Sideroxylon alachuense - L.C. Anderson
Alachua Sink Buckthorn
Other English Common Names: Alachua Bully
Other Common Names: Alachua bully
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Sideroxylon alachuense L.C. Anders. (TSN 565515)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.146807
Element Code: PDSPT0G0D0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Sapodilla Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Ebenales Sapotaceae Sideroxylon
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.
Concept Reference Code: B99KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Sideroxylon alachuense
Taxonomic Comments: Also known as Bumelia anomala; not the same as Sideroxylon anomala of Latin America. Kartesz (1999) recognizes.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 18Apr1997
Global Status Last Changed: 30Sep1997
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Endemic to a narrow region of north-central Florida and southern Georgia. Only four populations and approximately 27 plants are presently known. One of the known locations has individuals that are declining in health and in numbers due to deer activity.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Florida (S1), Georgia (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: North central Florida, southern Georgia.

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: Only known from four counties in Florida: Alachua, Marion, Madison and St. Johns.

Population Size Comments: All known populations are small. The Alachua County location has the largest population with 20 of the total 27 known plants, or 74% of the total population and has a B EO Rank. Robert Simons (personal communication 1997) collected fruit from two plants at the Alachua County site and germinated 12 seedlings, which he planted at the same site. Many of those plants have since been mowed over with a lawnmower, but a few have survived and are growing with the parent trees. The Marion County locality has approximately five individuals or 18% of the total known population and has a C EO Rank. The other two locations, Madison County (Blue Spring) and St. John's County (near St. Augustine), each reportedly have one plant and each rate a D EO Rank. It is currently not known whether these two populations are still extant. Since there are no herbarium vouchers to document the presence and taxonomic identity of these two small populations, and given the distance between them and the larger populations, their existence is questionable.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: The Marion County population is under attack from deer rubbing their antlers against the stems; this girdles the plants (Simons, personal communication 1997). The Alachua County population has several individuals growing next to a frequently mowed grassy area, and other individuals occur next to a well used bicycle trail (Hawthorne Trail).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Although the largest population (Alachua County) is in good health, the Marion County population is being girdled by deer, and the plants are declining in general health.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Although this plant is armed with thorns and appears tough, frequent rubbing by deer or damage from mowing too close is detrimental.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: North central Florida, southern Georgia.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL, GA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Alachua (12001), Lake (12069), Marion (12083), Nassau (12089)
GA Bryan (13029), Charlton (13049)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Ogeechee Coastal (03060204)+, St. Marys (03070204)+, Oklawaha (03080102)+, Upper Suwannee (03110201)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Shrub or small tree in the Sapotaceae family.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Hardwood, Forest/Woodland
Habitat Comments: Hardwood hammocks (upland forests) on calcareous sandy soils and on shell middens; often occurs around limesinks. Some of these areas occur as islands within the Okefenokee Swamp.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 18Apr1997
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Herring, Brenda J.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Anderson, Loran C. 1997. Sideroxylon alachuense, a new name for Bumelia anomala. Sida 17(3): 565-568.

  • CLARK, R.B. 1942. ANNALS OF THE MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN 29:169.

  • Chafin, L. G. 2000. Field guide to the rare plants of Florida. Florida Natural Areas Inventory, Tallahassee. [http://www.fnai.org/FieldGuide/]

  • Coile, N. C. 1996. Notes on Florida's Endangered and Threatened Plant. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville, FL.

  • Garland, M. A. and N. C. Coile. 2003. Notes on Florida's Endangered and Threatened Plants. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Bureau of Entomology, Nematology, and Plant Pathology - Botany Section, Contribution No. 38, 4th edition (digital version).

  • Georgia Natural Heritage Program. 2004, 22 October last update. Special concern plant species in Georgia. Online. Available: http://georgiawildlife.dnr.state.ga.us/content/specialconcernplants.asp (Accessed 2005).

  • Godfrey, R.K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens. 734 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Nelson, G. 1994. The trees of Florida: A reference and field guide. Pineapple Press, Sarasota, Fla. 338 p. plus color plates.

  • PENNINGTON, T.D. 1991. THE GENERA OF SAPOTACEAE. ROYAL BOTANIC GARDENS, KEW AND NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN, BRONX, NEW YORK. 295 PP.

  • USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service, PLANTS Database [USDA PLANTS]. http://plants.usda.gov/. Accessed 2015.

  • Weakley, A. S. 2006. Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, Georgia, and surrounding areas. Working draft of 17 January 2006. University of North Carolina Herbarium, North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill. Online. Available: http://www.herbarium.unc.edu/flora.htm (accessed 2006).

  • Wunderlin, R.P. and B.F. Hansen. 2003. Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida. 2nd edition. University Press of Florida, Tampa. 788 pp.

  • Wunderlin, R.P., B.F. Hansen, and E.L. Bridges. 1996. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. Published on the Internet: http://www.usf.edu/isb/projects/atlas/atlas.html

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