Sideroxylon alachuense - L.C. Anderson
Alachua Sink Buckthorn
Other English Common Names: Alachua Bully
Other Common Names: Alachua bully
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Sideroxylon alachuense L.C. Anders. (TSN 565515)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.146807
Element Code: PDSPT0G0D0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Sapodilla Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Ebenales Sapotaceae Sideroxylon
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.
Concept Reference Code: B99KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Sideroxylon alachuense
Taxonomic Comments: Also known as Bumelia anomala; not the same as Sideroxylon anomala of Latin America.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 14May2018
Global Status Last Changed: 30Sep1997
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Sideroxylon alachuense occurs in a narrow region of north-central Florida and southern Georgia. There are only six populations and approximately 60 plants are presently known. This species is threatened by alteration of hydrology, damage to the trees by deer, digging at sites by hogs, and recreational activities and site maintenance.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (S1), Georgia (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Sideroxylon alachuense occurs in north-central Florida (Alachua, Marion, Madison, and St. Johns Counties) and southeastern Georgia.

Area of Occupancy: 3-5 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Area of occupancy was calculated with six occurrences that are confidently identified.

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is only known from four counties in Florida: Alachua, Marion, Madison and St. Johns. In Georgia, there are 2 occurrences that are confidently identified and an additional eight populations that may be Sideroxylon alachuense, but work is needed to confirm their identity (Chafin 2010b).

Population Size Comments: All known populations are small, less than 30 plants. The largest population is in Georgia (Bryan County) with 24 plants. The Alachua County location in Florida has the second largest population with 21 plants. Robert Simons (personal communication 1997) collected fruit from two plants at the Alachua County site and germinated 12 seedlings, which he planted at the same site. Many of those plants have since been mowed over with a lawnmower, but a few have survived and are growing with the parent trees. All other occurrences have less than 10 plants.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very few (1-3)

Overall Threat Impact: High
Overall Threat Impact Comments: This species is threatened by development, alteration of wetland hydrology through ditching, drilling, and draining of wetlands and reduction of the aquifer through water use. In addition, the species is threatened by clearcutting activities, deer rubbing their antlers against the stems which girdles the tree (Simons, pers.comm., 1997), and feral hogs that disrupt the soil. The Alachua County population has several individuals growing next to a frequently mowed grassy area, and other individuals occur next to a well used bicycle trail.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: The Marion County population is being girdled by deer, and the plants are declining in general health.

Long-term Trend: Unknown

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Although this plant is armed with thorns and appears tough, frequent rubbing by deer or damage from mowing too close is detrimental.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Sideroxylon alachuense occurs in north-central Florida (Alachua, Marion, Madison, and St. Johns Counties) and southeastern Georgia.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL, GA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Alachua (12001), Lake (12069), Marion (12083), Nassau (12089)
GA Bryan (13029), Charlton (13049), Effingham (13103)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Lower Savannah (03060109)+, Ogeechee Coastal (03060204)+, St. Marys (03070204)+, Oklawaha (03080102)+, Upper Suwannee (03110201)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Shrub or small tree in the Sapotaceae family.
Duration: PERENNIAL, DECIDUOUS
Reproduction Comments: The species is dispersed by animals that eat its fleshy fruits and disperse the seeds (2010b)
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Hardwood, Forest/Woodland
Habitat Comments: Sideroxylon alachuense occurs on Hardwood hammocks (upland forests) on calcareous sandy soils and on shell middens, often around limesinks. Some of these areas occur as islands within the Okefenokee Swamp.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 14May2018
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Herring, Brenda J., rev. Treher (2018)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Anderson, Loran C. 1997. Sideroxylon alachuense, a new name for Bumelia anomala. Sida 17(3): 565-568.

  • Chafin, L. G. 2000. Field guide to the rare plants of Florida. Florida Natural Areas Inventory, Tallahassee. [http://www.fnai.org/FieldGuide/]

  • Chafin, L.G. 2010b. Rare Plant Species Profiles: Sideroxylon thornei. Georgia Department of Natural Resources. Online. Available: http://www.georgiawildlife.com/sites/default/files/uploads/wildlife/nongame/pdf/accounts/plants/sideroxylon_thornei.pdf

  • Clark, R.B. 1942. A revision of the genus Bumelia in the United States. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 29:155-182.

  • Coile, N. C. 1996. Notes on Florida's Endangered and Threatened Plant. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville, FL.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2009. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 8. Magnoliophyta: Paeoniaceae to Ericaceae. Oxford University Press, New York. xxiv + 585 pp.

  • Garland, M. A. and N. C. Coile. 2003. Notes on Florida's Endangered and Threatened Plants. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Bureau of Entomology, Nematology, and Plant Pathology - Botany Section, Contribution No. 38, 4th edition (digital version).

  • Georgia Natural Heritage Program. 2004, 22 October last update. Special concern plant species in Georgia. Online. Available: http://georgiawildlife.dnr.state.ga.us/content/specialconcernplants.asp (Accessed 2005).

  • Godfrey, R.K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens. 734 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Loran C. Anderson. 1997. Sideroxylon alachuense, a new name for Bumelia anomala (Sapotaceae). Sida 17: 565-567.

  • Nelson, G. 1994. The trees of Florida: A reference and field guide. Pineapple Press, Sarasota, Fla. 338 p. plus color plates.

  • Pennington, T.D. 1991. The genera of Sapotaceae. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 295 pp.

  • USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service, PLANTS Database [USDA PLANTS]. http://plants.usda.gov/. Accessed 2015.

  • Weakley, A. S. 2006. Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, Georgia, and surrounding areas. Working draft of 17 January 2006. University of North Carolina Herbarium, North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill. Online. Available: http://www.herbarium.unc.edu/flora.htm (accessed 2006).

  • Wunderlin, R.P. and B.F. Hansen. 2003. Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida. 2nd edition. University Press of Florida, Tampa. 788 pp.

  • Wunderlin, R.P., B.F. Hansen, and E.L. Bridges. 1996. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. Published on the Internet: http://www.usf.edu/isb/projects/atlas/atlas.html

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