Shoshonea pulvinata - Evert & Constance
Shoshonea
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Shoshonea pulvinata Evert & Constance (TSN 505196)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.151395
Element Code: PDAPI2G010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Carrot Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Apiales Apiaceae Shoshonea
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Shoshonea pulvinata
Taxonomic Comments: Monotypic genus.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 10Jan2013
Global Status Last Changed: 10Jan2013
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Endemic to southern Montana and the Absaroka and Owl Creek mountains of northwestern Wyoming. Restricted to relatively barren, calcareous soils, but locally abundant on these sites. Population trends were stable as last reported in 2005, and threats include regional stochastic events and climate change.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Montana (S3), Wyoming (S2)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Regional endemic to the Absaroka and Owl Creek Mountains of northwest Wyoming and adjacent Montana.

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: There are 13 occurrences known in Montana, and 8 occurrences known in Wyoming based on 2012 NatureServe element occurrence information.

Population Size Comments: Population numbers from the 1980s estimated that there were 210,000 plants in Wyoming and 12,000 plants in Montana (Lyman 2005).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Few (4-12)
Viability/Integrity Comments: At least 10 occurrences have good or excellent viability (NatureServe element occurrence data, 2012).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Catastrophic events and climate change are the greatest threats to Shoshonea pulvinata. This long-lived perennial occurs in discontinuous habitats where gene flow may be low, making it susceptible to decline from relatively small stressors if it is unable to adjust to altered environmental conditions (Lyman 2005). Climate change is an added concern as this is a high elevation, alpine plant. The effect of fire on this species is unknown, but could be considered one of the 'catastrophic events' that Lyman (2005) noted. In 2010, a fire burned through one large Wyoming population, and while the species is somewhat fire tolerant, it is unknown what the long term effects are, and what the response would be to repeated fire (pers. comm. B. Heidel).

Short-term Trend: Decline of <50% to Relatively Stable
Short-term Trend Comments: Shoshonea pulvinata has been repeatedly surveyed in both Wyoming and Montana. A monitoring program is in place for occurrences in Pryor Mountains and data were collected in 1991, 1993 and again in 1999 (Lyman 2005). While earlier reports indicate that populations were stable, there is some evidence from monitoring that some populations have declined (pers. comm. S. Mincemoyer, B. Heidel 2013).

Long-term Trend: Decline of <50% to Relatively Stable

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: The habitat is dry and exposed, but represents a narrow zone affected by the balance between succession and natural disturbance.

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Regional endemic to the Absaroka and Owl Creek Mountains of northwest Wyoming and adjacent Montana.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States MT, WY

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
MT Carbon (30009)
WY Fremont (56013), Hot Springs (56017), Park (56029)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
10 Clarks Fork Yellowstone (10070006)+, Lower Wind (10080005)+, Upper Bighorn (10080007)+, Big Horn Lake (10080010)+, North Fork Shoshone (10080012)+, South Fork Shoshone (10080013)+, Shoshone (10080014)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial herb that forms bright green mats up to 8 cm tall and 45 cm across. Each compound leaf has 2-5 pairs of leaflets. Flowers are minute, yellow, and arranged in compact, flat-topped, umbrella-shaped clusters, 0.75-1.5 cm wide. Blooms from May to July.
General Description: Shoshonea is a low, mat-forming, herbaceous, long-lived perennial with a woody taproot and branching underground stems. The aboveground stems are 2-8 cm in length and usually clothed at their bases with remnants of the previous year's leaf sheaths. Leaves are ca. 5-25 mm long, 3-20 mm wide, and have a petiole that is ca. half their length. The leaf blades are oddly pinnate with 5-11 divisions and oblong to oval in outline. The leaf petioles are swollen and papery at their bases, and herbage is glabrous to somewhat roughened. The smallest flower clusters consist of a number of stalked flowers attached at a single point (simple umbels); these clusters are, in turn, stalked and attached at the top of the ovary. The fruits are approximately 2-4 mm long, slightly roughened to the touch, and without wings.
Diagnostic Characteristics: In open habitats, this species forms dense cushions and cannot be mistaken for any other member of the Parsley family in our area. In partially shaded sites, the cushion-forming habit is not so strongly expressed, and SHOSHONEA can be mistaken for species of MUSINEON, CYMOPTERUS, and LOMATIUM. A technical key should be consulted to separate these groups.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Bare rock/talus/scree, Forest - Conifer, Forest Edge, Forest/Woodland
Habitat Comments: Exposed limestone outcrops, ridgetops, and talus slopes with shallow, stony soils. 1800-2800 m elevation.
Some Montana sites occur on the edges or openings in Pinus flexilis-Pseudotsuga menziesii forests (Lyman 2005).

Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Any naturally occurring population is an element occurrence. The species habitat is represented by limestone outcrops, often restricted to the rims of ridgetops in which forest cover, exposure and topographic dissection determine the habitat extent and degree of continuity or discontinuity. Naturally-occurring EOs are generally separated by a distance of 1.6 km or more of unoccupied habitat.

The species is a mat-forming long-lived perennial. Some populations extend into woodland with high canopy cover, but flowering levels are low in this segment of the population, and the slow encroachment of woody cover may affect long-term viability. Mortality rates are low and episodic, and the species is very slow-growing, with the potential to live at least 50 years by conservative estimates based on mat growth rates (Heidel 2001).

Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 1.6 km
Date: 11Jan2002
Author: Heidel, B.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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Excellent Viability: A rank is reserved for populations that have over 1000 individuals. These tend to be areas with greatest habitat extent in broken topography that maintains the open, exposed ridge rim habitat. Any population that is comprised of close to 1000 plants and is divided into subpopulations or spans more than 2 miles of ridge habitat will be assigned a split rank (AB). A rank occurrences have an excellent likelihood of long-term viability.
Good Viability: B rank is reserved for populations of 100-999 individuals. Any population that is comprised of close to 100 plants and is divided into subpopulations or spans more than 1 mile of ridge habitat will be assigned a split rank (BC). B rank occurrences have a good likelihood of long-term viability.

Fair Viability: C rank is reserved for populations of 20-99 individuals. Any population that is comprised of close to 20 plants and is divided into subpopulations or spans more than 0.5 miles of ridge habitat will be assigned a split rank (CD). C rank occurrences have a fair likelihood of long-term viability.
Poor Viability: D rank is reserved for populations of 0-19 individuals. The occurrences have a poor likelihood of long-term viability.

Justification: For A Rank: Population size estimates are available for Montana populations and for a few of the Wyoming populations. Populations of over 1000 plants are consistently comprised of subpopulations scattered over a broad area.

For C vs D Rank: EORs not meeting "C" rank critera are easily susceptible to extirpation through natural or man-made disturbance, or occur in fundamentally altered habitat. Justification: EORs not meeting "C"rank critera are easily susceptible to extirpation through natural or man-made disturbance.


Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 09Jan2013
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: L. Oliver, S. Mincemoyer, B. Heidel 2013
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 10Nov1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): KAJ

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
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