Silene polypetala - (Walt.) Fern. & Schub.
Fringed Campion
Other English Common Names: Eastern Fringed Catchfly
Other Common Names: eastern fringed catchfly
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Silene polypetala (Walt.) Fern. & Schub. (TSN 20106)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.131455
Element Code: PDCAR0U1E0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Pink Family
Image 10438

© Alfred R. Schotz

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Caryophyllales Caryophyllaceae Silene
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Silene polypetala
Taxonomic Comments: Distinct species (Sy=S. baldwinii).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 18Jun2008
Global Status Last Changed: 22Jan1985
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: A species with a very limited current range due to the conversion of its habitat to pine plantation and other means of habitat loss. Non-native invasive species are also a great threat to this species. These are located in Gadsden and Jackson counties, Florida. More occurrences are known from Georgia.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (S1), Georgia (S2)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (18Jan1991)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R4 - Southeast

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: This species has a very narrow range, from the Florida panhandle near the Apalachicola River (Chafin 2000) and in westcentral Georgia in the Flint and Ocmulgee River drainages (Patrick et al. 1995).

It is known in Bibb, Crawford, Decatur, Talbot, Taylor and Upson counties in Georgia, and Gadsden and Jackson counties in Florida (USFWS 1996).

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: The number of EOs for this species inflated due to the distribution of this species on the landscape and the separation distance used. This species occurs on steep slopes associated with bluffs or ravines and each of these bluffs or ravines, in some cases, has been defined as an EO.

Population Size Comments: Populations can be large; approximately 1500 individuals.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: The greatest threat to this species is habitat degradation and loss. In 1996 when the Technical/Agency draft recovery plan was written for this species several sites in Georgia were in danger of being destroyed by logging (Talbot and Taylor counties) In addition another site in Crawford, County was in immediate danger drom excavation activities, specifically, sediment from the excavation above was washing down on the plants below (USFWS 1996). Overall, the loss of habitat in Georgia has left only isolated patches of available habitat, and with such fragmentation, it makes this species even more vulnerable that a random stochastic event would have devastating impacts on this species (USFWS 1996).

Since the 1996 Technical draft, the wholesale destructions that was feared did not occurred as of 2008, however, subpopulations have been destroyed but this has been balanced by the discovery of several small populations (pers. comm. P. Pattavina). In addition, a survey in Florida in 2006 discovered three new populations (Jenkins and Baker 2006). Still, the major threats to this species are logging and invasive species. Furthere, there are few populations that encompass many microhabitat which would act as a buffer to any major disturbance (pers. comm. P. Pattavina). Most populations are small in size.

As for specific updates, the Crawford site is still under threat by the excavation, but the excavation hasn't been expanded in the past few years. Another population in Bibb Co. is heavily comprimised by English Ivy (Hedera helix). Finally, ownership of one site is being transferred from the timber company Weyerhauser to another owner who probably won't take action to preserve the species (pers. comm. P. Pattavina).

The other major threat to this species is non-native species, including Lonicera japonicum (Japanese honeysuckle), Ligustrum sienense (Chinese privet), and Microstegium viminea (Nepal grass). Japanese honeysuckle is present sometime abundantly and posses a long term threat (USFWS 1996). In Florida, the following species are threats Ardisia crenata, Lygopodium japonicum, Lonicera japonica, Nandina domestica, Ligustricum lucidum, Ligustrum sinense, and Phyllostachys aurea (Jenkins and Baker 2006).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Field inventory between 2003-2008 has indicated that this species' populations are stable, while subpopulations have been destroyed several new occurrences and suboccurrences have been discovered balancing out the loss (pers.comm. P. Pattavina). With this said, this species is still under active threats including habitat loss due to logging and invasive species encroachment (pers. comm. P. Pattavina, Jenkins and Baker 2006).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Silene polypetala produces nectiferous flowers that suggest it is pollinated by insects and possibly by hummingberds too. It is unknown how often sexual reproductions takes place, and it is also known that this species reproduces asexulally too by producing runners (USFWS 1996). Since this species is clonal in nature it is difficult, if not impossible, to know how many genotypes exist in each population without molecular studies. If the number of genetically diverse individuals are few, this species could be vulnerable to changes that not all individuals could adapt to.

Persists after canopy is thinned.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: This species has a very narrow range, from the Florida panhandle near the Apalachicola River (Chafin 2000) and in westcentral Georgia in the Flint and Ocmulgee River drainages (Patrick et al. 1995).

It is known in Bibb, Crawford, Decatur, Talbot, Taylor and Upson counties in Georgia, and Gadsden and Jackson counties in Florida (USFWS 1996).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL, GA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Gadsden (12039), Jackson (12063)
GA Bibb (13021), Crawford (13079), Decatur (13087), Houston (13153), Talbot (13263), Taylor (13269), Twiggs (13289), Upson (13293)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Upper Ocmulgee (03070103)+, Lower Ocmulgee (03070104)+, Middle Chattahoochee-Walter F. George Reservoir (03130003)+, Upper Flint (03130005)+, Lower Flint (03130008)+, Apalachicola (03130011)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial which grows to 25 (or more) cm tall. Some stems are erect, but most are decumbent and rooting. The basal rosette and lower stem leaves are spatula-shaped and 3-9 cm long. Leaves are progressively shorter up the stem. Inflorescence is a 3-5 flowered terminal cluster. Petals, 5, are pinkish or white in color. (Based on Kral 1983, Clewell 1985.)
Reproduction Comments: This species spreads vegetatively and the number of genotypes is far fewer than the number of clusters of plants at a site (USFWS 1991).
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Mixed, Forest/Woodland
Habitat Comments: Well-drained, sandy-loam soils of deciduous woods, usually hillsides. Further, this species is usually found in mature hardwood or hardwood pine forests on river-bluffs, small stream terraces, moist slopes and well shaded ridge crest (Patrick et al. 1995).
Economic Attributes
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Economically Important Genus: Y
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 11Jun1991
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hardin, E.D., rev. D.L. White (1991), rev. L. Oliver (2008)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • CLEWELL, ANDRE F. 1985. GUIDE TO THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE FLORIDA PANHANDLE. UNIV. PRESSES OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE, FL. 605 PP.

  • Chafin, L.G, J.C. Putnam Hancock, and H. Nourse. 2007. Field guide to the rare plants of Georgia. State Botanical Garden of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.

  • Clewell, A.F. 1985. Guide to vascular plants of the Florida panhandle. Florida State Univ. Press, Tallahassee, Florida. 605 pp.

  • DUNCAN, W.H. & L.E. FOOTE. 1975. WILDFLOWERS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN U.S. THE UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA PRESS, ATHENS.

  • Duncan, W.H., and L.E. Foote. 1975. Wildflowers of the Southeastern United States. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens. 296 pp.

  • Jenkins, A. M. and W. W. Baker. 2006. Status survey for fringed campion, Silene polypetala. Florida Natural Areas Inventory, Tallahassee, Florida.

  • KRAL, R. 1983.A REPORT ON SOME RARE,THREATENED,OR ENDANGEREDFOREST-RELATED VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE SOUTH.VOL I ISOETACEAETHROUGH EUPHORBIACEAE;VOL II AQUIFOLIACEA THROUGH ASTERACEAE& GLOSSARY.USDA FOREST SERV,SE REG.,ATL,GA. TECH PUBL R8-TP2

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kral, R. 1983c. A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the South. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service Technical Publication R8-TP2, Athens, GA. 1305 pp.

  • Patrick, T.S., J.R. Allison, and G.A. Krakow. 1995. Protected plants of Georgia: an information manual on plants designated by the State of Georgia as endangered, threatened, rare, or unusual. Georgia Dept. Natural Resources, Wildlife Resources Division, Georgia Natural Heritage Program, Social Circle, Georgia. 218 pp + appendices.

  • U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1991. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Plant Silene polypetala (Fringed campion). Federal Register 56(13): 1932-1936.

  • U.S. Fsih and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1996. Technical/Agency Draft Recovery Plan for fringed campion, Silene polypetala (Walt.) Fern. & Schub. Atlanta, Georgia, 32pp.

  • WUNDERLIN, RICHARD P. 1982. GUIDE TO THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF CENTRAL FLORIDA. UNIV. PRESSES OF FLA., TAMPA, ST. PETERSBURG, FT. MEYERS, SARASOTA

  • Wunderlin, R.P. 1982. Guide to the vascular plants of central Florida. Univ. Presses Florida, Gainesville. 472 pp.

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