Silene ovata - Pursh
Ovate Catchfly
Other English Common Names: Blue Ridge Catchfly
Other Common Names: Blue Ridge catchfly
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Silene ovata Pursh (TSN 20100)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.144930
Element Code: PDCAR0U180
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Pink Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Caryophyllales Caryophyllaceae Silene
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Silene ovata
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 21Dec2017
Global Status Last Changed: 22Jul2004
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Silene ovata is rare throughout its range; it occurs from southwest Virginia, south to Georgia, and west to southeast Illinois and northern Arkansas. There are over 110 occurrences. Most populations are small and much of its habitat has been lost. Threats include logging, grazing, trampling, road construction, and right-of-way maintenance.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S2), Arkansas (S3), Georgia (S1S2), Illinois (S1), Indiana (S1), Kentucky (S1), Mississippi (S1S2), North Carolina (S3), South Carolina (S1), Tennessee (S2), Virginia (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Range centered in the southern Appalachians (Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia) and extending to Alabama, Mississippi, and Arkansas and west to Illinois.

Area of Occupancy: 26-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: As of 2017, the NatureServe Central Database has element occurrence records for eleven state that represent extant occurrences: seven in Alabama, twelve in Arkansas, fourteen in Georgia, four in Illinois, one in Indiana, three in Kentucky, six in Mississippi, sixty in North Carolina, nine in Tennessee, and one in Virginia.

Population Size Comments: There are about 16 populations with 100's or 1000's of plants, but the remaining occurrences are usually comprised of 50 or fewer plants.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Some (13-40)

Overall Threat Impact: High
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Highly threatened by forest management practices, and to a lesser extent by land-use conversion and habitat fragmentation (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002). Other threats include grazing by deer and feral hogs, flooding by impoundment, road construction, and quarrying. Plants near roads and trails are threatened by trampling and maintenance activities. Any soil disturbance is likely to have a negative effect on this species due to the resultant erosion (ALNHP 1994).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Silene ovata is declining and it may be subject to genetic swamping in part of its range. Much suitable habitat and several known populations in both Kentucky and Alabama have been lost to development and other factors (White 1999, ALNHP 1994). There are 20 occurrences that are historic or extirpated that can inform both short and long term trends.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Range centered in the southern Appalachians (Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia) and extending to Alabama, Mississippi, and Arkansas and west to Illinois.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, GA, IL, IN, KY, MS, NC, SC, TN, VA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Dallas (01047)*, Geneva (01061), Henry (01067), Madison (01089), Marengo (01091)*, Marshall (01095)
AR Baxter (05005), Benton (05007), Cleburne (05023), Crawford (05033), Newton (05101), Pope (05115), Stone (05137), Van Buren (05141)
GA Bibb (13021), Bleckley (13023), Clarke (13059), Clay (13061), Decatur (13087)*, Fannin (13111), Hancock (13141), Jasper (13159), Lumpkin (13187), Macon (13193), Polk (13233), Union (13291), Warren (13301)
IL Hardin (17069)
IN Vanderburgh (18163)
KY Bell (21013), Clay (21051)*, Harlan (21095)*, Knox (21121)*, Leslie (21131)*, Powell (21197), Union (21225)*, Warren (21227), Whitley (21235)*
MS Clay (28025), Forrest (28035), Marshall (28093), Newton (28101), Perry (28111), Tippah (28139)*, Wayne (28153)
NC Buncombe (37021), Cherokee (37039), Graham (37075), Haywood (37087), Henderson (37089), Jackson (37099), Macon (37113), Madison (37115), Mitchell (37121), Swain (37173), Yancey (37199)
SC Florence (45041)
TN Claiborne (47025), Cocke (47029), Coffee (47031), Greene (47059), Hardin (47071), Marion (47115)*, McNairy (47109)*, Polk (47139), Sevier (47155), Shelby (47157)*, Unicoi (47171)
VA Lee (51105)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Lower Pee Dee (03040201)+, Upper Ogeechee (03060201)+, Upper Oconee (03070101)+, Upper Ocmulgee (03070103)+, Lower Ocmulgee (03070104)+, Upper Chattahoochee (03130001)+, Lower Chattahoochee (03130004)+, Upper Flint (03130005)+, Middle Flint (03130006)+, Lower Flint (03130008)+*, Upper Choctawhatchee (03140201)+, Conasauga (03150101)+, Etowah (03150104)+, Upper Alabama (03150201)+*, Middle Alabama (03150203)+*, Tibbee (03160104)+, Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw (03160201)+*, Chunky-Okatibbee (03170001)+, Upper Chickasawhay (03170002)+, Lower Leaf (03170005)+
05 Middle Fork Kentucky (05100202)+*, South Fork Kentucky (05100203)+*, Upper Kentucky (05100204)+, Upper Green (05110001)+, Barren (05110002)+*, Upper Cumberland (05130101)+, Highland-Pigeon (05140202)+, Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203)+
06 Upper French Broad (06010105)+, Pigeon (06010106)+, Lower French Broad (06010107)+, Nolichucky (06010108)+, Upper Little Tennessee (06010202)+, Tuckasegee (06010203)+, Lower Little Tennessee (06010204)+, Powell (06010206)+, Hiwassee (06020002)+, Ocoee (06020003)+, Guntersville Lake (06030001)+, Wheeler Lake (06030002)+, Pickwick Lake (06030005)+, Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001)+, Upper Duck (06040002)+
08 Upper Hatchie (08010207)+*, Wolf (08010210)+*, Coldwater (08030204)+
11 Beaver Reservoir (11010001)+, Middle White (11010004)+, Buffalo (11010005)+, Little Red (11010014)+, Frog-Mulberry (11110201)+, Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202)+, Lake Conway-Point Remove (11110203)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial herb, 5-15 dm tall, with opposite leaves, and short rigid pubescence on the stem. Flowers have 5 white petals that are each deeply cleft into a fringe of 8 linear segments. Fruit is a capsule. Flowering in July and August. Fruiting in August and September.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Silene ovata is distinguished from other Silene species by its opposite leaves, white, 8-cleft petals, relatively tall stature, and short rigid pubesence on the stem (Weakley 2004). S. stellata and S. polypetala are two similar species which also have fringed white petals and occur in woods. S. ovata is distinguished from S. stellata by its leaf arrangement; S. stellata has middle stem leaves in whorls of four whereas they are opposite in S. ovata (Radford et al. 1968). S. ovata is distinguished from S. polypetala, by its relatively taller stature, 5-15 dm tall compared to 2-6 dm tall for S. polypetala, and by stem pubescence which is short and rigid in S. ovata but long and villous in S. polypetala Weakley (2004). For a technical description see Radford et al. (1968) and Weakley (2004).
Habitat Comments: Typical habitat of Silene ovata is rich woods. In the Carolinas, Silene ovata occurs on circumneutral soils of woodlands and forests, especially over mafic or calcareous rocks, mostly at medium elevations (Weakley 2004). In Tennessee, it occurs in a variety of open or forested sandy or pebbly habitats including floodplains (Gay et al. 1996). In Illinois, it occurs in forests on moderate to steep slopes, often in very rocky habitats with shallow loess-derived soils over sandstone rock, and a pH between 5.8 and 6.2 (Basinger 2002). In Alabama it has been found in hardwood-dominated forest on bluffs and ravines, and in partial shade on a Black Belt clay bluff (ALNHP 1994).
Economic Attributes
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Economically Important Genus: Y
Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Monitor populations. Protect occurrences from logging and from trail or road maintenance activities. In some situations, Silene ovata would probably benefit from removal of competing shrubs and understory vegetation, as well as careful creation of canopy gaps to provide additional light (Gay et al. 1996). Research is needed to determine the genetic stability of Silene ovata and to assess potential genetic swamping. Remove feral hogs.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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Excellent Viability: An A-rated occurrence of Silene ovata should consist of 60 or more plants that inhabit a mature, partially shaded to close-canopied forest of more than 30 acres. The landscape setting should be relatively undisturbed with a minimal incursion (less than 10 %) of exotics and/or incompatible forestry practices.

Good Viability: A B-ranked occurrence of Silene ovata should consist of 25 to 59 plants beneath a mature, partially shaded to close-canopied forest. The landscape setting should be relatively undisturbed with minimal encroachment (less than 10 %) of exotics or indigenous weedy species. A B-rated occurrence may also be defined by the following conditions: 1.) A larger occurrence exposed to a greater infestation (to 30 %) of exotics. 2.) A larger occurrence exposed to an open canopy as a result of incompatible forestry practices and/or other human-derived disturbance. Easily restored to A-rated conditions.

Fair Viability: A C-rated occurrence of Silene ovata should consist of 8 to 24 plants beneath a mature, partially shaded to close-canopied forest. The landscape setting should be relatively undisturbed with minimal encroachment (less than 10 %) of exotics or indigenous weedy species. A C-rated occurrence may also be defined by the following conditions: 1.) An A- or B-sized occurrence exposed to a greater infestation (to 70 %) of exotics. 2.) An A- or B-sized occurrence exposed to an open canopy as a result of incompatible forestry practices and/or human-derived disturbance. Restoration potential to A- and B-rated specifications is good. Populations of fewer than 20 may be included here if the habitat is good quality and potential habitat present.


Poor Viability: A D-rated occurrence of Silene ovata should consist of one to seven plants beneath a mature, partially shaded to close-canopied forest. The landscape setting should be relatively undisturbed with minimal encroachment (less than 10 %) of exotics or indigenous weedy species. A D-rated occurrence may also be defined by the following conditions: 1.) A larger occurrence exposed to a severe infestation (greater than 70 %) of exotics where restoration potential is very limited or not obtainable. 2.) A larger occurrence exposed to an open canopy as a result of incompatible forestry practices and/or human-derived disturbance where restoration potential is very limited or not obtainable.
Justification: Rank specifications are based on literary accounts, Element Occurrence Records, and personal observations of occurrences and the descriptions of the associated habitats.. Currently limited research is being conducted on this species but no information outlining population dynamics and viability has been published. As new information becomes available, EO specs should be reassessed and updated.

Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
Date: 14Jul2005
Author: White, D., A. Schotz (rev. 2005)
Notes: Major updates provided by Al Schotz, Alabama Natural Heritage Botanist - July 2005.
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 21Dec2017
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Morse, L. (1994, rev. 1997); S.L.Neid, (1998); D. Gries (1998), rev. A. Tomaino (2004), rev. Treher (2017)
Management Information Edition Author: rev. A. Tomaino (2004)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 21Jul2004
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Tomaino, A.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Alabama Natural Heritage Program. 1994. Tri-state comprehensive study, Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa and Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basins: Silene ovata.

  • Basinger, M.A. 2002b. Distribution and habitat characteristics of Silene ovata Pursh (Caryophyllaceae) populations in Illinois. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 95:(1): 11-19. [http://www.il-st-acad-sci.org/transactions/95_1a.html]

  • Gay, M., M. Pyne, A. Shea, and C. Nordman. 1996. Guide to rare plants - Tennessee Division of Forestry District 6. Tennessee Dept. Agriculture, Division of Forestry, Nashville.

  • Gleason, H.A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of the Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada, 2nd ed., New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.

  • Herkert, Jim. 1998. Proposed additions, deletions, and changes to the Illinois List of Threatened and Endangered Plants. 100th ESPB Meeting, May 15, 1998. 12pp.

  • Hill, S. R. 2003. Conservation Assessment for Ovate catchfly (Silene ovata) Pursh. Report prepared for the USDA Forest Service, Eastern Region, by the Illinois Natural History Survey. 9 May 2003. 28 pp. http://www.fs.fed.us/r9/wildlife/tes/ca-overview/docs/plant_Silene_ovata-Ovate_Catchfly.pdf

  • Jones, S. B., Jr., and N. C. Coile. 1988. The distribution of the vascular flora of Georgia. Department of Botany, University of Georgia, Athens.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Logan, J. 1997. Report on Silene ovata, survey, 1997. Monitoring report for the Arkansas Natural Heritage Program by John Logan, Botanist. 27pp.

  • McCauley, D.E., J. Raveill, and J. Antonovics. 1995. Local founding events as determinants of genetic structure in a plant metapopulation. Heredity 75: 630-636.

  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles, and C. R. Bell. 1964. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.

  • Shimp, Jody. 2000. Status survey of Silene ovata. In prep. Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Program. jshimp@dnrmail.state.il.us

  • Smith, E. B. 1988b. An atlas and annotated list of the vascular plants of Arkansas, 2nd edition. University of Arkansas, Fayetteville.

  • Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project. 2002. A partnership between the U.S. Forest Service-Region 8, Natural Heritage Programs in the Southeast, NatureServe, and independent scientists to develop and review data on 1300+ regionally and locally rare species in the Southern Appalachian and Alabama region. Database (Access 97) provided to the U.S. Forest Service by NatureServe, Durham, North Carolina.

  • Terwilliger, K. 1991. Virginia's endangered species: Proceedings of a symposium. McDonald and Woodward Publishing Co. Blacksburg, VA.

  • Weakley, A. S. 2004. Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, and Georgia. Draft as of March 2004. UNC Herbarium, North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill. Available online: http://www.herbarium.unc.edu/flora.htm. Accessed 2004.

  • White, D. 1999. Section Six Program Report. Report prepared for the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Atlanta, GA.

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