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Frost, D. R. 1985. Amphibian species of the world. A taxonomic and geographical reference. Allen Press, Inc., and The Association of Systematics Collections, Lawrence, Kansas. v + 732 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B85FRO01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Smilisca baudinii
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 02Apr2002
Global Status Last Changed: 29Nov2001
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N3 (05Nov1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Texas (S3)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Atlantic and Pacific versants, from the Rio Grande embayment in extreme southern Texas, U.S.A., southward to Costa Rica, including the Yucatan Peninsula. In the Pacific, from southern Sonora southward to central Costa Rica. Elevational range: 0-1,610 m.

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: Represented by many and/or large occurrences throughout most of the range (Duellman 1968).

Population Size Comments: Widespread and abundant in Middle America (Campbell 1998, Lee 2000).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: This is a well preserved species that can survive even associated to human settlements and altered habitats.

Short-term Trend Comments: Population trend is unknown but probably stable to slightly declining.

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable

Environmental Specificity: Moderate to broad.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Atlantic and Pacific versants, from the Rio Grande embayment in extreme southern Texas, U.S.A., southward to Costa Rica, including the Yucatan Peninsula. In the Pacific, from southern Sonora southward to central Costa Rica. Elevational range: 0-1,610 m.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States TX

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: IUCN, Conservation International, NatureServe, and collaborators, 2004


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
TX Cameron (48061)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
12 South Laguna Madre (12110208)+
13 Lower Rio Grande (13090002)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Breeding season coincides with rainfall.
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: Migrates between breeding pools and nonbreeding terrestrial habitats.
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian, TEMPORARY POOL
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Hardwood, Savanna, Suburban/orchard, Woodland - Hardwood
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic, Burrowing in or using soil, Fallen log/debris, Standing snag/hollow tree
Habitat Comments: Lowlands and foothills; xerophytic vegetation and savannas in semiarid regions in north, humid evergreen forest in Caribbean lowlands of Central America; gardens with pools. Vicinity of ponds, pools, canals, and flooded fields (Bartlett and Bartlett 1999). Hides underground, under tree bark, in leaf axils, or in tree holes when inactive. Breeds in ponds.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore
Food Comments: Metamorphosed frogs eat various small invertebrates. Larvae eat organic debris, algae, and plant tissue.
Adult Phenology: Hibernates/aestivates, Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Hibernates/aestivates, Nocturnal
Phenology Comments: Inactive during dry spells in northern part of range.
Colonial Breeder: Y
Length: 9 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Hylid Frogs (Treefrogs)

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including larvae or eggs) in or near appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Busy major highway such that frogs rarely if ever cross successfully; intensive urban development dominated by buildings and pavement and lacking suitable vegetated frog refuges.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Available information is limited but indicates that hylids generally exhibit limited movements on a short-term basis. In New Jersey, Freda and Morin (1984) and Freda and Gonzalez (1986) demonstrated that individual Hyla andersonii often travel distances of 100 m from breeding ponds during the nonbreeding season. In montane Colorado, Spencer (1964) found that Pseudacris triseriata range into wet meadows usually within about 700 m of their breeding sites and sometimes cross a few hundred meters of upland habitat. Kay (1989) determined that most Pseudacris cadaverina individuals range over small segments of streamcourse; 83 percent of movements were less than 25 m in a 1-year study. In Michigan, nonbreeding home range diameters of Pseudacris crucifer, established around forest debris and vegetation, ranged from 1.2 to 5.5 m (Delzell 1958).

Based on this information it appears that 1 km is an appropriate separation distance for unsuitable habitat. Despite limited data suggesting restricted movements, dispersal data are scant, and these frogs are clearly physically capable of long moves. It seems unlikely that occupied locations separated by a gap of less than several kilometers of suitable habitat would represent independent occurrences over the long term.

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .5 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Inferred extent distance pertains to distance from breeding sites.
Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 02Apr2002
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 15Apr1986
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • Bartlett, R. D., and P. P. Bartlett. 1999a. A field guide to Texas reptiles & amphibians. Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas. xviii + 331 pp.

  • Bartlett, R. D., and P. P. Bartlett. 1999b. A field guide to Florida reptiles and amphibians. Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas. xvi + 278 pp.

  • Behler, J. L., and F. W. King. 1979. The Audubon Society field guide to North American reptiles and amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. 719 pp.

  • Blackburn, L., P. Nanjappa, and M. J. Lannoo. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Copyright, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana, USA.

  • Campbell, J. A. 1998. Amphibians and reptiles of northern Guatemala, the Yucatan, and Belize. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. xix + 380 pp.

  • Conant, R. 1975. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. Second Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. xvii + 429 pp.

  • Conant, R. and J. T. Collins. 1991. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians: eastern and central North America. Third edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Massachusetts. 450 pp.

  • DIXON, JAMES R. 1987. AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF TEXAS, WITH KEYS, TAXONOMIC SYNOPSES, BIBLIOGRAPHY, AND DISTRIBUTION MAPS. TEXAS A& M UNIV. PRESS, COLLEGE STATION. xii + 434 pp.

  • Duellman, W. E. 1970. The hylid frogs of Middle America. Monograph, Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas (1):1-753.

  • Duellman, W. E. 1999. Patterns of distribution of amphibians: a global perspective. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. viii + 633 pp.

  • Duellman, W.E. 1968. Smilisca baudini. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. 59:1-2.

  • Frost, D. R. 1985. Amphibian species of the world. A taxonomic and geographical reference. Allen Press, Inc., and The Association of Systematics Collections, Lawrence, Kansas. v + 732 pp.

  • GARRETT, JUDITH M. AND DAVID G. BARKER. 1987. A FIELD GUIDE TO REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS OF TEXAS. TEXAS MONTHLY PRESS, AUSTIN. xi + 225 pp.

  • Köhler, G. 2001. Anfibios y reptiles de Nicaragua. Herpeton, Offenbach, Germany.

  • Lee, J. C. 2000. A field guide to the amphibians and reptiles of the Maya world: the lowlands of Mexico, northern Guatemala, and Belize. Comstock Publishing Associates, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. 402 pp.

  • McCranie, J.R. and L.D. Wilson. 2002. The amphibians of Honduras. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, New York.

  • Savage, J. M. 2002. The amphibians and reptiles of Costa Rica. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.

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Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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